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ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

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The operation of the various power plants was consolidated on April 1 to comprise the electrical division, under Capt. W. H. Rose, United States Army. It includes the operation and maintenance of the steam-driven electric power plants at Gatun, Miraflores, Empire, and Balboa, and all the substations, transmission, and distribution lines connected with the power plants; the operation and maintenance of the air-compressor plants at Empire and Balboa; construction, operation, and maintenance of all building and street lighting systems in the Canal Zone; operation and maintenance of the electric cargo-handling cranes on the Panama Railroad pier at Balboa; the installation of all electrical equipment of the new Balboa shops of the mechanical division; and the construction of permanent underground conduit systems for the permanent towns of the Canal Zone.

One of the three 1,500 kilowatt vertical turbo generator sets and two 410 high-pressure water tube boilers were removed from the Gatun station for installation at the Miraflores power plant. The new unit was completed into place on June 1, 1914. This gives the Miraflores plant a capacity of about 6,000 kilowatts, the same as the hydroelectric station. The total amount of power in kilowatt hours generated during the year was:

6,824,556 kilowatt hours at Gatun, at a cost of $0.0175 per kilowatt hour.
16,352,732 kilowatt hours at Miraflores, at a cost of $0.0135 per kilowatt

hour.
2,327,877 kilowatt hours at Empire, at a cost of $0.0240 per kilowatt hour.

138,143 kilowatt hours at Balboa, at a cost of $0.1503 per kilowatt hour. The air-compressor plants operated during the year were at Empire and Balboa, and the Rio Grande plant was operated until November 1, 1913. They furnished compressed air for the excavation work at Culebra, Rio Grande, and Gold Hill; for the mechanical division shops at Empire, Balboa, and Paraiso; for the work of the division of erection at Pedro Miguel Locks, Ancon quarry, and for the work in the vicinity of Sosa Hill and the new dry dock at Balboa. The output of the air-compressor plants, in cubic feet of free air compressed to 105 pounds pressure, was 2,739,650,533 cubic feet at Balboa, at a cost of $0.0484 per thousand feet; 2,908,900,165 cubic feet at Empire, at a cost of $0.0351 per thousand feet; and 372, 393,512 cubic feet at Rio Grande, at a cost of $0.0282 per thousand feet.

The removal and reerection of wooden buildings from various points along the line to the Ancon-Balboa district necessitated the removal of the wires and fixtures, and later rewiring, of a total of 178 buildings. In February, 1914, two temporary substations were

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ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

operation of the various power plants was consolidated a to comprise the electrical division, under Capt. W. H. Rom States Army. It includes the operation and maintenant team-driven electric power plants at Gatun, Miraflores, Er d Balboa, and all the substations, transmission, and distribu os connected with the power plants; the operation and mairof the air-compressor plants at Empire and Balboa; er 1, operation, and maintenance of all building and street ligh: ems in the Canal Zone; operation and maintenance of the argo-handling cranes on the Panama Railroad pier at Bu

installation of all electrical equipment of the new Ball the mechanical division; and the construction of permane vund conduit systems for the permanent towns of the Cari

completed, one at Miraflores and one at Balboa, each of 1,500 kilowatts capacity, for 11,000-volt transmission between these points. In May, 1914, another 11,000-volt transmission line was completed between Miraflores power plant and Cucaracha, supplying power to the relay pumps and the Gold Hill hydraulic plant. Additions and alterations necessitated a change in the pole lines for construction, amounting to about 15 miles. About 25 miles of pole line to supply power to the range lights and beacons of the lighthouse subdivision were constructed, the lighthouse subdivision erecting the poles and the electrical division installing the wires and transformers and making connections to the lights and beacons. Duplicate 2,200-volt armored cables, supplying power to Agua Clara pumping station, were installed between that station and the Gatun substation. In all about 12,900 feet of conduit, having 83,000 feet of duct incased in concrete, and 40 concrete manholes were completed during the year for connection between Pedro Miguel telephone exchange, Tivoli Hotel, the new administration building at Balboa, and the latter with the Balboa substation. A large amount of conduit work was done in connection with the electrical work in the permanent buildings and the Balboa shops. The eight 4-ton alternating current cargo-handling cranes, five 4-ton direct current cranes, and one 20-ton direct current French crane, all on the Panama Railroad pier at Balboa, were operated and maintained. These cranes handled practically all commercial freight crossing the Isthmus in either direction. The total number of vessels loaded and unloaded during the year was 413.

