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Fuseli; Gaddi;
Ghirlandajo, Domenico:
Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo.

W. R. B.

Author of Manual of American College Praternities; &c. Editor of The Beta Theta Pi. { Fraternities, Colloge.


W. S. P.


Deputy Chairman, Fur Section, London Chamber of Commerce.


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FRANCISCANS (otherwise called Friars Minor, or Minorites; they were to make no provision for the morrow, lay by no store, also the Seraphic Order; and in England Grey Friars, from the accumulate no capital, possess no land; their clothes should be colour of the habit, which, however, is now brown rather than grey), the poorest and their dwellings the meanest; they were forbidden a religious order founded by St Francis of Assisi (q..). It was to receive or to handle money. On the other hand they were in 1206 that St Francis left his father's house and devoted himself bound only to the fast observed in those days by pious Christians, to a life of poverty and to the service of the door, the sick and the and were allowed to eat meat-the rule said they should eat lepers; and in 1209 that he felt the call to add preaching to his whatever was set before them; no austerities were imposed, other ministrations, and to lead a life in the closest imitation of beyond those inseparable from the manner of life they lived. Christ's life. Within a few weeks disciples began to join them- Thus the institute in its original conception was quite different selves to him; the condition was that they should dispose of from the monastic institute, Benedictine or Canon Regular, all their possessions. When their number was twelve Francis It was a confraternity rather than an order, and there was no led the little flock to Rome to obtain the pope's sanction for their formal novitiate, no organization. But the number of brothers undertaking. Innocent III. received them kindly, but with increased with extraordinary rapidity, and the field of work some misgivings as to the feasibility of the proposed manner of soon extended itself beyond the neighbourhood of Assisi and even life; these difficulties were overcome, and the pope accorded beyond Umbria-within three or four years there were settleprovisional approval by word of mouth: they were to become ments in Perugia, Cortona, Pisa, Florence and elsewhere, and clerics and to elect a superior. Francis was elected and made missions to the Saracens and Moors were attempted by Francis a promise of obedience to the pope, and the others promised himself. About 1217 Franciscan missions set out for Germany, obedience to Francis.

France, Spain, Hungary and the Holy Land; and in 1219 a This formal inauguration of the institute was in 1209 or (as number of provinces were formed, each governed by a provincial seems more probable) 1210. Francis and his associates were minister. These developments, whereby the little band of first known as “ Penitents of Assisi," and then Francis chose the Umbrian apostles had grown into an institute spread all over title of “ Minors.” On their return to Assisi they obtained from Europe and even penetrating to the East, and numbering the Benedictine abbey on Mount Subasio the use of the little thousands of members, rendered impossible the continuance of chapel of St Mary of the Angels, called the Portiuncula, in the the original free organization whereby Francis's word and ex, plain below Assisi, which became the cradle and headquarters of ample were the sufhcient practical rule of life for all: it was the order. Around the Portiuncula they built themselves huts necessary as a condition of efficiency and even of existence and of branches and twigs, but they had no fixed abode; they permanence that some kind of organization should be provided. wandered in pairs over the country, dressed in the ordinary From an early date yearly meetings or chapters had been held clothes of the peasants, working in the fields to earn their daily at the Portiuncula, at first attended by the whole body of friars; bread, sleeping in barns or in the hedgerows or in the porches of but as the institute extended this became unworkable, and after the churches, mixing with the labourers and the poor, with the 1219 the chapter consisted only of the officials, provincial lepers and the outcasts, ever joyous--the “joculatores or ministers and others. During Francis's absence in the East "jongleurs." of God-ever carrying out their mission of preaching (1219-1220) a deliberate movement was initiated by the two to the lowly and to the wretched religion and repentance and vicars whom he had left in charge of the order, towards assimilatthe kingdom of God. The kcy-note of the movement was the ing it to the monastic orders. Francis hurried back, bringing imitation of the public life of Christ, especially the poverty of with him Elias of Cortona, the provincial minister of Syria, Christ. Francis and his disciples were to aim at possessing and immediately summoned an extraordinary general chapter nothing, absolutely nothing, so far as was compatible with life; (September 1220). Before it met he had an interview on the they were to carn their bread from day to day by the work of their situation with Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia (afterwards Gregory hands, and only when they could not do so were they to beg; IX.), the great friend and supporter of both Francis and Dominic,

