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practised as a barrister at Liége, took a prominent part in the worked without intermission for the interests of the Academy, Liberal movement, and in June 1847 was returned to the Chamber not even claiming any property in his own writings, which were as member for Liége. In August of the same year he was ap printed in the Recueil de l'académie des inscriplions. The list pointed minister of public works in the Rogier cabinet, and from of his memoirs, many of them posthumous, occupies four columns 1848 10 1852 was minister of finance. He founded the Banque of the Nouvelle Biographie générale. They treat of history, Nationale and the Caisse d'Epargne, abolished the newspaper chronology, geography, mythology and religion. Throughout tax, reduced the postage, and modified the customs duues as he appears as the keen, learned and original critic; examining a preliminary to a decided free-trade policy The Liberalism into the comparative value of documents, distinguishing between of the cabinet, in which Frère-Orban exercised an influence the mythical and the historical, and separating traditions with hardly inferior to that of Rogier, was, however, distasteful to an historical element from pure fables and legends. He rejected Napoleon III. Frère-Orban, to facilitate the negotiations for the extreme pretensions of the chronology of Egypt and China, a new commercial treaty, conceded to France a law of copyright, and at the same ume controverted the scheme of Sir Isaac which proved highly unpopular in Belgium, and he resigned Newton as too limited. He investigated the mythology not only office, soon followed by the rest of the cabinet. His work of the Greeks, but of the Celts, the Germans, the Chinese and Le Moinmorle et la chorile (1854-1857), published under the the Indians. He was a vigorous opponent of the theory thai pseudonym of “Jean van Damme,” contributed greatly to the stories of mythology may be referred to historic originals. restore his party to power in 1857, when he again became He also suggested that Greek mythology owed much to the minister of finance. He now embodied his free-trade principles in Phoenicians and Egyptians. He was one of the first scholars of commercial treaties with England and France, and abolished the Europe to undertake the study of the Chinese language; and in octroi duties and the tolls on the national roads. He resigned ibis he was engaged at the ume of bis committal to the Bastille. in 1861 on the gold question, but soon resumed office, and in He died in Paris on the 8th of March 1749. 1868 succeeded Rogier as prime minister. In 1869 he defeated Long after his death several works of an atheistic character were the attempt of France to gain control of the Luxemburg railways, falsely attributed to him, and were long believed to be his. The most but, despite this service to his country, fell from power at the famous of these spurious works are the Examen critique des apologistes elections of 1870. He returned to office in 1878 as president of printed in London about 1768. A very delective and inaccurate
cippe, , the council and foreign minister. He provoked the bitter opposi- edition of Fréret's works was published in 1796-1799. A new and tion of the Clerical party by his law of 1879 establishing secular complete edition was projected by Champollion-Figeac, but of this primary education, and in 1880 went so far as to break of diplo- only the first volume appeared (1825). It contains a life of Fréret.
His manuscripts, after passing through many hands, were deposited matic relations with the Vatican He next found himself at
in the library of the Institute. The best account of his works is variance with the Radicals, whose leader, Janson, moved the "Examen critique des ouvrages composés par Fréret " in C. A introduction of universal suffrage. Frère-Orban, while rejecting Walckenaer's Recueil des notices, &c. (1841-1850) See also Quérard's
France litteraire the proposal, conceded an extension of the franchise (1883); but the hostility of the Radicals, and the discontent caused by a
PRÉRON, ÉLIE CATHERINE (1719-1776), French critic and financial crisis, overthrew the government at the elections of controversialist, was born at Quimper in 1719. He was educated 1884. Frère-Orban continued to take an active part in politics by the Jesuits, and made such rapid progress in his studies as leader of the Liberal opposition till 1894, when he failed 10 that before the age of i wenty he was appointed professor at the secure re-election. He died at Brussels on the 2nd of January college of Louis-le-Grand He became a contributor to the 1896. Besides the work above mentioned, be published Le Observations sur les écrits modernes of the abbé Guyot DesfonQuestion monélaire (1874), La Question monétaire en Belgique taines. The very fact of his collaboration with Desfontaines, in 1889; Échange de vues entre MM. Frère-Orban el E. de Loveleye one of Voltaire's bitterest enemies, was sufficient to arouse the (1890), and La Revision constitutionnelle en Belgique et ses latter's hostility, and although Fréron had begun his career as conséquences (1894). He was also the author of numerous one of his admirers, his attitude towards Voltaire soon changed. pamphlets, among which may be mentioned his last work. Fréron in 1746 founded a similar journal of his own, entitled La Situation présente (1895).
