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68; discussion of Constitu- action of Congress, 277; re-
ton, 281-283; ratification con- ception of draft, 278, 280,
vention, 283–286; rejoicing, 287; elements of opposition,
286.

278–280, 287–291, 306; Wash-
Pickering, Timothy, and west- ington's influence, 280, 293,

ern settlement, 113; and 299; Pennsylvania conven-
territorial slavery, 117.

tion, 281, 283–286; geog-
Pinckney, Charles, in Federal raphy of opposition, 281,

convention, 190; plan, 194; 289, 299, 305; pamphlets,
on popular election, 204; on 281, 282, 287; fear of con-
veto of state laws, 205; on

solidated government, 283,
slave-trade, 262; on national 288, 301-303; demand for
government, 296.

bill of rights, 283, 288;
Pinckney, C. C., in Federal con- federal liberty, 284; Dela-

vention, 190; on New Jersey ware convention, 286; New
plan, 217; moves grand com- Jersey convention, 286;
mittee, 234; on slave-trade, Georgia convention, 286; Con-
263.

necticut convention, 287; op-
Pioneers, character of western, position in Massachusetts,
130, 136. See also West.

281-291; character of Fed
Population, West (1785), 95. eralists, 290, 291; Massachu-
Portugal, American trade, 76, setts convention, 291-295;
90.

amendments recommended,
Potomac River, interstate com- 294, 295, 304, 311; Mary-
mission, 179:

land convention, 295; South
President, requirements of, 266; Carolina convention, 296;

method of electing, 267–270. New Hampshire convention,
Privateering during Revolution, 296; opposition in Virginia,
72.

298; Virginia convention,
Prussia, treaty with (1785), 90. 299-305; power of taxation,
Public debt, foreign loans, 31, 303; treaty-making power,

56, 81; amount (1783), 59; 303; exclusive jurisdiction,
(1784, 1789), 81; interest de- 303; slavery clauses, 304;
faulted, 81.

opposition in New York, 305;
Public lands, bounties to federal imposts, 306; The Fed-

soldiers, 113; genesis of sys- eralist, 307, 308; New York
tem, 127; provision for educa. convention, 308-311; system
tion, 127

of representation, 309; pro-
Putnam, Rufus, and western visional ratification, 310; agi-
settlement, 114, 119.

tation for second convention,

311; North Carolina rejects,
RANDOLPH, EDMUND, offers Vir. 312; Rhode Island ignores,

ginia plan, 192; favors enu- 312; bibliography, 318–324,
merated powers, 202;

334-336.
New Jersey plan, 217; on Rayneval, and Jay, 14; visit to
slave representation, 260; England, 16, 19.
on slave-trade, 265; refuses Religion, freedom of, in Ordi-

to sign, 273; Federalist, 300. nance of 1787, 121; provision
Ratification of Constitution, for, by Ohio Company, 127.

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ers.

Representation, proportional, Secession not intended by
debate in convention, 197–

framers of Constitution, 314.
199, 207-211, 227-239; com- Sectional antagonism, in Fed-
promise, 235, 238, 239; real eral convention, 260, 265;
difficulty as to Senate, 232;

and ratification, 279, 299.
principle of proportionment, Self-government, pioneer, 132,
254-258; slave, 255, 257– 134-137:

260; and taxation, 258. Sevier, John, at Watauga, 131.
Requisitions, failure, 69, 80; Shattuck, Job, in Shays's re-

attempt to change basis, bellion, 160, 162.
79.

Shays's rebellion, causes of, 154-
Reserved powers of states, 295. 160; attacks on courts, 160-
See also Division of pow- 162; and Governor Bowdoin,

161; leader of, 161, 164; and
Revenue, inadequate confed- legislature, 161; retreat from

erate, 69, 80, 82; attempt to Worcester, 162; conflict at
improve, 53-55, 79, 82, 83. Springfield, 163; pursuit and
See also Finances.

rout, 163; collapse of, 164; no
Revolution, European situa- punishments, 164; and Con-

tion (1782), 9-11; post-war gress, 165; effect of, 166; bibli-
problems, 35; as civil war, ography, 332.
35; parties, 36-38; social Shelburne, Lord, and Fox, 5,
effect, 38, 142, 166; and 6; premier, 6; and terms of
constituent convention, 42; peace, II, 27.
effect on trade, 71–75; priva- Shepard, William, and Shays's
teering, 72. See also Peace rebellion, 163

Sherman, Roger, in Federal
Rhode Island, and confederate convention, 189; on popular

impost, 53; distress, 149; en- election, 199; of small-state
forcement of paper tender, party, 209, 211; compromise,
149–153; Weeden case, 151- 226; on veto of state laws,
153; and Constitution, 190, 246.
312.

Ship-building, decrease of, 75.
Roads in 1783, 45.

Slave-trade, constitutional de-
Robertson, James, at Watauga, bate and provision, 262;
131.

opposition in ratification con-
Rockingham, Lord, ministry,

ventions, 304.
4-6.

Slavery, exclusion from North-
Rush, Benjamin, opposes bill west Territory, 113, 116-118,
of rights, 283.

122; representation, 255, 257-
Rutledge, John, in Federal con- 260.
vention, 190; on gra

Smilie, John, Anti-Fede list,
mittee, 235; on slave-trade,

283.
263.

Smith, Melancthon, Anti-Fed-

eralist, 277, 308; ratifies, 311.
Sr. Clair, Arthur, governor Social conditions, effect of

of Northwest Territory, 126. Revolution, 38, 142, 166;
Scioto Company land pur- agitations (1786), 140-143,
chase, 126.