XI. 1


and he went to Honorius III. at Orvieto and begged thatHugolino The story of these first years after St Francis's death is best told should be appointed the official protector of the order. The by. Ed. Lempp: Frère Élie de Cortone (1901) (but see the warning request was granted, and a bull was issued formally approving at the end of the article Elias OF CORTONA). the order of Friars Minor, and decreeing that before admission

At this time the Franciscans were divided into three parties: every one must pass a year's novitiate, and that after profession there were the Zealots, or Spirituals, who called for a literal it was not lawful to leave the order. By this bull the Friars Minor observance of St Francis's Rule and Testament; they deplored were constituted an order in the technical sense of the word. all the developments since 1219, and protested against turning When the chapter assembled, Francis, no doubt from a genuine the institute into an order, the frequentation of the universities feeling that he was not able to govern a great world-wide order, and the pursuit of learning; in a word, they wished to restore practically abdicated the post of minister-general by appointing the life to what it had been during the first few years-the a vicar, and the policy of turning the Friars Minor into a great hermitages and the huts of twigs, and the care of the lepers and religious order was consistently pursued, especially by Elias, the nomadic preaching. The Zealots were few in number but of who a year later became Francis's vicar.

great consequence from the fact that to them belonged most of St Francis's attitude towards this change is of primary importance They had been grievously persecuted under Elias—Br. Leo and

the first disciples and the most intimate companions of St Francis. for the interpretation of Franciscan history. There can be little doubt that his affections never altered from his first love, and that others had been scourged, several had been imprisoned, one he looked back regretfully on the “ Umbrian idyll " that had passed while trying to escape was accidentally killed, and Br. Bernard, away; on the other hand, there seems to be no reason for doubting the first disciple,” passed a year in hiding in the forests and that he saw that the methods of the early days were now no longer mountains hunted like a wild beast. At the other extreme was possible, and that he acquiesced in the inevitable. This seems to be Professor Goetz's view, who holds that Sabatier's picture of a party of relaxation, that abandoned any serious effort to practise Francis's agonized sadness at witnessing the destruction of his great Franciscan poverty and simplicity of life. Between these two crcation going on under his eyes, has no counterpart in fact, and who stood the great middle party of moderates, who desired indeed rejects the view that the changes were forced on Francis against that the Franciscans should be really poor and simple in their bis better judgment by Hugolino and Elias (see "Note on Sources at end of article Francis of Assisi; also ELIAS OF CORTONA): manner of life, and really pious, but on the other hand approved Goetz holds that the only conflict was the inevitable one between of the development of the Order on the lines of other orders, an unrealizable ideal and its practical working among average men. But there does seem to be evidence that Francis deplored tendencies other sciences, and of the frequenting of the universities.

of the acquisition of influence, of the cultivation of theology and towards a departure from the severe simplicity of life and from the strict observance of poverty which he considered the ground-idea

The questions of principle at issue in these controversies is reason. of his institute. In the final redaction of his Rule made in 1223 and ably and clearly stated, from the modern Capuchin standpoint, in in his Testament, made after it, he again clearly asserts his mind

the " Introductory Essay" to The Friars and how they came to on these subjects, especially on poverty; and in the Testament he England, by Fr. Cuthbert (1903). forbids any glosses in the interpretation of the Rule, declaring that The moderate party was by far the largest, and embraced it is to be taken simply as it stands. Sabatier's view as to the differ: nearly all the friars of France, England and Germany. It was ence between the First Rule" and that of 1223 is part of his the Moderates and not the Zealots that brought about Elias's general. theory, and is, to say the least, a grave exaggeration. No doubt the First Rule, which is fully four times as long, gives a better deposition, and the next general ministers belonged to this party. picture of St Francis's mind and character; the later Rule has been Further relaxations of the law of poverty, however, caused a formed from the earlier by the elimination of the frequent scripture reaction, and John of Parma, one of the Zealots, became ministertexts and the edificatory element; but the greater portion of it stood gencral, 1247-2257. Under him the more extreme of the Zealots almost verbally in the earlier,

