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two contracted parties died before marriage, the survivor planted roses at the head of the grave of the deceased. This practice was very probably derived from the Romans, who were much in this neighbourhood, and who, as well as the Greeks, considered it in the light of a religious duty, and often in their wills directed roses to be strewed and planted on their graves, as appears from ancient inscriptions at Ravenna and Milan. Hence Propertius
et tenerâ poneret ossa Rosâ :*
and Anacreon, speaking of the custom, says,"it protects the dead.”
FIRST ENGLISH DEED. The earliest instance known of the English language being used in a deed, is that of an indenture between the Abbot and Convent of Whitby, and Robert the son of John Bustard, dated at York, in the year 1343.
OF OLD ENGLISH LIBERTY. In a court-roll of the manor of Coulsdon, Surrey, are the following curious particulars, not frequently to be found in such documents. 19. Richard II. (1396.) " Johes atte Brome refused to sell ale without shewing a sign: therefore he is in mercy." 3. Henry Ví. (1425.) "John Syrede, of Croydon, husbandman, espoused Agnes, daughter of William Toller, one of the
Lib. I. Eleg. 2.
lord's villans in gross, without license (i. e. of the lord): he came and paid 6s. 8d." 9. Henry VI. (1431) "Alice, daughter of Richard Colgrymme, one of the lord's villans in gross, remains at Chalvedon with Richard Aleyn, without chivage,* and without license: they are ordered to be seized.-Thomas Basset came, and gave to the lord, for the chivage of William Colgrymme, the lord's bondman, for license to stay with him till the Michaelmas ensuing, 8d." ANCIENT CRYPTS IN LONDON. There are still remaining in the metropolis, (notwithstanding the destruction of their superstructures,) a number of those ancient stone-vaulted chapels, denominated Crypts. This term Crypt is derived from the Greek, and signifies a hollow place under-ground; whence the German Kroft, or Croft, a corruption of crypt. Among ecclesiastical writers it was used to signify a subterranean church; whence the famous St. Faith's Church, under St. Paul's, was called Ecclesia S. Fidei in Cryptis; and most cathedrals still have them beneath their choirs. In imitation of these, there appear to have been subterranean chapels, or oratories, attached to several great mansions in former times, particularly in London. The following is an account
• Chivage was money paid by a nief, or bondman, for leave to go out of the manor.
of the most curious of those now extant in this ancient city.
The oldest of the religious buildings alluded to, is that called the Prior of Lewes' Chapel, situate in Tooley Street, Southwark, nearly opposite St. Olave's Church. This is of massy Norman architecture, and still very perfect. Stowe and Maitland both describe the spot to have been the site of the town mansion of the Priors of Lewes, in Sussex, who had here, (says the former,) one great house builded of stone, with arched gates, which is now a common hosterly for travellers, and hath to sign the walnut-tree:" In Maitland's time it had become a cider-cellar, and is thus described by him. "Opposite St. Olave's Church anciently stood a spacious stone building, the city mansion of the Priors of Lewes in Sussex: the Chapel of which, consisting of two aisles, being still remaining at the upper end of Walnut-tree Alley, is converted into a cider cellar or warehouse, and, by the earth's being greatly raised in this neighbourhood, it is at present under ground."-There are two entrances to this very curious crypt. By the northern one, we are led to a large semi-circularly arched vault, thirty-nine feet and a quarter long, by eighteen feet wide. On one side is a well, from which water is at present conveyed to the houses above;
and towards the farther end is a door-way, leading to another vault, semi-circularly arched like the former, thirty-one feet long by thirteen feet ten inches wide. Another passage conducts us to the principal apartment of this ancient building, the whole length of which is forty feet six inches, by sixteen feet six inches in width. At the farther end of this apartment are two windows, two feet and a half wide each; and on one side are two more of the same dimensions, with a passage, leading to another chamber, but now blocked up with stone and bricks. This latter chamber consists of four groined arches, supported on curious columns, each four feet ten inches in diameter. Beyond it extends another vault, in length upwards of twenty-seven feet, partly arched as in the former instances, and partly groined. The flooring of these vaults is of earth and brick rubbish, which has accumulated so as to bury, in great measure, the pillars which support the building. The height, inside, in general, is not more than eight or nine feet; but that it was originally much more considerable, was recently proved by digging in prospect of converting the crypt into a cemetery for the use of the parish. The principal occupant of this interesting architectural remain, is, or was lately, Mr. Hewitson, a painter and glazier; the oratory being let as
store-cellars, or for any other purpose. The principal apartments of the superstructure, which is called Southwark House, are converted into billiard-rooms.
The handsome Gothic crypt, termed St. Michael's Church by Aldgate, which is situate between the east ends of Leadenhall and Fenchurch Streets, under the houses fronting Aldgate Pump, still remains entire, and exhibits a beautiful specimen of the pointed style of architecture. It measures, north by south, forty-six feet in length, and east by west, seventeen feet in breadth; and, from the floor to the vertex of the arch, eleven feet eleven inches: but as the capitals of the pillars at present appear only four feet from the ground, the original altitude may have been eighteen or twenty feet. This crypt is divided into two aisles, by two handsome intersected pillars, supporting the three elegant stone arches that form the roof. The entry was by a door on the east side, in which were besides small windows, as there were at the ends: and adjoining the oratory, on the west side, are the remains of a square stone building. To what use this was originally appropriated cannot be now ascertained, but it was probably a vestiary or withdrawing room. The walls of the entire structure are of squared pieces of chalk, in the manner of Rochester