For further details concerning the various matters referred to above, attention is invited to Appendixes A and A-1.

the three 1,500 kilowatt vertical turbo generator sets and tv -pressure water tube boilers were removed from the Gat: or installation at the Miraflores power plant. The new c. pleted into place on June 1, 1914. This gives the Miraflor Capacity of about 6,000 kilowatts, the same as the hydr. tation. The total amount of power in kilowatt hours qui ring the year was: 5,556 kilowatt hours at Gatun, at a cost of $0.0175 per kilowatt be 2,732 kilowatt hours at Miraflores, at a cost of $0.0135 per kilome

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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING.

,877 kilowatt hours at Empire, at a cost of $0.0240 per kilowatt be 43 kilowatt hours at Balboa, at a cost of $0.1503 per kilowatt hora --compressor plants operated during the year were at E

Balboa, and the Rio Grande plant was operated - 1, 1913. They furnished compressed air for the excio at Culebra, Rio Grande, and Gold Hill; for the mechan

: nops at Empire, Balboa, and Paraiso; for the work of: f erection at Pedro Miguel Locks, Ancon quarry, in the vicinity of Sosa Hill and the new dry dock at B

output of the air-compressor plants, in cubic feet of fa essed to 105 pounds pressure, was 2,739,650,533 cubie

at a cost of $0.0484 per thousand feet; 2,908,900,165 e. mpire, at a cost of $0.0351 per thousand feet; and ** bic feet at Rio Grande, at a cost of $0.0282 per

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As already noted, the division of municipal engineering was formed by consolidating the division of public works and the municipal work in the three construction divisions on July 16, 1913, and

was placed in charge of Mr. George M. Wells as resident engineer. The division is divided into five principal sections: The northern district embraces all municipal construction, maintenance, and operation work, excluto Darien, a distance of 25.27 miles; the southern district embraces sive of the operation of filtration plants, from and including Colon similar work from Darien to Balboa, including the city of Panama, a distance of 22.34 miles; the waterworks for the southern end of The Panama Canal embrace the construction of the purification works at Miraflores, pumping stations at Gamboa, Miraflores, and Ancon, reservoirs, and the laying of new mains; the fourth subdivision embraces the operation and care of purification plants and the care and

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analyses of all Canal Zone water supplies; and the fifth subdivision embraces all work of design for the division.

The improvements in the city of Colon in progress at the close of the previous fiscal year and being paid for from an appropriation made by Congress of $800,000, were completed in the early part of August, 1913, at a final cost of $520,212.57.

The plant at Gatun for the manufacture of concrete pipe was operated until May, when the plant was closed down, there being sufficient on hand for all purposes. The usual maintenance work in connection with the reservoirs of the northern district was performed, and the level of the water in the Brazos Brook Reservoir was kept at about the same elevation during the dry season by letting water from Gatun Lake through the tunnel constructed during the previous year. The new purification plant located at Mount Hope and furnishing water to the city of Colon, Cristobal, and adjacent district was completed and placed in service in February, 1914, and has been successfully operated since that date. The total division cost of the plant was $292,198.10.

In addition to maintenance work in the southern district, a considerable amount of construction work was undertaken, including streets, water and sewer systems, and roads in the new silver town of La Boca, storm sewers in the gold town site of Balboa, water and sewer systems and streets at Pedro Miguel, the installation of water and sewer systems for the Darien radio station, and work in connection with an addition to the city of Panama, for which the Republic of Panama made a special appropriation of $76,000.