took up and exaggerated the theories of the Eternal Gospel of On Francis's death in 1226 the government of the order rested the Calabrian Cistercian abbot Joachim of Fiore (Floris); some of in the hands of Elias until the chapter of 1227. At this chapter their writings were condemned as heretical, and John of Parma, Elias was not elected minister-general; the building of the great who was implicated in these apocalyptic tendencies, had to resign. basilica and monastery at Assisi was so manifest a violation of He was succeeded by St Bonaventura (1257–1274), one of the St Francis's ideas and precepts that it produced a reaction, and best type of the middle party. He was a man of high character, John Parenti became St Francis's first successor. He held fast a theologian, a mystic, a holy man and a strong ruler. He set to St Francis's ideas, but was not a strong man. At the chapter himself with determination to effect a working compromise, of 1230 a discussion arose concerning the binding force of St and proceeded with firmness against the extremists on both Francis's Testament, and the interpretation of certain portions sides. But controversy and recrimination and persecution had of the Rule, especially concerning poverty, and it was determined stiffened the more ardent among the Zealots into obstinate to submit the questions to Pope Gregory IX., who had been St fanatics—some of them threw themselves into a movement Francis's friend and had helped in the final redaction of the Rule. that may best be briefly described as a recrudescence of MonHe issued a bull, Quo elongati, which declared that as the Testa- tanism (sec Emile Gebhart's Italie mystique, 1899, cc. v. ment had not received the sanction of the chapter it and vi.), and developed into a number of sects, some on the was not binding on the order, and also allowed trustees to hold fringe of Catholic Christianity and others beyond its pale But and administer money for the order. John Parenti and those the majority of the Zealot party, or Spirituals, did not go so far, who wished to maintain St Francis's institute intact were greatly and adopted as the principle of Franciscan poverty the formula disturbed by these relaxations; but a majority of the chapter of a poor and scanty use" (usus pauper et lenuis) of earthly goods, 1232, by a sort of coup d'état, proclaimed Elias minister-general, as opposed to the “ moderate use " advocated by the less strict and John retired, though in those days the office was for life. party. The question thus posed came before the Council of Under Elias the order entered on a period of extraordinary Vienne, 1312, and was determined, on the whole, decidedly in extension and prosperity: the number of friars in all parts of the favour of the stricter view. Some of the French Zealots were not world increased wonderfully, new provinces were formed, new satisfied and formed a semi-schismatical body in Provence; missions to the heathen organized, the Franciscans entered the twenty-five of them were tried before the Inquisition, and four universities and vied with the Dominicans as teachers of theology were burned alive at Marseilles as obstinate heretics, 1318. After and canon law, and as a body they became influential in church this the schism in the Order subsided. But the disintegrating and state. With all this side of Elias's policy the great bulk of forces produced by the Great Schism and by the other disorders the order sympathized; but his rule was despotic and tyrannical of the 14th century caused among the Franciscans the same and his private life was lax--at least according to any Franciscan relaxations and corruptions, and also the same reactions and standard, for no charge of grave irregularity was ever brought reform movements, as among the other orders. against him. And so a widespread movement against his govern- The chief of these reforms was that of the Observants, which ment arose, the backbone of which was the university element began at Foligno about 1370. The Observant reform was on at Paris and Oxíord, and at a dramatic scene in a chapter held the basis of the “poor and scanty use" of worldly goods, in the presence of Gregory IX. Elias was deposed (1239).

but it was organized as an order and its members freely pursued

theological studies; thus it did not represent the position of the , (for list see Calholic Dictionary and F. A. Gasquet's English original Zealot party, nor was it the continuation of it. The Monastic Life, 1904). Though nearly all the English houses Observant reform spread widely throughout Italy and into belonged to what has been called the "middle party," as a France, Spain and Germany. The great promoters of the move- matter of fact they practised great poverty, and the comment were St Bernardine of Siena and St John Capistran. The missioners of Henry VIII. often remark that the Franciscan council of Constance, 1415, allowed the French Observant Friary was the poorest of the religious houses of a town. The friaries to be ruled by a vicar of their own, under the minister- English province was one of the most remarkable in the order, general, and the same privilege was soon accorded to other especially in intellectual achievement; it produced Friar countries. By the end of the middle ages the Observants had Roger Bacon, and, with the single exception of St Bonaventure, some 1400 houses divided into 50 provinces. This movement all the greatest doctors of the Franciscan theological school produced a “half-reform" among the Conventuals or friars of Alexander Hales, Duns Scotus and Occam. ihe mitigated observance; it also called forth a number of lesser The Franciscans have always been the most numerous by. imitations or congregations of strict observance.

