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in the southern district was estimated at $1,261,000, divisie ne total amount expended at the close of the fiscal year wa 5.05. Further details attention is invited to Appendix A-2.

METEOROLOGY AND HYDROGRAPHY.

recorded at Culebra on April 24 established a new high temperature record at that station.

The rainfall during 1913 was below normal at all stations except Brazos Brook, Colon, and Porto Bello. The heaviest precipitation for the year was 171.19 inches at Porto Bello, and the minimum was 59.54 inches at Balboa.

The wind movement over the Canal Zone for the year was slightly above normal. North and northwest winds prevailed. March was the windiest month at all stations, and November the month of least wind movement.

Between June 27 and December 27, 1913, the Gatun Lake level rose from plus 48.22 to plus 84.7. Since the latter date it has been controlled by the spillway gates between 85.14 and 84.13. During the year it was possible for the first time to determine the velocity which would be caused in the canal prism at Gamboa by floods in the upper Chagres. On May 26, with a discharge at Alhajuela of 16,000 feet per second, the velocity at Gamboa Bridge was 0.65 mile per hour, the lake level being ať 84.92 and rising to 84.98. On June 30, with a discharge at Alhajuela of 20,050 feet per second, the velocity at Gamboa Bridge was 1.05 miles per hour, with the lake at 84.88 to 84.86.

For further particulars attention is invited to Appendix A-3.

GENERAL SURVEYS.

April 1, 1914, the meteorological and hydrographic section ed under separate heads; on that date they were consolidate

division under a chief hydrographer reporting to the eng naintenance, and a reduction of three gold men was effecte ew changes were made during the year in the meteorologia operated. Wind records were discontinued at Sosa Hill a

1, 1914; the wind station was moved from Guarapo Islas Iministration building at Gatun on December 14, 1913; at Find station was established at Gamboa on November! vaporation records at Brazos Brook were discontinued 1914. A rainfall station was established on the Siri bran rinidad River in January, 1914, and a similar station is d near the head of the Gatun River branch of Gatun Las 1914. Records from these stations were obtained for er ing the monthly rainfall over the lake watershed. Seiste ces during the year were more numerous and severe the evious year since American occupation, 87 distincts shark orded at Ancon. Practically all of the shocks seemed in the vicinity of the lower coast of Los Santos Provi: ately 115 miles southwest of Ancon. The most viele urred on October 2, 1913, and May 28, 1914; in each E maximum amplitude of 75+ was recorded, when the pens were thrown off. The shock of May 28 resulted nage to the new administration building then in course ; Balboa Heights, but with this exception the canal went

damage from these shocks. For use of the Fortificat ximum and minimum temperatures were recorded on dumps. Duplicate automatic tide registers were contin' and Colon. in hydrographic features of the year were the filling 1 Miraflores Lakes and the subsequent control of the Is by means of spillway gates, auxiliary culvert valves, e yield of the Gatun Lake watershed for the calendar je 17 per cent of the yearly mean since May, 1908, and ? f the mean for the 24-year period 1890–1913. There we 'eshets during the year. cage temperature for the calendar year 1913 was slight aal. April was the warmest month at Ancon and Culek. vas the warmest month at Colon. A temperature of

In addition to setting corner and grade stakes for building lots in Colon and Panama, setting grades for fill in Colon, making surveys and preparing maps of estates and parcels of land in dispute before the joint land commission, making surveys and inspections for the department of law, and performing a considerable amount of miscellaneous work, the general-surveys section repaired and removed certain Zone triangulation stations, made surveys and maps for other departments of The Panama Canal

; made locations for the radio stations being constructed for the Navy Department, took readings on settlement hubs in the Gatun Dam, and performed the necessary work in connection with the precise level bench marks and monuments for the tide-guage registers at Colon, Gatun, and Miraflores.

during the year

AIDS TO NAVIGATION. The construction and placing of lights and beacons was continued of the west breakwater and the construction of six which can not

and, with the exception of the light at the extremity be placed until the work in connection with the slides in Culebra Cut is completed, all the aids to navigation were finished and turned over to the superintendent of canal transportation, for maintenance and operation, on June 16, 1914. The design for the west breakwater

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light was for rather an elaborate structure founded on & caisson which had been built during the previous fiscal year. During the year just ended it was taken to the site that it was to occupy and, in sinking it by admitting water through valves at the bottom of the caisson, the valves could not be controlled from above, it took a sheer, and the caisson sunk in a position which prevented its use for the purpose intended until it could be straightened. After expending $8,602.22 in the attempt, it was abandoned as was also the design. The total amount expended in completing the entire system of beacons, lights, and buoys to date aggregate $514,878.81, exclusive of general expenses.