Lettres de la Comtesse de It was suppressed in 1749, but he PRÉRET, NICOLAS (1688–1749), French scholar, was born immediately replaced it by Lellres sur quelques écrits de ce temps, at Paris on the 15th of February 1688. His father was procureur which, with the exception of a short suspension in 1752, on to the parlement of Paris, and destined him to the profession account of an attack on the character of Voltaire, was continued of the law. His first tutors were the historian Charles Rollin till 1754, when it was succeeded by the more ambitious Année and Father Desmolets (1677-1760). Amongst his carly studies lilléraire
His death at Paris on the roub of March 1776 is said history, chronology and mythology held a prominent place. !o have been hastened by the temporary suppression of this To please his father he studied law and began to practise at the journal. Fréron is now remembered solely for his attacks on bar; but the force of his genius soon carried him into his own Voltaire and the Encyclopaedists, and by the retaliations they path. At nineteen he was admitted to a society of learned men provoked on the part of Voltaire, who, besides attacking him in before whom he read memoirs on the religion of the Grecks, epigrams, and even inadentally in some of his tragedies, directed on the worship of Bacchus, of Ceres, of Cybele and of Apollo. against him a virulent satire, Le Pauvre drable, and made him He was hardly twenty-six years of age when he was admitted the principal personage in a comedy L'Ecossaise, in which the
A further as pupil to the Academy of Inscriptions. One of the first journal of Fréron is designated L'Àne littéraire,
(1760), memoirs which he read was a learned and critical discourse, attack on Fréron entitled Anecdotes sur Fréron Sur l'origine des Francs (1714). He maintained that the Franks published anonymously, is generally attributed to Voltaire. were a league of South German tribes and not, according to the
Fréron was the author of Ode sur la bataille de Fonlenoy (1745); legend then almost universally received, a nation of free men
Histoire de Mane Stuart (1742, 2 vols.). and Histoire de l'empire
d'Allemagne, (1771, 8 vols.) See Ch. Nisard, Les Ennemis de deriving from Greece or Troy, who had kept their civilization Voltaire (1853).' Despois. Journalistes et journaux du XVIIT. intact in the heart of a barbarous country. These sensible siècle, Barthélemy. Les confessions de Fréron; Ch. Monselet. views excited great indignation in the Abbé Vertot, who de
Fréron, ou l'illustre critique (1864). Fréron, sa vie, souvenirs, &c. nounced Fréret to the government as a libeller of the monarchy. (1876) A lettre de cachet was issued, and Fréret was sent to the Bastille.
FRÉRON, LOUIS MARIE STANISLAS (1754-1802), French During his three months of confinement he devoted himself to revolutionist, son of the preceding, was born at Paris on the 17th the study of the works of Xenophon, the fruit of which appeared of August 1754. His name was, on the death of his father, later in his memoir on the Cyropaedia. From the time of his attached to L'Année littéraire, which was continued till 1790 liberation in March 1715 his life was uneventful In January and edited successively by the abbés G. M Royou and I L 1716 he was received associate of the Academy of Inscriptions, Geoffroy. On the outbreak of the revolution Fréron, who was a and in December 1742 he was made perpetual secretary. He I scbooliellow of Robespierre and Camille Desmoulins, established
the violent journal L'Oraleur du peuple. Commissioned, along FRESHWATER, a watering place in the Isle of Wight, with Barras in 1793, to establish the authority of the con England, 12 m. W. by S. of Newport by rail. Pop.(1901) 3306. vention at Marseilles and Toulon, he distinguished himself It is a scattered township lying on the peninsula west of the in the atrocity of his reprisals, but both afterwards joined the river Var, which forms the western extremity of the island. The Thermidoriens, and Fréron became the leader of the jeunesse portion known as Freshwater Gate fronts the English Channel dorée and of the Thermidorian reaction. He brought about the from the strip of low-lying coast interposed between the cliffs accusation of Fouquier-Tinville, and of J. B. Carrier, the deporta- of the peninsula and those of the main part of the island. The tion of B. Barère, and the arrest of the last Montagnards. He peninsula rises to 397 st. in Headon Hill, and the cliffs are made his paper the official journal of the reactionists, and being magnificent. The western promontory is flanked on the north sent by the Directory on a mission of peace to Marseilles he by the picturesque Alum Bay, and the lofty detached rocks published in 1796 Mémoire historique sur la réaction royale et known as the Needles lie oss it. Farringford House in the parish sur les malheurs du midi. He was elected to the council of the was for some time the home of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, who is Five Hundred, but not allowed to take his seat. Failing as commemorated by a tablet in All Saints' church and by a great suitor for the hand of Pauline Bonaparte, one of Napoleon's cross on the high downs above the town. There are golf links sisters, he went in 1799 as commissioner to Santo Domingo and on the downs. died there in 1802. General V. M. Leclerc, who had married FRESNEL, AUGUSTIN JEAN (1788–1827), French physicist, Pauline Bonaparte, also received a command in Santo Domingo the son of an architect, was born at Broglic (Eure) on the roth in 1801, and died in the same year as his former rival.