148, 154-157; influence on
ment, 115, 120; suture state-
Sovereignty of states, 221-223;

of 1783

com

name.

ratification, 289, 291; bibli- 136; bibliography of intrigue,
ography,320,

328.
Sources, on Federal convention, Springfield, Massachusetts,

192, 322, 333; on Confedera- Shays's rebellion, 161, 163.
tion, 322; on ratification, States, constitutions, 42, 47;
322, 334, 335; writings, 322– similarity of structure, 46;
324; on Peace of 1783, 324,

under Confederation, 48–50;
325; on foreign affairs, 328, conflicting trade regulations,
329.

86, 173; disregard of treaties,
South, Revolution and econom- 174; sovereignty, 221-223,

ic condition, 75; and navi- 228, 237; reserved powers,
gation of Mississippi, 98, 99; 295. See also Confedera-
and slavery in territories, tion, Federal convention,
116, 123; and North, 260, Ratification, and states by
265. See also states by
name.

Strachey, Henry, peace com-
South Carolina, ratification con- missioner, 25.
vention, 296.

Strong, Caleb, in Federal con-
Southwest, Spanish intrigue, vention, 238; Federalist, 291.

93, 100, 136; rapid settle-Sweden, treaty with (1783), 90.
ment, 95, 101; and Union,
99-101, 129; and navigation TAXATION,

power withheld
of Mississippi, 100; method

from Confederation, 50; at-
of settlement, 128; influence tempted import duty, 53-
of topography, 128; charac-

5,5: , 79, 82, 83; desire to
ter of settlers, 130, 136; Ind- shirk, 57, 70; power neces-
ian hostility, 130; Watauga sary to Confederation, 173;
settlement, 131;

Boones- direct, and representation,
borough and Nashville, 132; 258; opposition to federal
pioneer self-government, 132, power, 288, 302, 303, 306.
133; state of Franklin, 133-

Tender laws, demanded, 140.
135; bibliography of Spanish Tennessee, foundation of, 131.
intrigue, 328; bibliography See also Southwest, West.
of period 1781-1788, 330. See Territories, genesis of govern-
also West.

hood, 115, 121. See also
228, 237. See also Federal Northwest Territory.
convention.

Thompson, Charles, on econom-
Spain, Jay's experience, 7;

ic conditions (1783), 78.
and Revolution, 9-11, 21, Trade. See Commerce.
33, 91; and American boun- Travel in 1783, 45.
daries, 14-16; treaty of Treaties, Dutch (1782), go;
peace, 32; distrust of Amer- Swedish (1783), 90; Prussian
ica, 90; objects to treaty, (1785), 90; Morocco (1787),
91-93; methods of opposi- 107.

See also Peace of
tion, 93; Gardoqui-Jay ne- 1783.
gotiations, 90-101; proposed Treaty power, confederate, 174;
commercial treaty, 97-99;

federal, 303
intrigue in Southwest, 100, Tripoli, demands of, 106.

on

coer-

Tyler, John, opposition to state rights, 183; in Federal
slave-trade, 304.

convention, 184, 185, 191;

letter to Congress (1787),
UNION, problem of organiza- 277; influence for ratifica-

tion, 35-43, 46, 316; geo- tion, 280, 293, 299.
graphical and historical in- Watauga settlement, 131; self-
fluences, 44-46; Continental government, 132; state of
Congress, 47; influence of

Franklin, 133-135.
army, 62; Washington on Webster, Noah, on coercive
(1783), 70; attitude of West, power, 177:
99-101, 129. See also Con- Webster, Peletiah,
federation, Federal conven- cive power, 178; Federalist,
tion.

282.

Weeden, John, trial, 151-
VARNUM, J. M., defence of 153
Weeden, 152

West, state claims, 108, 109;
Vaughan, Benjamin, and Jay, Maryland's demand, 109;
17.

policy of Congress, 110, 111;
Vergennes, Count de,

and statecessions, 110-112; Jeffer-
Adams, 6; fear in 1782, 9;

son's ordinance, 114-117; in-
Jay's suspicions, 13-24; on fluence feared, 118, 254, 256,

treaty of peace, 29-31. 257; bibliography, 329–331.
Veto on state laws, 202, 205-

See also Northwest, South-
207,
246, 249.

See also west.
Coercion.

West Indies, British trade reg-
Virginia, and confederate im-

ulations, 74, 105.
post, 54; cession of western Western Reserve, 112.
claims, 110, 111; contest over Whitehill, Robert, Anti-Fed-
paper money, 144; tobacco

eralist, 283.
tender, 145; Potomac com- Wilkinson, James, intrigue with
mission, 179; and commercial Spain, 100, 136.
powers, 180; calls Annapolis Williamson, Hugh, on slave
convention, 181; opposition representation, 258; on slave-
to Constitution, 298; ratifica- trade, 263.

tion convention, 299-305. Wilson, James, in Federal con-
Virginia plan, 192-194; au- vention, 188; on popular

thor, 202; adopted, 211, election, 199, 204; on New
219.

Jersey plan, 216; on state

sovereignty, 228; on small-
WASHINGTON, George, on the state demands, 230; com-

disaffected, 36; and New- promise plan, 232; on direct
burg address, 65-67; letter legislation, 242; on influence
to states (1783), 70; of West, 257; on slave rep-
conditions in 1786, 87, 166;

resentation, 260; on power
on relations with West, 99; of Senate, 269; speech on
on settlement of Marietta, ratification, 282; in ratifica-
126; on need of coercive tion convention, 284; on fed-
power, 169, 175; and Poto- eral republic and federal lib.
mac commission, 180; erty, 284.

on

on

Worcester, Massachusetts, court party, 209; on grand comattacked, 160, 162.

mittee, 234; leaves conven

tion, 236. Yates, Robert, in Federal con- Yorktown, effect in England,

vention, 188; of small-state 3.

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