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dia Islands will be found detailed in the remainder of the volume.

Upon the whole we may venture to assure the reader that the history of America in its several parts will not be found less interesting or less important than that of any of the foregoing volumes. Indeed the discovery of this great continent with the neighbouring islands has been attended with almost incalculable advantages to all the nations of Europe, even to such as were not immediately concerned in those naval enterprises. The enlargement of commerce and navigation increased industry and the arts every where. The nobles dissipated their fortunes in expensive pleasures: men of inferior rank, by wealth gained in America, acquired a share of landed property in Europe, and created to themselves a considerable property of a new kind, in stock, credit, and correspondence. In some nations the privileges of the commons were increased by this increase of property; and in all places the condition of the great mass of the people was improved by the trade carried on between the Old and the New World.

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Chap. I. Columbus's Origin: his Application

to different Courts: his first Voya
age and Discovery of Guanahani:
his second Voyage and Discovery
of Jamaica: his third Voyage and
Discovery of the Continent: his
return Home and Death

II. State of Hispaniola, Cuba, &c.:

noble Conduct of Balboa: Mis-

sionaries sent out. Las Casas's

Conduct and Zeal. Origin of the

African Slave Trade

III. ' A View of America ; and of the

Manners and Customs of the va-

rious Inhabitants when first dis-


IV. History of the Conquest of New

Spain by Hernando Cortes 118

V. History of the Conquest of Peru,

Chili, &c. ly Pizarro ;

Account of the Manners and Cus-

toms of the Mexicans and Peru-





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Introduction. Importance of the Discovery of Ame

rica. Mariner's Compass. The Portuguese the
first Adventurers in pursuit of foreign Countries.
Birth and Education of Columbus. Enters the
Service of Portugal. His Marriage. Conceives
Hopes of reaching the East Indies by holding a
westerly Course. His Theory on the Subject.
His Application to different Courts. His Plans
acceded to by the King and Queen of Spain. His
Voyage of Discovery. Difficulties.
Lands at Guanahani. Sails to Cuba after Gold.
To Hispaniola. Leaves a Colony there, and re-
turns to Spain. The Difficulties of his Voyage
Home. Astonishment and Joy of Mankind on
the Discovery of the New World. His Reception
at Court. The Reason of the Name West Indies.
His' second Voyage. Finds the Colony all de-
stroyed. Builds a Town. His Followers muti-

Builds the Fort St. Thomas. Sets sail. Discovers Jamaica. His Distresses. Returns to Hispaniola. War with the Indians. Tax imposed on them. Desolation of the Indians. Columlus returns to Spain. His Reception. Third Voyage. Discovers the Island Trinidad. Entangled in the River Orinoco. Discovers the Cona tinent. Voyage of the Portuguese to the East


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Indies by the Cape of Good Hope. The Reason of the Name America. Distresses of Columbus. Sails in Quest of the East Indies ly a new Passage. Arrives at Hispaniola. His Treatment there. His Prediction of a Storm. The Consequences of neglecting it. His Distresses. Runs his Ship aground at Jamaica. Indians refuse him Assistance. Foretells an Eclipse of the Moon, and takes advantuge of it. Returns to Spain. His Treatment and Death.

S individuals are protected in the enjoyment of

their wealth and commerce by the power of the community, so the general body deduces equivalent advantages from the extensive trade and vast opulence of private persons. The grandeur of the state, and the happiness and security of its subjects, are, with respect to commerce, inseparable. That policy must ever be narrow and short-sighted which would aggrandize the state by the oppression of its members. Every thing is purchased by labour, which alone is infinitely more valuable than the richest mines of gold and silver. The possession of the latter has in many instances rendered nations poor and contemptible; but in no instance have affluence and felicity failed to accompany industry guided by prudence., A superfluity of labour is a real treasure to society, which may at any time be employed like money in the public service. Hence arise the great advantages of foreign commerce, which, by augmenting the labour, in effect increases the grandeur of the state and the wealth of the subject. By its imports it furnishes the materials of industry; and by its exports it affords encouragement for exertion. Thus the mind acquires additional vigour; it enlarges its powers and facul

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