of May 1788. His early progress in learning was slow, and when FRESCO (Ital. for cool, "fresh ”), a term introduced into eight years old he was still unable to read. At the age of thirteen English, both generally (as in such phrases as al fresco, “ in the he entered the Ecole Centrale in Caen, and at sixteen and a half fresh air"), and more especially as a technical icrm for a sort the Ecole Polytechnique, where he acquitted himself with disof mural painting on plaster. In the latter sense the Italians tinction. Thence he went to the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées. distinguished painting a secco (when the plaster had been allowed He served as an engincer successively in the departments of to dry) from a fresco (when it was newly laid and still wet). The Vendée, Drôme and Ille-et-Villaine; but his espousal of the nature and history of fresco-painting is dealt with in the article cause of the Bourbons in 1814 occasioned, on Napolcon's rePAINTING.
accession to power, the loss of his appointment. On the second FRESCOBALDI, GIROLAMO (1583-1644), Italian musical restoration he obtained a post as engineer in Paris, where much composer, was born in 1583 at Ferrara. Little is known of his of his life from that time was spent. His rescarches in optics, life except that he studied music under Alessandro Milleville, continued until his death, appear to have been begun about the and owed his first reputation to his beautiful voice. He was year 1814, when he prepared a paper on the aberration of light, organist at St Peter's in Rome from 1608 to 1628. According to which, however, was not published. In 1818 he read a memoir Baini no less than 30,000 people flocked to St Peter's on his first on diffraction for which in the ensuing year he received the prize appearance there. On the 20th of November 1628 he went to of the Académie des Sciences at Paris. He was in 1823 unanilive in Florence, becoming organist to the duke. From December mously elected a member of the academy, and in 1825 he 1633 to March 1643 he was again organist at St Peter's. But in became a member of the Royal Society of London, which in 1827, the last year of his life he was organist in the parish church of at the time of his last illness, awarded him the Rumford medal. San Lorenzo in Monte. He died on the 2nd of March 1644, being In 1819 he was nominated a commissioner of lighthouses, for buried at Rome in the Church of the Twelve Apostles. Fresco which he was the first to construct compound lenses as substitutes baldi also excelled as a teacher, Frohberger being the most for mirrors. He died of consumption at Ville-d'Avray, near distinguished of his pupils. Frescobaldi's compositions show Paris, on the 14th of July 1827. the consummate art of the early Italian school, and his works The undulatory theory of light, first founded upon experifor the organ more especially are full of the finest devices of inental demonstration by Thomas Young, was extended to a fugal treatment. He also wrote numerous vocal compositions, large class of optical phenomena, and permanently established such as canzone, motets, hymns, &c., a collection of madrigals by his brilliant discoveries and mathematical deductions. By for five voices (Antwerp, 1608) being among the earliest of his the use of two plane mirrors of metal, forming with each other published works.
