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In the first district, between Pedro Miguel Locks and the sea, there were removed 5,364,816 cubic yards, of which 3,329,072 cubic yards were taken from within the canal prism and the balance was auxiliary work. Of the amount removed from within the canal prism, 1,186,432 cubic yards were of rock. Of the rock excavated, 146,477 cubic yards were drilled and blasted by the drill barge Teredo and 60,832 cubic yards were broken by the rock breaker Vulcan. The remainder includes rock which had been drilled by well drills and blasted in previous years and material which could be handled by the dredges without mining. The average cost of prism excavation was $0.2578 per cubic yard. Active operations began in Culebra Cut on October 23, 1913, and continued throughout the year; a total of 3,432,363 cubic yards were removed, of which 919,655 cubic yards were of earth and the balance rock. The average cost was $0.5194 per cubic yard. Of this amount, 865,015 cubic yards of earth and 1,557,360 cubic yards of rock were removed from Cucaracha slide, at an average cost of $0.4730 per cubic yard. Pipe-line dredges, with the assistance of a relay, pumped over the west bank of the canal into the Rio Grande Valley 684,514 cubic yards of earth and 77,880 cubic yards of rock, at an average cost of $0.2773 per cubic yard. Cucaracha slide has been very active since dredging operations started, the daily movement averaging about 2 feet. On June 30, 1914, the total area of the slide was 60.4 acres, 44.6 acres active and 15.8 acres without motion. Dredging was done during four months of the year in Miraflores Lake, removing 159,817 cubic yards of earth from the canal prism, at an average cost of $0.3179 per cubic yard.

In the second district 6,544,192 cubic yards were removed during the year, of which 3,692,576 cubic yards were removed from within the canal prism, 574,630 cubic yards from old French dump in Limon Bay, and the balance was auxiliary work. The average cost of prism and French dump dredging was $0.1717 per cubic yard. Of the amount removed from the canal prism, 158,994 cubic yards were of rock. Of the total amount taken out, there were removed between October, 1913, and February, 1914, 507,195 cubic yards of earth and 5,035 cubic yards of rock from the canal prism just north of Gamboa, from what was formerly known as Point No. 1.

In connection with the Atlantic terminals the dredges removed 18,286 cubic yards of earth and 16,015 cubic yards of rock from the site of the bridge crossing the French canal south of the dry dock, 117,289 cubic yards of earth from the approach channel, 275,993 cubic yards of earth and 46,360 cubic yards of rock from the new Piers Nos. 7, 8, and 9, and 181,709 cubic yards of earth and 213,325 cubic yards of rock from the coaling station. The average cost of excavation at these terminals was $0.3646 per cubic yard. Seventeen

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› first district, between Pedro Miguel Locks and the sea, the moved 5,364,816 cubic yards, of which 3,329,072 cubic yar: ken from within the canal prism and the balance was a ork. Of the amount removed from within the canal pris 2 cubic yards were of rock. Of the rock excavated, 146, rds were drilled and blasted by the drill barge Teredo ubic yards were broken by the rock breaker Vulcan. T er includes rock which had been drilled by well drills n previous years and material which could be handled by t without mining. The average cost of prism excavation per cubic yard. Active operations began in Culebra Cut 23, 1913, and continued throughout the year; a total cubic yards were removed, of which 919,655 cubic yar earth and the balance rock. The average cost was $0.51c yard. Of this amount, 865,015 cubic yards of earth £ O cubic yards of rock were removed from Cucaracha slide. ge cost of $0.4730 per cubic yard. Pipe-line dredges, with t e of a relay, pumped over the west bank of the canal intot nde Valley 684,514 cubic yards of earth and 77,880 cut rock, at an average cost of $0.2773 per cubic yard. Cu de has been very active since dredging operations starte movement averaging about 23 feet. On June 30, 1914, a of the slide was 60.4 acres, 44.6 acres active and 15.8 act motion. Dredging was done during four months of the lores Lake, removing 159,817 cubic yards of earth from t sm, at an average cost of $0.3179 per cubic yard. second district 6,544,192 cubic yards were removed dur of which 3,692,576 cubic yards were removed from wit prism, 574,630 cubic yards from old French dump in Li the balance was auxiliary work. The average cost of pr nch dump dredging was $0.1717 per cubic yard. Of emoved from the canal prism, 158,994 cubic yards wer f the total amount taken out, there were removed betwe 1913, and February, 1914, 507,195 cubic yards of earth c yards of rock from the canal prism just north of Gam t was formerly known as Point No. 1. nection with the Atlantic terminals the dredges rem pic yards of earth and 16,015 cubic yards of rock from e bridge crossing the French canal south of the dry de ubic yards of earth from the approach channel, 27 ds of earth and 46,360 cubic yards of rock from the =. 7, 8, and 9, and 181,709 cubic yards of earth and 21