For further details attention is invited to Appendix A.

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DRY EXCAVATION.

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The excavation for the canal prism in the dry, uncompleted at the close of the previous fiscal year, embraced the Culebra Cut from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel Locks, the channel between Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks, and the channel below Miraflores Locks to the dike which excluded the waters of the Pacific. As noted in the previous annual report, a decision had been reached to admit water to the Cut by blowing up the dike at Gamboa on October 10, 1913, and to complete the excavation that remained by dredges. With this end in view, the excavation in Culebra Cut was carried on during July with an average of 40.74 steam shovels, in August with an average of 34.65 steam shovels, and in September with an average of 14.62 steam shovels. These shovels worked not only in the Cut proper but on the upper reaches in the vicinity of Culebra and on the east side opposite Lirio. After the water had been admitted to the Cut from 5 to 2 shovels worked on both the east and west bank in the vicinity of Culebra so as to lighten the load. The work on the east bank was continued until April 1, 1914, and on the west bank intermittently until June 15, 1914. The last movement of any considerable amount occurred on the west side at Culebra just as the steam shovels were withdrawn. There were removed during the year a total of 3,122,702 cubic yards of material, of which 2,205,847 cubic yards were classified as rock, at a division cost of $0.5661 per cubic yard. Due to large credits for material recovered after the completion of the work, such as rails, ties, etc., amounting to about $260,000, the above figures do not represent the real cost of the work performed during the year which, eliminating these credits, was $0.6492 per cubic yard. Work continued on Cucaracha slide, Culebra slides, Hagan's slide, Lirio slide, and the powder-house slide until steamshovel operations were suspended and there were removed from these slides 2,635,902 cubic yards; in other words, 84 per cent of the material removed from the Cut was due to slides. The total amount of

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THE PANAMA CANAL.

us for rather an elaborate structure founded on a caisu ad been built during the previous fiscal year. During the t ended it was taken to the site that it was to occupy and g it by admitting water through valves at the bottom of the che valves could not be controlled from above, it took a she caisson sunk in a position which prevented its use for the intended until it could be straightened. After expending

in the attempt, it was abandoned as was also the desig l amount expended in completing the entire system lights, and buoys to date aggregate $514,878.81, exclusie ul expenses. rther details attention is invited to Appendix A.

DRY EXCAVATION.

cavation for the canal prism in the dry, uncompleted at the the previous fiscal year, embraced the Culebra Cut fru to Pedro Miguel Locks, the channel between Pedro Migue flores Locks, and the channel below Miraflores Locks to the eh excluded the waters of the Pacific. As noted in the pa nual report, a decision had been reached to admit water v py blowing up the dike at Gamboa on October 10, 1913, se ete the excavation that remained by dredges. With B iew, the excavation in Culebra Cut was carried on duris 1 an average of 40.74 steam shovels, in August with an att 4.65 steam shovels, and in September with an average m shovels. These shovels worked not only in the Cut prope le upper reaches in the vicinity of Culebra and on the ti osite Lirio. After the water had been admitted to the CE

2 shovels worked on both the east and west bank in ti! of Culebra so as to lighten the load. The work on the es continued until April 1, 1914, and on the west bank in until June 15, 1914. The last movement of any int occurred on the west side at Culebra just as the stel ere withdrawn. There were removed during the year ,122,702 cubic yards of material, of which 2,205,847 cod e classified as rock, at a division cost of $0.5661 per he to large credits for material recovered after the compt e work, such as rails, ties, etc., amounting to about $260.00 figures do not represent the real cost of the work performe e year which, eliminating these credits, was $0.6492 d. Work continued on Cucaracha slide, Culebra slides lide, Lirio slide, and the powder-house slide until stels rations were suspended and there were removed from the 5,902 cubic yards; in other words, 84 per cent of the mat red from the Cut was due to slides. The total amount

material removed in the dry from Culebra Cut, from the beginning of American operations to June 15, 1914, aggregated 110,261,883 cubic yards at a division cost of $0.7066 per cubic yard; of this amount 25,206,100 cubic yards were removed because of slides, or 22.86 per cent. This was an increase of 4,940,100 cubic yards over that estimated in the annual report for 1912. Steam-shovel operations in the Cut proper were permanently suspended on September 10, 1913, and at that time it was estimated that 600,000 cubic yards of material remained to be removed by dredges from the Cut section within the original limits of the canal, exclusive of slides and the inclines at the north and south ends of the Cut. Practically all of this material lay between Cucaracha slide and a point about midway between Culebra and Empire.