an angle of nearly 180°, he avoided the diffraction caused in FRESENIUS, KARL REMIGIUS (1818–1897), German chemist, the experiment of F. M. Grimaldi (1618-1663) on interference was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 28th of December 1818. by the employment of apertures for the transmission of the light, After spending some time in a pharmacy in his native town, he and was thus enabled in the most conclusive manner to account entered Bonn University in 1840, and a year later migrated to for the phenomena of interference in accordance with the Giessen, where he acted as assistant in Liebig's laboratory, and undulatory theory. With D. F. J. Arago he studied the laws in 1843 became assistant professor. 1845 he was appointed of the interferen of polarized rays. Circularly polarized light to the chair of chemistry, physics and technology at the Wies- he obtained by means of a rhomb of glass, known as “ Fresnel's baden Agricultural Institution, and three years later he became rhomb," having obtuse angles of 126°, and acute angles of 54°. the first director of the chemical laboratory which he induced His labours in the cause of optical science received during his the Nassau government to establish at that place. Under his lifetime only scant public recognition, and some of his papers care this laboratory continuously increased in size and popularity, were not printed by the Académie des Sciences till many years a school of pharmacy being added in 1862 (though given up in after his decease. But, as he wrote to Young in 1824, in him 1877) and an agricultural research laboratory in 1868. Apart “that sensibility, or that vanity, which people call love of glory” from his administrative duties Fresenius occupied himself almost had been blunted. “All the compliments,” he says, “that I have exclusively with analytical chemistry, and the fullness and received from Arago, Laplace and Biot never gave me so much accuracy of his text-books on that subject (of which that on pleasure as the discovery of a theoretic truth, or the confirmation qualitative analysis first appeared in 1841 and that on quantita- of a calculation by experiment.” tive in 1846) soon rendered them standard works. Many of his See Duleau, “Notice sur Fresnel," Revue ency. t. xxxix.; original papers were published in the Zeitschrift für analytische Arago, (Eurres complètes, t. i.; and Dr G. Peacock, Miscellaneous Chemie, which he founded in 1862 and continued to edit till his
Works of Thomas Young, vol. i. death. He died suddenly at Wiesbaden on the rth of June FRESNILLO, a town of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico, 37 m. 1897. In 1881 he handed over the directorship of the agricultural | N.W. of the city of Zacatecas on a branch of the Santiago river. research station to his son, Remigius Heinrich Fresenius (b. Pop. (1900) 6309. It stands on a fertile plain between the Santa 1847), who was trained under H. Kolbe at Leipzig. Another son, Cruz and Zacatecas ranges, about 7700 st. above sea-level, has Theodor Wilhelm Fresenius (b. 1856), was educated at Strassburg a temperate climate, and is surrounded by an agricultural and occupied various positions in the Wiesbaden laboratory. district producing Indian corn and wheat. It is a clean, well.
built town, whose chief distinction is its school of mines founded | action of chemicals, water, &c., and hence, figuratively, to chase in 1853. Fresnillo has large amalgam works for the reduction or irritate. Possibly connected with this word, in sense of rubbing, of silver ores. Its silver mines, located in the neighbouring is the use of “fret " for a bar on the fingerboard of a banjo, Proaño hill, were discovered in 1569, and were for a time among guitar, or similar musical instruments to mark the fingering. the most productive in Mexico. Since 1833, when their richest (2) (Of doubtful origin; possibly from the O. Eng. frative, ornadeposits were reached, the output has greatly decreased. There ments, but its use is paralleled by the Fr. sretle, trellis or lattice), is a station near on the Mexican Central railway.
network, a term used in heraldry for an interlaced figure, but FRESNO, a city and the county-seat of Fresno county, Cali- best known as applied to the decoration used by the Greeks fornia, U.S.A., situated in the San Joaquin valley (altitude in their temples and vases: the Greek fret consists of a series about 300 ft.) near the geographical centre of the state. Pop. of narrow bands of different lengths, placed at right angles to (1880) 1112; (1890) 10,818; (1900) 12,470, of whom 3299 were one another, and of great variety of design. It is an ornament foreign-born and 1279 were Asiatics; (1910 census) 24,892. which owes its origin to woven fabrics, and is found on the The city is served by the Southern Pacific and the Atchison, ceilings of the Egyptian tombs at Benihasan, Siout and elsewhere. Topeka & Santa Fé railways. The county is mainly a vast In Greek work it was painted on the abacus of the Doric capital expanse of naturally arid plains and mountains. The valley and probably on the architraves of their temples; when employed the scene of an extensive irrigation system, water being brought by the Romans it was generally carved; the Propylaea of the (first in 1872-1876) from King's river, 20 m. distant; in 1905 temple at Damascus and the temple at Atil being examples of 500 sq. m. were irrigated. Fresno is in a rich farming country, the 2nd century. It was carved in large dimensions on some producing grains and fruit, and is the only place in America of the Mexican temples, as for instance on the palace at Mitla where Smyrna figs have been grown with success; it is the centre with other decorative bands, all of which would seem to have of the finest raisin country of the state, and has extensive vine- been reproductions of woven patterns, and had therefore an yards and wine-making establishments. The city's principal independent origin. It is found in China and Japan, and in the manufacture is preserved (dried) fruits, particularly raisins; latter country when painted on lacquer is employed as a fret. the value of the fruits thus preserved in 1905 was $6,942,440, diaper, the bands not being at right angles to one another but being 70-5% of the total value of the factory product in that year forming acute and obtuse angles. In old English writers a wider (39,849,001). In 1900-1905 the factory product increased signification was given to it, as it was applied to raised patterns 257-9%, a ratio of increase greater than that of any other city in plaster on roofs or ceilings, which were not confined to the in the state. In the mountains, lumbering and mining are geometrical fret but extended to the modelling of flowers, important industries; lumber is carried from Shaver in the leaves and fruit; in such cases the decoration was known as mountains to Clovis on the plains by a V-shaped flume 42 m. fret-work. In France the fret is better known as the“ meander." long, the waste water from which is ditched for irrigation. The FREUDENSTADT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of petroleum field of the county is one of the richest in California. Württemberg, on the right bank of the Murg, 40 m. S.W. írom Fresno is the business and shipping centre of its county and of the Stuttgart, on the railway to Hochdorf. Pop. 7000.