s of rock from the coaling station. The average cost of at these terminals was $0.3646 per cubic yard. Severe

thousand cubic yards were placed in the fill for the substation and 304,411 cubic yards were placed in fills for bridge foundations, coal basins, and yards at the coaling station.

At the Pacific terminals the dredges removed 1,919,003 cubic yards of earth and 7,964 cubic yards of rock, of which 1,831,711 cubic yards of earth were handled by pipe-line dredges and relays and placed in fills for reclaiming swamp land. The average cost of this work was $0.1655 per cubic yard.

A considerable amount of miscellaneous dredging was also done, making the total removed by the entire dredging fleet, including yardage of sand and gravel reclaimed, 15,341,371 cubic yards. The fleet consisted of the seagoing suction dredges Caribbean and Culebra, the seagoing ladder dredge Corozal, the French ladder dredges Badger, No. 1, No. 5, Gopher, Marmot, and Mole (the last abandoned as worn out on September 20, 1913), the 5-yard dipper dredges Cardenas, Chagres, and Mindi, the 15-yard dipper dredges Gamboa and Paraiso, and the pipe-line suction dredges No. 4, No. 82, No. 83, No. 85, No. 86, and the Sandpiper. In connection with these dredges there were employed 12 tugs, 19 launches, 9 clapets, and 24 dump

SCOWS.

As noted in the previous annual report, a contract was made with the Bucyrus Co. for the construction of two 15-yard dipper dredges and their delivery at tidewater in the United States. The first was to be ready for towing to the Isthmus on December 1, 1913, and the second on January 1, 1914. The first dredge was accepted at Port Richmond, N. Y., on February 16, reached the Isthmus on March 16, and was placed in operation on April 4, 1914. The second dredge was accepted at Port Richmond on April 13, reached the Isthmus on May 22, and went into commission at Cucaracha slide on June 7, 1914. Due to a failure of the buckets, which were not sufficiently strong to do the work, an additional delay was caused. The failure to meet the stipulated dates of delivery resulted in very seriously handicapping the work at Cucaracha slide and delayed securing a channel sufficiently deep and wide to permit the canal to be utilized for the passage of commerce before the close of the year.

The sum of $2,000 was authorized to be expended in the construction of temporary dikes on the west side of the channel where it is cut through at the head of Limon Bay, to determine the effect upon erosion that was occurring, due to the waves created by the trade winds. The results were so satisfactory that it has been decided to

make these dikes permanent.

For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix C.

63399°-14

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MECHANICAL DIVISION.

The mechanical division was in charge of Mr. A. L. Robinson until July 19, 1913, when he resigned from the service. Subsequent to that date and until March 6, 1914, Lieut. Col. T. C. Dickson, United States Army, performed the general duties relating to or ganization and personnel, while the operation of the shops was under the supervision of Mr. John J. Eason as assistant superintendent. On January 26, 1914, Mr. D. C. Nutting, United States Navy, reporting for duty, was assigned as superintendent and took over all the duties performed by Col. Dickson in connection with this division.

The establishments under operation by the division consisted of the Balboa shops (including roundhouse and car shops), the Cristobal shops and dry dock, Paraiso shops, Cristobal roundhouse, the small hoisting establishments at Gatun, Empire, and Paraiso, and the car-inspecting establishments at Cristobal and Balboa.