To prevent possible damage to the canal due to the velocity of current caused by the difference in head between Gatun Lake level and the bottom of the Cut, water was admitted through the 24-inch pipe extending into the lake under Gamboa Dike, these pipes remaining from the old pumping plant located in the vicinity to take care of the drainage water to the north of the divide. This was done at 9 a. m. on October 1. Work on drilling the dike at Gamboa preparatory to its demolition was begun in the latter part of August; the holes were loaded and were fired on October 10 at 2 p. m.

In accordance with an arrangement made two or three days beforehand, the blast was fired by President Woodrow Wilson, at Washington. This was effected by using the land telegraph to Galveston, Tex., and connecting it there with the Central & South American Cable Co.'s submarine cable and land lines, which, by employing the company's transisthmian cable, furnished a connection to a local circuit in the vicinity of the dike. When the President depressed the lever, the current was relayed from point to point along the route and was eventually transmitted to the local circuit, closing it and tripping a weight attached to the handle of a switch. The weight threw the switch, setting off the blast. The result of the explosion was a clear opening 125 feet wide through which water from Gatun Lake flowed in sufficient volume to complete the filling of Culebra Cut from the dike to Cucaracha slide in about two hours' time. Prior to dynamiting the dike the water in the Cut was about 6 feet below the level

On October 10, after the blowing up of Gamboa Dike, an effort was made to dynamite a passage through the Cucaracha slide in order to flood the Cut between the dike and Pedro Miguel Locks. Though steam shovels had been at work on the slide with a view to securing a passage through it, on the cessation of this work the movement continued and completely blocked the channel. The attempt to open a passage by dynamite was not successful, and it was not

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until October 12 that a stream of water was gotten through and the area to the south of the slide began to fill. The dredges reached Cucaracha slide from the north end on October 20 and from the south end on October 24. The Gamboa Dike was attacked by dredges immediately after the explosion. A channel was finally dredged through Cucaracha slide, so as to permit the passage of the dredging fleet from one side to the other, on December 13. With the exception of a small pocket slide in the vicinity of Cascadas, the admission of water to the Cut has thus far had no bad effects; nor has there been any perceptible tendency for the presence of water to produce slides.

In the central division a total of 44.5 miles of track was removed during the period July 1 to October 10, a total of 33.7 miles were laid, and a total of 294.81 miles shifted.

The sluicing operations to the north of Gold Hill and to the rear of Cucaracha slide were continued during the year and resulted in the removal of 1,384,455 cubic yards of rock and earth, at an average division cost of $0.1997 per cubic yard. This material was carried by flumes into the valley to the east of the canal.

Material removed in the dry from Culebra Cut was wasted at different localities, the bulk of it going to Balboa waste dumps, where 1,017,596 cubic yards were deposited, and on the dumps along the relocation of the Panama Railroad, where 920,748 cubic yards were placed. The balance was used largely in fills at various points south of the Cut.

South of Pedro Miguel Locks material amounting to 306,700 cubic yards was excavated by the fifth division. Of this, 20,510 cubic yards were from the channel south of Pedro Miguel Locks and 286,190 cubic yards from the prism south of the Miraflores Locks. The average division cost was $0.5134 per cubic yard. The material was used as a back fill to the locks and for sloping the Miraflores Dam.

On account of material recovered at the close of the work, credit was given aggregating about $79,000, so that the actual cost of dry excavation during the year was $0.7709 per cubic yard. The total amount excavated in the dry from Pedro Miguel to the sea since the beginning of the work aggregated 4,819,969 cubic yards, at a division cost of $0.6755.

The berm and chamber cranes on the west side of the locks were taken down and stored; the four berm cranes, which formed a part of the concrete-handling plant during the construction of the Pacific locks, will be used in connection with the coal-handling plant at Balboa.