It has a surrounding region. The county was organized in 1856. In Protestant and a Roman Catholic church, some small manu1872 the railway went through, and Fresno was laid out and factures of cloth, furniture, knives, nails and glass, and is incorporated. It became the county-seat in 1874 and was frcquented as a climatic health resort. It was founded in 1599 chartered as a city in 1885.
by Protestant refugees from Salzburg. FRESNOY, CHARLES ALPHONSE DU (1611-1665), French FREUND, WILHELM (1806–1894), German philologist and painter and writer on his art, was born in Paris, son of an apothe- lexicographer, was born at Kempen in the grand duchy of Posen cary. He was destined for the medical profession, and well on the 27th of January 1806. He studied at Berlin, Breslau and educated in Latin and Greek; but, having a natural propensity Halle, and was for twenty years chiefly engaged in private for the fine arts, he would not apply to his intended vocation, tuition. From 1855-1870 he was director of the Jewish school and was allowed to learn the rudiments of design under Perrier at Gleiwitz in Silesia, and subsequently retired to Breslau, where and Vouet. At the age of twenty-one he went ofi to Rome, with he died on the 4th of June 1894. Although chiefly known no resources; he drew ruins and architectural subjects. After for his philological labours, Freund took an important part in two years thus spent he re-encountered his old fellow-student the movement for the emancipation of his Prussian coreligionists, Pierre Mignard, and by his aid obtained some amelioration of his and the Judengesetz of 1847 was in great measure the result professional prospects. He studied Raphael and the antique, of his efforts. The work by which he is best known is his Wörterwent in 1633 to Venice, and in 1656 returned to France. During buch der lateinischen Sprache (1834-1845), practically the basis two years he was now employed in painting altar-pieces in the oí all Latin-English dictionaries. His Wie studiert man klassische château of Raincy, landscapes, &c. His death was caused by Philologie? (6th ed., 1903) and Triennium philologicum (2nd ed., an attack of apoplexy followed by palsy; he expired at Villiers 1878-1885) are valuable aids to the classical student. le Bel, near Paris. He never married. His pictorial works are , FREWEN, ACCEPTED (1588-1664), archbishop of York, was few; they are correct in drawing, with something of the Caracci born at Northiam, in Sussex, and educated at Magdalen College, in design, and of Titian in colouring, but wanting fire and ex- Oxford, where in 1612 he became a fellow. In 1617 and 1621 pression, and insufficient to keep his name in any eminent repute. the college allowed him to act as chaplain to Sir John Digby, He is remembered now almost entirely as a writer rather than ambassador in Spain. At Madrid he preached a sermon which painter. His Latin poem, De arte graphica, was written during pleased Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I., and the latter on his Italian sojourn, and embodied his observations on the art his accession appointed Frewen one of his chaplains. In 1625 of painting; it may be termed a critical treatise on the practice he became canon of Canterbury and vice-president of Magdalen of the art, with general advice to students. The precepts are College, and in the following year he was elected president. sound according to the standard of his time; the poetical He was vice-chancellor of the university in 1628 and 1629, merits slender enough. The Latin style is formed chiefly on and again in 1638 and 1639. It was mainly by his instrument. Lucretius and Horace. This poem was first published by ality that the university plate was sent to the king at York in Mignard, and has been translated into several languages. In 1642. Two years later he was consecrated bishop of Lichfield 1684 it was turned into French by Roger de Pilcs; Dryden and Coventry, and resigned his presidentship. Parliament translated the work into English prose; and a rendering into declared his estates forfeited for treason in 1652, and Cromwell verse by Mason followed, to which Sir Joshua Reynolds added afterwards set a price on his head. The proclamations, however, some annotations.
designated him Stephen Frewen, and he was consequently able PRET. (1) (From O. Eng. fretan, a word common in various to escape into France. At the Restoration he reappeared in forms to Teutonic languages; cf. Ger. fressen, to eat greedily), public, and in 1660 he was consecrated archbishop of York. In properly to devour, hence to gnaw, so used of the slow corroding' 1661 he acted as chairman of the Savoy conference.