The Cristobal shops and dry dock have been charged with all repairs to floating equipment; as this dock was the only one available when a dry dock was necessary, it was in practically continuous use throughout the year. For the purpose of docking the five submarines which are on duty on the Isthmus and for docking the Corozal the upper lock of the east flight at Gatun was used. The Paraiso shops were reestablished on October 22, 1913, to take care of repair work on the dredging equipment operating in Culebra Cut. The hostling of four engines operating in this vicinity was turned over to these shops on May 25, 1914, and is performed under the foreman machinist. The Cristobal roundhouse was turned over to the mechanical division on April 1, 1914, and all hostling at the north end of the canal was concentrated there. The establishment, in addition to the roundhouse, comprises a small boiler plant and two air compressors with a combined capacity of about 2,000 feet per minute. The plant supplies air for hostling purposes and also for work on the new piers of the Panama Railroad. A small hostling plant was established at Empire, in the shops vacated, March 1. With the establishment of the electrical division on April 1, 1914, the electrical plants at Empire, Miraflores, Gatun, and Balboa, previously operated by the mechanical division, were turned over to that division and, as these plants contained air compressors, the air compressors were likewise turned over to the electrical division. The old shipways shops at the Pacific entrance, formerly occupied by the dredging division, were turned over to the mechanical division on October 22, 1913, and so continued until they were torn down in March and April. The machine shops and engine house at Gatun were operated for work in connection with the installation of lock ma

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MECHANICAL DIVISION.

e mechanical division was in charge of Mr. A. L. Robin July 19, 1913, when he resigned from the service. Subsequ at date and until March 6, 1914, Lieut. Col. T. C. Dicks ed States Army, performed the general duties relating to cation and personnel, while the operation of the shops

the supervision of Mr. John J. Eason as assistant super nt. On January 26, 1914, Mr. D. C. Nutting, United St reporting for duty, was assigned as superintendent and to ill the duties performed by Col. Dickson in connection ivision.

establishments under operation by the division consisted lboa shops (including roundhouse and car shops), the Cr hops and dry dock, Paraiso shops, Cristobal roundhouse, hoisting establishments at Gatun, Empire, and Paraiso, -inspecting establishments at Cristobal and Balboa. Cristobal shops and dry dock have been charged with to floating equipment; as this dock was the only one ar en a dry dock was necessary, it was in practically continu oughout the year. For the purpose of docking the fives which are on duty on the Isthmus and for docking the upper lock of the east flight at Gatun was used. T shops were reestablished on October 22, 1913, to take ir work on the dredging equipment operating in Cule he hostling of four engines operating in this vicinity ver to these shops on May 25, 1914, and is performed un man machinist. The Cristobal roundhouse was turned of echanical division on April 1, 1914, and all hostling at: d of the canal was concentrated there. The establishme on to the roundhouse, comprises a small boiler plant compressors with a combined capacity of about 2,000 ate. The plant supplies air for hostling purposes and is on the new piers of the Panama Railroad. A small host s established at Empire, in the shops vacated, March establishment of the electrical division on April 1, 19 -ical plants at Empire, Miraflores, Gatun, and Balboa.p perated by the mechanical division, were turned over Sion and, as these plants contained air compressors, the Ors were likewise turned over to the electrical divisi Shipways shops at the Pacific entrance, formerly occupi -edging division, were turned over to the mechanical d ctober 22, 1913, and so continued until they were torn do and April. The machine shops and engine house at Gat ated for work in connection with the installation of lock

chinery and caring for locomotives engaged in that vicinity. They were abandoned April 1, 1914, and the work transferred to Balboa and Cristobal. The Pedro Miguel engine house was abandoned on September 15, 1913, and the greater portion of the equipment moved to the Gold Hill engine house and the buildings turned over to the quartermaster's department and torn down. An engine house was established at Gold Hill in September, 1913, to care for the equipment employed in dry excavation north of Gold Hill. The engine house continued in operation until completion of the excavation work and was discontinued on March 31, 1914. The air-compressor plant at Rio Grande, which had been in operation since 1905, was shut down on October 15, 1913, and such compressed air as was required in the district previously supplied by Rio Grande was furnished by the plant at Empire. The Cristobal car shops were in operation until March 7, 1914, when they were abandoned and all car work concentrated at the Balboa shops. When the Balboa roundhouse was put into service on April 1, 1914, the Panama roundhouse of the Panama Railroad was placed out of use.