Steam-shovel work south of Pedro Miguel Locks was stopped in August and south of Miraflores Locks in September, and steps taken to remove all tracks that remained within the limits of the canal

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October 12 that a stream of water was gotten through and the

channel. The last remaining barrier at the Pacific end of the canal the south of the slide began to fill. The dredges reache!

was dynamited at 9.30 o'clock August 31, 1913. This dike, composed cha slide from the north end on October 20 and from the of a trestle fill of rock and earth, prevented the water from the sea nd on October 24. The Gamboa Dike was attacked by dredge

level from entering the steam-shovel cut, 5,000 feet long, 500 feet ately after the explosion. A channel was finally dredge

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wide, and 46 feet below mean tide, extending to Miraflores Locks. Cucaracha slide, so as to permit the passage of the dreds

The Rio Grande diversion was turned into this pit on August 23, t from one side to the other, on December 13. With the es but the depth of water had only reached about 15 feet by August of a small pocket slide in the vicinity of Cascadas, the ad

31. About 37,000 pounds of 45 per cent and 60 per cent dynamite of water to the Cut has thus far had no bad effects; nor hx

were used, the charge being placed in 541 holes at an average depth en any perceptible tendency for the presence of water to pri

of 30 feet. At the time of the explosion the water in the channel les.

south of the barrier was nearly at low tide. The dynamite tore a central division a total of 44.5 miles of track was remore!

gap in the dike about 100 feet wide, but as the bottom of the gap

was still at some height above the existing tide level, no water passed he period July 1 to October 10, a total of 33.7 miles mer a total of 294.81 miles shifted.

through until high tide, at 1.35 p. m. At 3 o'clock, 1 hour and 25

minutes after the water first began to flow over, the level in the uicing operations to the north of Gold Hill and to the real acha slide were continued during the year and resulted :

inside channel was that of the outside channel, while the gap had

been widened to 400 feet or more. val of 1,384,455 cubic yards of rock and earth, at an average

As noted in previous annual reports, there were two low places in cost of $0.1997 per cubic yard. This material was carriet

the perimeter of Gatun Lake which were to be raised in order to into the valley to the east of the canal. al removed in the dry from Culebra Cut was wasted &

avoid all possibility of the waters of the lake escaping. One of localities, the bulk of it going to Balboa waste dumps

these was in the vicinity of Gatun, and an embankment was built

across it by the forces of the Atlantic division. This was in a ravine 17,596 cubic yards were deposited, and on the dumps alo!

at the headwaters of Las Guachas Creek, where the natural elevation of the Panama Railroad, where 920,748 cubic Fars

tion was 85.7 feet above sea level. A fill about 350 feet long and ed. The balance was used largely in fills at various points

containing approximately 4,117 cubic yards was made by means of he Cut. f Pedro Miguel Locks material amounting to 306,700 cubi

mule-team scrapers, borrowing from adjacent hills, which raised the

surface to elevation 105, with a crown width of 15 feet. Under date s excavated by the fifth division. Of this, 20,510 c..

of November 28, 1913, a contract was made for building an earth from the channel south of Pedro Miguel Locks and 266,19

dike at Cano Saddle No. 4, along a ridge about 12 miles southwest s from the prism south of the Miraflores Locks. The are

of Gatun, to raise the rim of Gatun Lake at that point to 105 feet on cost was $0.5134 per cubic yard. The material vi

above sea level. The estimated amount of material involved was ack fill to the locks and for sloping the Miraflores Dam.

71,500 cubic yards, and the contract price was 68 cents per cubic int of material recovered at the close of the work, crede

yard, embankment measure. The work was completed in May, 1914. aggregating about $79,000, so that the actual cost of des

The payments to contractor will aggregate $48,950.50. This saddle during the year was $0.7709 per cubic yard. The te is between the headwaters of the Siri River, a tributary of the cavated in the dry from Pedro Miguel to the sea siz

Trinidad, and the Lagarto River, which flows into the Caribbean ing of the work aggregated 4,819,969 cubic yards

, at

Sea. The surface of the earth at the lowest point was 87.4 feet above st of $0.6755.

sea level. The fill is approximately 900 feet long between the 105n and chamber cranes on the west side of the locks hea

foot contours on knolls at the ends of the saddle. It is 15 feet at the and stored; the four berm cranes, which formed a pum

top, with a slope of 1 on 3 on both sides. rete-handling plant during the construction of the Pace be used in connection with the coal-handling plant si

DREDGING.

The dredging division continued in charge of Mr. W. G. Comber ovel work south of Pedro Miguel Locks was stopped

as resident engineer, and was subdivided into two districts, the first south of Miraflores Locks in September, and steps taken

extending from deep water in the Pacific to Gamboa, and the second all tracks that remained within the limits of the c223

from Gamboa to deep water in the Caribbean.

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