PREY (Old Norse, Freyr) son of Njord, one of the chief deities to construct new ministries he stood for the presidency of the in the northern pantheon and the national god of the Swedes. republic; but the radicals, to whom his opportunism was He is the god of fruitfulness, the giver of sunshine and rain, and distasteful, turned the scale against him by transferring the thus the source of all prosperity. (Sce TEUTONIC PEOPLES, votes to M. Sadi Carnot. ad fin.)
In April 1888 he became minister of war in the Floquet cabinet FREYBURG (FREYBURG AN DER UNSTRUT), a town of the first civilian since 1848 to hold that office. His services Germany, in Prussian Saxony, in an undulating vine-clad to France in this capacity were the crowning achievement of his country on the Unstrut, 6 m. N. from Naumberg-on-the-Saale, life, and he enjoyed the conspicuous honour of holding his office on the railway to Artern. Pop. 3200. It has a parish church, without a break for five years through as many successive a mixture of Gothic and Romanesque architecture, with a administrations--those of Floquet and Tirard, his own fourth handsome tower. It is, wever, as being the “Mecca" of the ministry (March 1890-February 1892), and the Loubet and German gymnastic societies that Freyburg is best known. Here Ribot ministries. To him were due the introduction of the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852), the father of German three-years' service and the establishment of a general staff, gymnastic exercises, lies buried. Over his grave is built the a supreme council of war, and the army commands. His premierTurnhalle, with a statue of the “master," while hard by it the ship was marked by heated debates on the clerical question, and Jahn Museum in Romanesque style, erected in 1903. Freyburg it was a hostile vote on his Bill against the religious associations produces sparkling wine of good quality and has some other that caused the fall of his cabinet. He failed to clear himself small manufactures. On a hill commanding the town is the entirely of complicity in the Panama scandals, and in January castle of Ncuenburg, built originally in 1062 by Louis the Leaper, 1893 resigned the ministry of war. In November 1898 he once count in Thuringia, but in its present form mainly the work of more became minister of war in the Dupuy cabinet, but resigned the dukes of Saxe-Weissenfels.
ofñce on 6th May 1899. He has published, besides the works FREYCINET, CHARLES LOUIS DE SAULCES DE (1828– ), already mentioned, Traile de mécanique ralionnelle (1858); De French statesman, was born at Foix on the 14th of November l'analyse infinitésimale (1860, revised ed., 1881); Des, penics
He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, and entered économiques en chemin de fer (1861); Emploi des eaux d'égout en the government service as a mining engincer. In 1858 he was agriculture (1869); Principes de l'assainissement des villes and appointed traffic manager to the Compagnie de chemins de fer Traité d'assainissement industriel (1870); Essai sur la philosophie du Midi, a post in which he gave proof of his remarkable talent des sciences (1896); La Question d'Égypte (1905); besides some for organization, and in 1862 returned to the engineering service remarkable “ Pensées” contributed to the Contemporain under (in which he attained in 1886 the rank of inspector-general). the pseudonym of “ Alceste.” In 1882 he was elected a member He was sent on a number of special scientific missions, among of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1890 to the French Academy which may be mentioned one to England, on which he wrote in succession to Emile Augier. a notable Mémoire sur le travail des femmes et des enfants dans les FREYCINET, LOUIS CLAUDE DESAULSES DE (1779-1842), manufactures de l'Angleterre (1867). On the establishment of French navigator, was born at Montélimart, Drôme, on the 7th the Third Republic in September 1870, he offered his services of August 1779. In 1793 he entered the French navy. After to Gambetta, was appointed prefect of the department of Tarn-et-taking part in several engagements against the British, he joined Garronne, and in October became chief of the military cabinet. in 1800, along with his brother Louis Henri Freycinet (1777It was mainly his powers of organization that enabled Gambetta 1840), who afterwards rose to the rank of admiral, the expedition to raise army after army to oppose the invading Germans. He sent out under Captain Baudin in the “Naturaliste” and showed' himself a strategist of no mean order; but the policy Géographe” to explore the south and south-west coasts of of dictating operations to the generals in the field was not | Australia. Much of the ground already gone over by Flinders attended with happy results. The friction between him and was revisited, and new names imposed by this expedition, which General d'Aurelle de Paladines resulted in the loss of the ad- claimed credit for discoveries really made by the English navivantage temporarily gained at Orleans, and he was responsible gator. An inlet on the coast of West Australia, in 26° S., is for the campaign in the east, which ended in the destruction of called Freycinet Estuary; and a cape near the extreme southBourbaki's army. In 1871 he published a defence of his admini- west of the same coast also bears the explorer's name. stration under the title of La Guerre en