Throughout the year, while the shops were in operation, two shifts were regularly worked at Gorgona, Empire, Paraiso, and Balboa. In addition to the double shift, emergencies continually arose which necessitated large amounts of overtime work, in order that equipment might be kept in condition for use and to prevent delay in the work of other divisions.

For further details, as well as a statement showing the amount of work done during the year by the various shops, attention is invited to Appendix D.

DIVISION OF TERMINALS.

The division of terminal construction was organized on April 1, 1914, under Mr. H. H. Rousseau, United States Navy, as engineer of terminal construction. The division embraces the forces of the former second division, chief engineer's office engaged in the design, inspection and construction of the dry docks, shops, coal and fueloil plants, floating cranes, docks and other terminal facilities; construction transportation by rail; the road, street and sewer work under the landscape architect; and the breakwater construction at

the Atlantic terminal.

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Dry docks.-The general description and principal dimensions of Dry Docks No. 1 and No. 2, at Balboa, were given in the previous annual report. On account of the condition of funds, it was decided to defer the construction of Dry Dock No. 2, but such of the dock structure as serves as an entrance pier for Dry Dock No. 1, and as will permit the future completion of Dry Dock No. 2 in the dry without especial increase in cost will be built now. The cofferdam,

which was begun on April 1, 1913, to protect the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1, Dry Dock No. 2, the entrance basin, and coal-pocket excavations, was completed by placing 103,116 cubic yards of material. Difficulty was experienced through a portion of the double-track trestle giving way and moving outward after dumping from it had commenced, but this was overcome by reinforcing the outer toe by dumping material from barges and the cofferdam was completed. The leakage through it is relatively small and can be controlled by pumps. In excavating for Dry Dock No. 1 and Dry Dock No. 2, the coal pockets and entrance basin, the old Balboa machine shops forced the work to be confined to the center and south sides until November, when they were demolished and the last obstacle to excavation was removed. The total amount taken out from the site of Dry Dock No. 1 during the year was 358,282 cubic yards, 48,838 cubic yards of which were classified as earth and the balance as rock, making a total of 466,975 cubic yards excavated from this area up to the close of the year. The division cost for the year was $1.0250 per cubic yard, and the average division cost of the total was $0.9946 per cubic yard. From the site of Dry Dock No. 2, which is located just north of the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1, there were removed during the year 41,548 cubic yards of earth and 52,129 cubic yards of rock, at an average division cost of $0.8129 per cubic yard. Steam-shovel operations deepened the excavation from -13.5 to the final grade for the entire area of the approach basin inside of the cofferdam, and a total of 351,333 cubic yards were removed at a division cost of $1.0250 per cubic yard. The area required for the storage of coal and for the travel of unloading towers measures 800 feet in length and about 400 feet in width, measured from the outer edge of the quay wall. The total amount of excavation during the year was 166,104 cubic yards, 79,837 cubic yards of which were earth and the balance rock. The average division cost was $0.7984 per cubic yard. The material excavated from the site of the dry docks, entrance basin, and coal pocket was removed by means of steam shovels, three of which were worked 8 hours a day until February, 1914, when on the 5th of that month the shovels were placed on a 12-hour basis and another shovel added. These shovels worked on split shifts, 12 hours a day, continuously to the end of the year; one shovel was removed in June. The contract entered into October 12, 1912, for one pair of steel miter-gate leaves and fixed irons was completed during the fiscal year, and the material is stored on the Isthmus awaiting erection. The moving machines for operating the leaves, together with motors, controls, and covers, are also delivered.

Balboa coaling station.-Upon completion of the excavation for the coaling plant, work was begun on masonry for the crane runway supports, which extend east and west through the center of the

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