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will easily suggest themselves to the antiquary, but which we omit because argument upon them would be tedious.

ORIGIN OF MANORS AND PARISHES. Manors were, undoubtedly, in their original state, so many distinct portions of land, having each its peculiar lord. By these lords, principally, were our first churches erected; each, in his own district, providing a place of religious worship for his tenants and dependants: and hence it came to pass that Parishes, in the present sense of the word, and Manors, were originally commensurate with each other; the former term being indeed no other than that used to express the ecclesiastical, as the latter did the territorial precinct. But the extent of these manors rendering it impossible, in some cases, for all the tenants to resort to the same place of worship, the lord was induced to erect a second; and thus his tenants, though still remaining one and the same territorial body, would become divided into two ecclesiastical or parochial ones:-in other words, what was still one manor would become two parishes. Again: wherever a sub-infeudation took place, by the alienation of part of a manor, with its services, there would arise one manor out of another, which henceforth would be distinct from it: and thus there would occur not only


two parishes in one manor, but, frequently also, two or more manors in one parish. ther: it sometimes happened, to manors more than ordinarily extensive, that the subdivisions themselves were of such magnitude, as to become each erected into one or more parochial districts: and then we began to have several parishes in a mere part of that original manor, which, taken altogether, was at first but one. NORWOOD, Surrey. A survey taken in 1646, describes this tract as containing "eight hundred and thirty acres, in which the inhabitants of Croydon have herbage for all manner of cattle, and mastage for swine without stint." Norwood, observes the Magna Britannia, "is said to have consisted wholly of oaks; and among them was one that bare misselto, which some persons were so hardy as to cut for the gain of selling it to the apothecaries of London, leaving a branch of it to sprout out. But they proved unfortunate after it; for one of them fell lame, and the other lost an eye. At length, in the year 1768, a certain man, notwithstanding he was warned. against it upon the account of what the others had suffered, adventured to cut the tree down, and he soon after brake his leg. To fell oaks hath long been counted fatal; and such as believe it produce the instance of the Earl of Winchel-sea, who having felled a curious grove of oaks,

soon after found his countess dead in her bed suddenly, and his eldest son, the Lord Maidstone, was killed at sea by a cannon-bullet.". These superstitions, no doubt, originated in the ancient doctrines of the Druids. At no very reinote period, the whole of this waste appears to have been entirely covered with wood. GROTESQUE FIGURES IN


CHES. The prevalence of very extraordinary figures, as ornaments to edifices for divine worship, in very numerous country churches, must have struck every observer. It is imagined that these did not entirely originate in the gross taste of a former age, but were derived, in many instances, from such circumstances as the following. The regular and secular clergy of popish times, were distinguished by the residence of the former in community, and the non-adoption by the latter of that mode of life. Between the two classes the most implacable animosity long subsisted; owing to the regulars, where churches formed part of their endowments, having applied nearly all the emoluments arising from them to their own uses, allowing to the seculars, for performing the duty, very scanty stipends. For this mode of proceeding, as it much oppressed, so it also greatly exasperated the seculars, and led them to expose and ridicule the indolent and luxurious man

ner of living, in which the regulars indulged in their monastic retirements. And as, in process of time, the regulars, through their ir-regularities, were expelled in numerous instances, and the seculars became their own masters, these latter, continuing their opposition to and ridicule of the still existing monasteries, had recourse, among other methods, to that of placing, both within and without their churches, figures of goats, monkeys, foxes, wolves &c., playing on fiddles and other musical instruments, in allusion to the vices of the monastic life; and, with the same intent, they introduced, in the carving of the roofs, human faces, with distorted features, and painted with florid, bacchanalian countenances.

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS: (Charlewood Church, Surrey.) A.D. 1519. "Paid making the Easter Light, 2s. 4d. Rome-scot at Reigate, 2s. 4d. Watching the Sepulchre, 4d. Bering. the cross to Reigate, 4d. Wages, a carpenter and man each per day, 3d. A Preeste for singing for the soul of Burningham a quarter of a year, 11. 13s. 4d.”—1542. “Bought a pair of organs at Lingfield for 11. 5s. the carriage home cost 1s. 8d."-1545. "My expense to Cobham to deliver the money for the defence of the faith, 10d."-1546. For wasteing of torches for the buryal of my ladye's Grace


Prest, 1s."-1578. "Paid for ringing for the Queen, 17. Nov., 6d."--1579. "At the Visitation of St. Mary Oversey's, for our dinner and horse meat, 6d."-1580. "Charges at ditto, when Comfield was excommunicated, 8d."--1581. "A quart of wyne, 7d. ditto Malmsey, 10d."-1643. "An hour-glass for the church, 7d."-1665. "A prayer-book used on the days of humiliation against the plague, 1s." (Extracted from the parish-books.)—In the time of Charles I., when it was customary for the different parishes to find carts and horses to carry wood, &c. for the king's use, CHARLEWOOD compounded for this duty by paying 2s. for every twenty acres. CLERK. Originally meant a clergyman simply, but became afterwards used to distinguish any learned and the officers of justice in parperson, ticular, being supposed to be men of letters. In process of time, every one was accounted a clerk, and consequently admitted, if guilty of any criminal act, to the benefit of clergy, who could read. The Statute 4. Henry VII. c. 13. therefore distinguished between lay-scholars and clerks in holy orders; a distinction which then became the more necessary, as being after the invention of printing.

CUSTOM IN OCKLEY, Surrey. It was formerly a custom in this village, that if either of

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