province pendant le siège de he returned to Paris, and was entrusted by the government Paris. He entered the Senate in 1876 as a follower of Gambetta, with the work of preparing the maps and plans of the expedition; and in December 1877 became minister of public works in the he also completed the narrative, and the whole work appeared Dufaure cabinet. He carried a great scheme for the gradual under the title of Voyage de découvertes aux terres australes acquisition of the railways by the state and the construction of (Paris, 1807-1816). In 1817 he commanded the “Uranie," new lines at a cost of three milliards, and for the development in which Arago and others went to Rio de Janeiro, to take a series of the canal system at a further cost of one milliard. He retained of pendulum measurements. This was only part of a larger his post in the ministry of Waddington, whom he succeeded in scheme for obtaining observations, not only in geography and December 1879 as president of the council and minister for ethnology, but in astronomy, terrestrial magnetism, and meteorforeign affairs. He passed an amnesty for the Communists, ology, and for the collection of specimens in natural history. but in attempting to steer a middle course on the question of the On this expedition the hydrographic operations were conducted religious associations, lost the support of Gambetta, and resigned by Louis Isidore Duperry (1786–1865) who in 1822 was appointed in September 1880. In January 1882 he again became president to the command of the “Coquille," and during the next three of the council and minister for foreign afíairs. His refusal to years carried out scientific explorations in the southern Pacific join England in the bombardment of Alexandria was the death- and along the coast of South America. For three years knell of French influence in Egypt. He attempted to com- Freycinet cruised about, visiting Australia, the Marianne, promise by occupying the Isthmus of Suez, but the vote of credit Sandwich, and other Pacific islands, South America, and other was rejected in the Chamber by 417 votes to 75, and the ministry places, and, not withstanding the loss of the “ Uranie" on the resigned. He returned to office in April 1885 as foreign minister Falkland Islands during the return voyage, returned to France in the Brisson cabinet, and retained that post when, in January | with fine collections in all departments of natural history, and 1886, he succeeded to the premiership. He came into power with voluminous notes and drawings which form an important with an ambitious programme of internal reform; but except contribution to a knowledge of the countries visited. The that he settled the question of the exiled pretenders, his successes results of this voyage were published under Freycinet's superwere won chiefly in the sphere of colonial extension. In spile of vision, with the title of Voyage aulour du monde sur les corvelles his unrivalled skill as a parliamentary tactician, he failed 10“l'Uranie" et "la Physicienne” in 1824-1844, in 13 quarto keep his party together, and was defeated on 3rd December volumes and 4 folio volumes of fine plates and maps. Freycinet 1886. In the following year, after two unsuccessful attempts I was admitted into the Academy of Scienceslin 1825, and was one
of the founders of the Paris Geographical Society. He died at the history and manners of Germany. In 1872 he began a Freycinet, Drôme, on the 18th of August 1842.
work with a similar patriotic purpose, Die Ahnen, a series of FREYIA, the sister of Frey, and the most prominent goddess in historical romances in which he unfolds the history of a German Northern mythology. Her character seems, in general to have family from the earliest times to the middle of the 19th century. resembled that of her brother. (See TEUTONIC PEOPLES, ad fin.) The series comprises the following novels, none of which, however,
FREYTAG, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH (1788–1861), reaches the level of Freytag's earlier books. (1) Ingo und IngroGerman philologist, was born at Lüneburg on the 19th of ban (1872), (2) Das Nest der Zaunkönige (1874), (3) Die Brüder September 1788. After attending school he entered the univer- vom deutschen Hause (1875), (4) Marcus König (1876), (5) Die sity of Göttingen as a student of philology and theology; here Geschwister (1878), and (6) in conclusion, Aus einer kleinen Stadt from 1811 to 1813 he acted as a theological tutor, but in the latter (1880). Among Freytag's other works may be noticed Die year accepted an appointment as sub-librarian at Königsberg. | Technik des Dramas (1863); an excellent biography of the Baden in 1815 he became a chaplain in the Prussian army, and in that statesman Karl Mathy (1869); an autobiography (Erinnerungen capacity visited Paris. On the proclamation of peace he resigned aus meinen Leben, 1887); his Gesammele Aufsätze, chiefly his chaplaincy, and returned to his researches in Arabic, Persian reprinted from the Grenzbolen (1888); Der Kronprinz und die and Turkish, studying at Paris under De Sacy. In 1819 he was deutsche Kaiserkrone; Erinnerungsbläller (1889). He died at appointed to the professorship of oriental languages in the new Wiesbaden on the 30th of April 1895. university of Bonn, and this post he continued to hold until his Freytag's Gesammelte Werke were published in 22 vols. at Leipzig death on the 16th of November 1861.