far of the religious orders; it is estimated that about the period After many attempts had been made to bring about a working of the Reformation the Friars Minor must have numbered union among the many observances, in 1517 Leo X. divided the nearly 100,000. At the present day the statistics are roughly Franciscan order into two distinct and independent bodies, (including lay-brothers): Observants, 15,000, Conventuals, each with its own minister-general, its own provinces and 1500; to these should be added 9500 Capuchins, making the provincials and its own general chapter: (1) The Conventuals, total number of Franciscan friars about 26,000. There are various who were authorized to use the various papal dispensations in houses of Observants and Capuchins in England and Ireland; and regard to the observance of poverty, and were allowed to possess the old Irish Conventuals survived the penal times and still exist. property and fixed income, corporately, like the monastic orders: There have been four Franciscan popes: Nicholas IV. (1288– (2) The Observants, who were bound to as close an observance 1292), Sixtus IV. (1471-1484), Sixtus V. (1585-1590), Clement of St Francis's Rule in regard to poverty and all else as was XIV. (1769-1774); the three last were Conventuals. practically possible.

The great source for Franciscan history is Wadding's Annales; At this time a great number of the Conventuals went over to it has been many times continued, and now extends in 25 vols. fol. the Observants, who have ever since been by far the more religieux (1714), vol. vii. Abridgments, with references to recent

to the ycar 1622. The story is also told by Helyot, Hist. des ordres numerous and influential branch of the order. Among the literature, will be found in Max Heimbucher, Orden und KongregaObservants in the course of the sixteenth century arose various tionen (1896), i. $8. 37-51; in Wetzer und Welte, Kirchenlexicon reforms, each striving to approach more and more nearly to St (2nd ed.), articles Armut (III.),". "Franciscaner orden"(this Francis's ideal; the chief of these reforms were the Alcantarines article contains the best account of the inner history and the polity in Spain (St Peter of Alcantara, St Teresa's friend, d. 1562), articles “ Franz von Assisi" (fullest references to literature up to the Riformati in Italy and the Recollects in France: all of these 1899), "Fraticellen." of modern critical studies on Franciscan were semi-independent congregations. The Capuchins (7.0.), origins, K. Müller's Anfänge des Minoritenordens und der Bussestablished c. 1525, who claim to be the reform wbich approaches bruderschaften (1895), and various articles by F. Ehrle in Archiv für Dearest in its conception to the original type, became a distinct Katholische Theologie, deserve special mention. Eccleston's charmorder of Franciscans in 1619. Finally Leo XIII. grouped the ing chronicle of "The Coming of the Friars Minor into England Franciscans into three bodies or orders--the Conventuals; the

has been translated into English by the Capuchin Fr. Cuthbert, Observants, embracing all branches of the strict observance, account in English of the Spirit and Genius of the Franciscan

who has prefixed an Introductory Essay giving by far the best except the Capuchins; and the Capuchins-which together Friars" (The Friars and how they came to England, 1903). Fuller inconstitute the" First Order." For the "Second Order," or the formation on the English Franciscans will be found in A. G. Little's puns, see CLARA, ST, and CLARES, POOR; and for the “Third Grey Friars in Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1892). (E. C. B.) Order" see TERTIARIES. Many of the Tertiaries live a fully FRANCK. The name of Franck has been given indiscriminately monastic life in community under the usual vows, and are formed but improperly to painters of the school of Antwerp who belong into Congregations of Regular Tertiaries, both men and women. to the families of Francken (q.v.) and Vrancx (9.v.). One artist They have been and are still very numerous, and give themselves truly entitled to be called Franck is Gabriel, who entered the up to education, to the care of the sick and of orphans and to gild of Antwerp in 1605, became its president in 1636 and died good works of all kinds.