The question of providing a permanent, adequate, and suitable water supply for the towns of the Canal Zone from Pedro Miguel south has been under consideration for some time. The demands were greater than could be supplied by the Rio Grande Reservoir, and with the depopulation of the Canal Zone, which contemplated the elimination of all towns on the west side of the canal, a plan was prepared for utilizing Camacho and Rio Grande Reservoirs, connecting them by a pipe line, and increasing the capacity of the Rio Grande Reservoir by raising the dam, diverting the railroad for the purpose. With the adoption of the policy of quartering the troops on the west side of the canal, utilizing the old canal buildings for the purpose, together with the fact that the rainfall had not been sufficient to raise the level of the water in the reservoir to its full height, the whole subject was taken up anew in March, 1913. Five projects were presented, the cheapest of which contemplated the use of water from Miraflores Lake, and this was adopted. "It contemplated the laying of the necessary mains, the construction of a purification plant of the rapid mechanical gravity type on Miraflores Hill, and the con

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5 of all Canal Zone water supplies; and the fifth subdivisie struction of a high-service reservoir on the side of Ancon Hill, all to s all work of design for the division.

be based on a nominal maximum capacity of 12,000,000 gallons of mprovements in the city of Colon in progress at the close e filtered water per day. At the time that the use of Miraflores Lake cious fiscal year and being paid for from an appropriatie water was considered, the possible objection was advanced that the - Congress of $800,000, were completed in the early part e chlorine content, by reason of the operation of Miraflores Locks, might 1913, at a final cost of $520,212.57.

increase beyond 75 to 100 parts per million, but at the time it did not lant at Gatun for the manufacture of concrete pipe wi seem possible that this would occur, at least for a period of years, on

until May, when the plant was closed down, there being sui the assumption that intimate diffusion between the salt water ada hand for all purposes. The usual maintenance work : mitted by the locks and the fresh water of the lake would not be on with the reservoirs of the northern district was pe rapid, more especially in view of the fact that water could be pumped and the level of the water in the Brazos Brook Reservoir

from one of the fresh arms of the lake. At any rate, the enormous about the same elevation during the dry season by lettir

: saving that would result seemed to warrant adopting the Miraflores om Gatun Lake through the tunnel constructed during the year. The new purification plant located at Mount Ho

In January, after the pumps from Cocoli had been transferred to shing water to the city of Colon, Cristobal, and adjacent di Miraflores and increased in capacity to take care of the demand, completed and placed in service in February, 1914, and hi chlorine sampling stations were established in the lake, and it was essfully operated since that date. The total division cost i discovered that with the continued operation of the locks the chlorine was $292,198.10.

content steadily rose. By February it became apparent that constant ition to maintenance work in the southern district, a de diffusion was taking place throughout all areas of the lake in genamount of construction work was undertaken, includir; eral, as well as its arms, and went as high as 15 per cent salt water. ater and sewer systems, and roads in the new silver towns In order to bring this down, a temporary pump station was installed storm sewers in the gold town site of Balboa, water an at Pedro Miguel and approximately 4,000 gallons of water per minute Cems and streets at Pedro Miguel, the installation of wate were pumped from Culebra Cut north of the locks and discharged

systems for the Darien radio station, and work in comune into Miraflores Lake immediately in front of the temporary pumpan addition to the city of Panama, for which the Repuk! ing station. While this reduced the chlorine content of water going a made a special appropriation of $76,000.

