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1. Legislative powers, in whom vested.
2 House of Representatives, how and
by whom chosen. Qualifications
of a Representative. Repre enta-
tives and direct taxes, how ap-

portioned. Census. Vacancies to
e fled. Power of choosing offi-
eers, and of impeachment.

3. S nators, how and by whom cho en.
How classified. State Executive
to make temporary appointinents,
in case, &c. Qualifications of a
Senator. Presid nt of the Senate.
hsight to vote. President pro
tem. and other officers of Senate,
how chosen. Power to try im-
peachment. When President is
fried, Chief Justice to preside.

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4. Times, &c., of holding elections, !
how prescribed. One session in
each year.

5. Membership. Quorum. Adjourn-
ments. Rules. Power to punish
or expel. Journal. Time of ad-
Journment limited unless, &c.
6. Compensation. Privileges. Dis-
qualification in certa eses.
7. House to originate all revenue bills.
Veto. Bill may be passed by two-
thirds of each house, notwith-
standing, &e. Bill not returned in
ten days. Provision as to all or-
ders, &c., except, &c.

& Powers of Congress.

9. Provision as to migration or importation of certain persons. Habeas corpus. Bills of attainder, &c.

axes, how apportioned. No export duty. No commercial preferences. No money drawn from Treasury, unless &c. No titular! nobility. Officers not to receive presents, unless, &c. 10. States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.


1. President and Vice Presdeit, their term of office. Electors President and Vice President number, and how appointed. Elestors to vote on same day. Qualification. of President On whom his-daties devolve in case of his removal, death, &c. President's compensation. His oath.

2. President to be Commander-inChief. He may require opinion of, &c., and may pardon. Treaty making power. Nomination of certain officers. When President may fill vacancies.

3. President shall communicate to Congress. He may convene and adjourn Congress, in case, &c.; shall receive ambassadors, exe. cute laws, and commission officers.

4. All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes.

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2 Dall, 419

1 Wheat, 304. 4 Wheat., 316. 9 Wheat., 1.

Legislative pow.

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WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.


SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested ers, in whom in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.


House of Repre SEC. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of memand by whom bers chosen every second year by the people of the several States,

sentatives, how


Qualifications of a Representa tive.


and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the and direct taxes, several States which may be included within this Union, according how apportioned to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Repre


sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Vacancies to be Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.


ing officers, and of impeachment

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and Power of choosother officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. SEC. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six chosen. years; and each Senator shall have one vote.



and by whom

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the How classified. first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three

classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during to make tempo the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the c Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

State Executive

rary appointments, in case,


Qualifications of

a Senator.

Senate, his right to vote.



tem and other

ate, how chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of President of the the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall ficers of Sarexercise the office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. Power to try imWhen sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice is tried, Chief shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concur- side. rence of two-thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.


When President
Justice to pre-


Times, &c., of holding elec


SEC. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for tions, how pre- Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by U S. Statutes, the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

1842, 47, 2.

One session in

each year.



The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

SEC. 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adAdjournments. journ from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

Rules. Power to

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, and punpunish or expel. ish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.


Time of adjourrment limited, unless, &c.




Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

SEC. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he in certain cases. was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

House to origi


SEC. 7. All Bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House nate all revenue of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to


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