in 1639. But his works cannot now be traced. No order has had so stormy an internal history as the Francis- FRANCK, CÉSAR (1822–1890), French musical composer, a cans; yet in spite of all the troubles and dissensions and strivings Belgian by birth, who came of German stock, was born at that have marred Franciscan history, the Friars Minor of every Liége on the 10th of December 1822. Though one of the most kind have in each age faithfully and zealously carried on St remarkable of modern composers, César Franck laboured for Francis's great work of ministering to the spiritual needs of the many years in comparative obscurity. After some preliminary poor. Always recruited in large mcasure from among the poor, studies at Liége he came to Paris in 1837 and entered the conThey have ever been the order of the poor, and in their preaching servatoire. He at once obtained the first prize for piano, transand missions and ministrations they have ever laid themselves posing a fugue at sight to the astonishment of the professors, out to meet the needs of the poor. Another great work of the for he was only fifteen. He won the prize for the organ in 1841, Franciscans throughout the whole course of their history has after which he settled down in the French capital as teacher been their missions to the Mahommcdans, both in western Asia of the piano. His earliest compositions date from this period, and in North Africa, and to the heathens in China, Japan and and include four trios for piano and strings, besides several India, and North and South America; a great number of the piano pieces. Ruth, a biblical cantata was produced with friars were martyred. The news of the martyrdom of five of success at the Conservatoire in 1846. An opera entitled Le his friars in Morocco was one of the joys of St Francis's closing Valet de ferme was written about this time, but has never been years. Many of these missions exist to this day. In the Univer- performed. For many years Franck led a retired life, devoting sities, too, the Franciscans made themselves felt alongside of himself to teaching and to his duties as organist, first at Saintthe Dominicans, and created a rival school of theology, wherein, Jean-Saint-François, then at Ste Clotilde, where he acquired 2s contrasted with the Aristotelianism of the Dominican school, a great reputation as an improviser. He also wrote a mass, the Platonism of the early Christian doctors has been perpetuated. heard in 1861, and a quantity of motets, organ pieces and other

The Franciscans came to England in 1224 and immediately works of a religious character. made foundations in Canterbury, London and Oxford; by the Franck was appointed professor of the organ at the Paris middle of the century there were fifty friaries and over 1200 conservatoire, in succession 10 Benoist, his old master, in 1872, friars in England; at the Dissolution there were some 66 Fran- and the following year he was naturalized a Frenchman. Until ciscan friaries, whereof some six belonged to the Observants I then he was esteemed as a clever and conscientious musician, but he was now about to prove his title to something more. and Descriplion of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which A revival of his early oratorio, Ruth, had brought his name had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up again before the public, and this was followed by the production the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and of Redemplion, a work for solo, chorus and orchestra, given presenting, in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian under the direction of M. Colonne on the roth of April 1873. and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, The unconventionality of the music rather disconcerted the universal in its scope. To this ideal he remained faithful. At general public, but the work nevertheless made its mark, and Strassburg began his intimacy with Caspar Schwenkseld, a conFranck became the central figure of an enthusiastic circle of genial spirit. Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most im. pupils and adherents whose devotion atoned for the comparative portant work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch und Geschichtsbibel, largciy indifference of the masses. His creative power now manifested a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), itself in a series of works of varied kinds, and the name of Franck and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected began gradually to emerge from its obscurity. The following with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with is an enumeration of his subsequent compositions: Rebecca heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in (1881), a biblical idyl for solo, chorus and orchestra; Les opinion. It is too much to call him “the first of German Béatitudes, an oratorio composed between 1870 and 1880, historians "'; he is a forerunner of Gottfried Arnold, with more perhaps his grcatest work; the symphonic poems, Les Éolides vigour and directness of purpose. Driven from Sırassburg by (1876), Le Chasseur maudit (1883), Les Djinns (1884), for piano the authorities, after a short imprisonment in December 1531, and orchestra; Psyche (1888), for orchestra and chorus; hc tricd to make a living in 1532 as a soapboiler at Esslingen, symphonic variations for piano and orchestra (1885); symphony removing in 1533 for a better market to Ulm, where (October 28. in D (1889); quintet for piano and strings (1880); sonata for 1534) he was admitted as a burgess. piano and violin (1886); string quartet (1889); prelude, choral His Weibuch, a supplement to his Chronico, was printed at and fugue for piano (1884); prelude, aria and finale for piano Tübingen in 1534; the publication, in the same year, of his (1889); various songs, notably “La Procession” and “Les Paradoxa at Ulm brought him into trouble with the authorities. Cloches du Soir.” Franck also composed two four-act operas, An order for his banishment was withdrawn on his promise to Hulda and Ghiselle, both of which were produced at Monte submit future works for censure. Not interpreting this as apply. Carlo after his death, which took place in Paris on the 8th of ing to works printed outside Ulm, he published in 1538 at AugsNovember 1890. The second of these was left by the master burg his Guldin Arch (with pagan parallels to Christian sentiments) in an unfinished state, and the instrumentation was completed and at Frankfort his Germaniae chronicon, with the result that he by several of his pupils.