to Panama, it increased the turbidity of the water due to the condiastion of providing a permanent, adequate, and suitat tion in the Cut. As the result of these observations, it became evident ply for the towns of the Canal Zone from Pedro Migue that Miraflores Lake would be impracticable for use as a source of

been under consideration for some time. The deman water supply for the southern end of the canal, and it was therefore ter than could be supplied by the Rio Grande Reserri" decided to move the pumping station to the Chagres River

at Gamboa, the depopulation of the Canal Zone, which contemplate the water to be taken from this point through 30-inch to 36-inch castation of all towns on the west side of the canal, a plan mi iron mains laid along the line of the Panama Railroad to the purififor utilizing Camacho and Rio Grande Reservoirs, (** cation plant in course of erection on Miraflores Hill. Before final em by a pipe line, and increasing the capacity of the R action was taken an effort was made to reduce the chlorine content servoir by raising the dam, diverting the railroad for : by drawing off the water from Miraflores Lake through the locks With the adoption of the policy of quartering the troca and admitting fresh water through Pedro Miguel Locks, but the reside of the canal, utilizing the old canal buildings for

sults were not satisfactory. Work was commenced on the purificagether with the fact that the rainfall had not been sc

tion plant located on Miraflores Hill on August 1 and steam-shovel se the level of the water in the reservoir to its full heig

and hand excavation was completed on January 28 by the removal subject was taken up anew in March, 1913. Five projev

of 91,233 cubic yards at a division cost of $0.4933 per cubic yard. nted, the cheapest of which contemplated the use of works

For the high-service reservoir at Ancon there were laid 1,477 cubic flores Lake, and this was adopted. It contemplated to

yards of reinforced concrete at a division cost of $30.1455 per cubic he necessary mains, the construction of a purification pis

yard, and in the purification plant on Miraflores Hill there were laid d mechanical gravity type on Miraflores Hill

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5,656 cubic yards of reinforced concrete at a division cost of $24.6506 per cubic yard. The total amount to be expended for the new water

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works in the southern district was estimated at $1,261,000, division cost; the total amount expended at the close of the fiscal year was $703,585.05.

For further details attention is invited to Appendix A-2.

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METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY.

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Until April 1, 1914, the meteorological and hydrographic sections continued under separate heads; on that date they were consolidated into one division under a chief hydrographer reporting to the engineer of maintenance, and a reduction of three gold men was effected.

But few changes were made during the year in the meteorological • stations operated. Wind records were discontinued at Sosa Hill on January 1, 1914; the wind station was moved from Guarapo Island to the administration building at Gatun on December 14, 1913; and a new wind station was established at Gamboa on November 11, 1913. Evaporation records at Brazos Brook were discontinued on April 1, 1914. A rainfall station was established on the Siri branch of the Trinidad River in January, 1914, and a similar station was established near the head of the Gatun River branch of Gatun Lake in May, 1914. Records from these stations were obtained for use in estimating the monthly rainfall over the lake watershed. Seismic disturbances during the year were more numerous and severe than in any previous year since American occupation, 87 distincts shocks being recorded at Ancon. Practically all of the shocks seemed to originate in the vicinity of the lower coast of Los Santos Province, approximately 115 miles southwest of Ancon. The most violent shocks occurred on October 2, 1913, and May 28, 1914; in each instance a maximum amplitude of 75-7 was recorded, when the recording pens were thrown off. The shock of May 28 resulted in slight damage to the new administration building then in course of erection at Balboa Heights, but with this exception the canal works suffered no damage from these shocks. For use of the Fortification Board, maximum and minimum temperatures were recorded on the Miraflores dumps. Duplicate automatic tide registers were continued at Balboa and Colon.

The main hydrographic features of the year were the filling of Gatun and Miraflores Lakes and the subsequent control of their water levels by means of spillway gates, auxiliary culvert valves, etc. The total yield of the Gatun Lake watershed for the calendar year 1913 was 77 per cent of the yearly mean since May, 1908, and 70.3 per cent of the mean for the 24-year period 1890–1913. There were no large freshets during the year.

The average temperature for the calendar year 1913 was slightly above normal. April was the warmest month at Ancon and Culebra and June was the warmest month at Colon. A temperature of 98° F.

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