had to leave Ulm in January 1539. He seems henceforth to have César Franck's influence on younger French composers has had no settled abode. At Basct he found work as a printer, and been very great. Yet his music is German in character rather here, probably, it was that he died in the winter of 1542-1543. than French. A more sincere, modest, self-respecting composer He had published in 1539 his Kriegbüchlein des Friedens (pseuprobably never existed. In the centre of the brilliant French donymous), his Schriftliche und ganz gründliche Auslegung des capital he was able to lead a laborious existence consecrated 04 Psalms, and his Das verbütschierle mit sicben Siegeln verto his threefold career of organist, teacher and composer. He schlossene Buch (a biblical index, exhibiting the dissonance of never sought to gain the suffrages of the public by unworthy Scripture); in 1541 his Spruchwörler (a collection of proverbs, concessions, but kept straight on his path, ever mindful of an several times reprinted with variations); in 1542 a new edition ideal to be reached and never swerving therefrom. A statue of his Paradoxn; and some smaller works. was erected to the memory of César Franck in Paris on the Franck combined the humanist's passion for freedom with the 22nd of October 1904, the occasion producing a panegyric from mystic's devotion to the religion of the spirit. His breadth of Alfred Bruneau, in which he speaks of the composer's works as human sympathy led him to positions which the comparative cathedrals in sound."

study of religions has made familiar, but for which his age FRANCK, or FRANK (latinized FRANCUS), SEBASTIAN (c. was unprepared. Luther contemptuously dismissed him as a 1499-c. 1543), German freethinker, was born about 1499 at "devil's mouth.” Pastor Frecht of Nuremberg pursued him Donauwörth, whence he constantly styled himself Franck von with bitter zeal. But his courage did not fail him, and in his Wörd. He entered the university of Ingoldstadt (March 26, last year, in a public Latin letter, he exhorted his friend John 1515), and proceeded thence to the Dominican College, incor- Campanus to maintain freedom of thought in face of the charge porated with the university, at Heidelberg. Here he met his of heresy. subsequent antagonists, Bucer and Frecht, with whom he seems

See Hegler, in Hauck's Realencyklopädie (1899); C. A. Hase, to have attended the Augsburg conference (October 1518) at Sebastian Franck von Word (1869) : J. F. Smith, in Theological which Luther declared himself a true son of the Church. He Review (April 1874); E. Tausch, Sebastian Franck von Donauwörth afterwards reckoned the Leipzig disputation (June-July 1519) und seine Lehrer (1893).

(A. Go.) and the burning of the papal bull (December 1520) as the begin- FRANCKE, AUGUST HERMANN (1663-1727), German Proning of the Reformation. Having taken priest's orders, he held in testant divine, was born on the 22nd of March 1663 at Lübeck. 1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525). He was educated at the gymnasium in Gotha, and afterwards at went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became the universities of Erfurt, Kiel, where he came under the influence preacher at Gustenfelden. His first work (finished September of the pietist Christian Kortholt (1633–1694), and Leipzig. 1527) was a German translation with additions (1528) of the first During his student career he made a special study of Hebrew and part of the Diallage, or Conciliatio locorum Scriplurae, directed Greck; and in order to learn Hebrew more thoroughly, he for against Sacramentarians and Anabaptists by Andrew Althamer, some time put himself under the instructions of Rabbi Ezra then deacon of St Sebald's at Nuremberg. On the 17th of March Edzardi at Hamburg. He graduated at Leipzig, where in 1685 1528 he married Ottilie Beham, a gifted lady, whose brothers, he became a Privaldczent. A year later, by the help of his friend pupils of Albrecht Dürer, had got into trouble through Anabaptist P. Anton, and with the approval and encouragement of P. J. leanings. In the same year he wrote a very popular treatise Spener, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, at which a against drunkenness. In 1529 he produced a free version number of graduates were accustomed to meet for the systematic (Klagbrief der armen Dürftigen in England) of the famous Supply- study of the Bible, philologically and practically. He next passed cacyon of the Beggers, written abroad (1528?) by Simon Fish. some months at Lüneburg as assistant or curate to the learned Franck, in his preface, says the original was in English; else- superintendent, C. H. Sandhagen (1639-1697), and there his where he says it was in Latin, the theory that his German was religious life was remarkably quickened and deepened. On really the original is unwarrantable. Advance in his religious leaving Lüneburg he spent some time in Hamburg, where he ideas led him to seck the freer atmosphere of Strassburg in the became a teacher in a private school, and made the acquaintance autumn of 1529. To his translation (1530) of a Lalin Chronide l of Nikolaus Lange (1659-1720) After a long visit to Spenen

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