(1886-1888); his Vermischte Aufsätze have been edited by E. Elster, Besides a compendium of Hebrew grammar (Kurzgefasste Gram
2 vols. (Leipzig, 1901-1903). On Freytag's lisc see, besides his matik der hebraischen Sprache, 1835). and a treatise on Arabic autobiography mentioned above, the lives by C. Alberti (Leipzig, versification (Darstellung der arabischen Verskunst, 1830), he edited 1890) and F. Sciler (Leipzig, 1898). two volumes of Arabic songs (Hamasce carmina, 1828-1852) and FRIAR (from the Lat. frater, through the Fr. frère), the three of Arabic proverbs (Arabum proverbia, 1838-184,3). But his English generic name for members of the mendicant religious principal work was the laborious and praiseworthy Lexicon Arabicolatinum (Halle, 1830-1837), an abridgment of which was published of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this
orders. Formerly it was the title given to individual members
is not now common. In England the chief orders of friars were FREYTAG, GUSTAV (1816-1895), German novelist, was born distinguished by the colour of their habit: thus the Franciscans at Kreuzburg, in Silesia, on the 13th of July 1816. After attend
or Minors were the Grey Friars; the Dominicans or Preachers ing the gymnasium at Ols, he studied philology at the universities
were the Black Friars (from their black mantle over a white of Breslau and Berlin, and in 1838 took the degree with a remark- habit), and the Carmelites were the White Friars (from their able dissertation, De initiis poëseos scenicae apud Germanos. white mantle over a brown habit): these, tegether with the In 1839 he settled at Breslau, as Privaldocent in German Austin Friars or Hermits, formed the four great mendicant language and literature, but devoted his principal attention to orders-Chaucer's “alle the ordres foure." Besides the four writing for the stage, and achieved considerable success with
great orders of friars, the Trinitarians (q.v.), though really the comedy Die Brautfahrt, oder Kunz von der Rosen (1844). canons, were in England called Trinity Friars or Red Friars; the This was followed by a volume of unimportant poems, In Crutched or Crossed Friars were often identified with them, but Breslau (1845) and the dramas Die Valentine (1846) and Graf were really a distinct order; there were also a number of lesser Waldemar (1847). He at last attained a prominent position orders of friars, many of which were suppressed by the second by his comedy, Die Journalisten (1853), one of the best German council of Lyons in 1274. Detailed information on these orders comedies of the 19th century. In 1847 he migrated to Berlin, and on their position in England is given in separate articles. and in the following year took over, in conjunction with The difference between friars and monks is explained in article Julian Schmidt, the editorship of Die Grenzboten,' a weekly MONASTICISM. Though the usage is not accurate, friars, and also journal which, founded in 1841, now became the leading organ of
canons regular, are often spoken of as monks and included among German and Austrian liberalism. Freytag helped to conduct it
the monastic orders. until 1861, and again from 1867 till 1870, when for a short time
See Fr. Cuthbert. The Friars and how they came lo England, he edited a new periodical, Im neuen Reich. His literary fame pp. 11-32 (1903); also F. A. Gasquet, English Monastic Life, pp. 234was made universal by the publication in 1855 of his novel, 249 (1904), where special information on all the English friars is Soll und Haben, which was translated into almost all the languages coveniently brought together
(E. C. B.) of Europe. It was certainly the best German novel of its day, FRIBOURG (Ger. Freiburg), one of the Swiss Cantons, in impressive by its sturdy but unexaggerated realism, and in many the western portion of the country, and taking its name from parts highly humorous. Its main purpose is the recommendation the town around which the various districts that compose it of the German middle class as the soundest element in the nation, gradually gathered. Its area is 646-3 sq. m., of which 568 sq. m. but it also has a more directly patriotic intention in the contrast are classed as " productive' " (forests covering 119 sq. m. and which it draws between the homely virtues of the Teuton and the vineyards .8 sq. m.); it boasts of no glaciers or eternal snow. shiftlessness of the Pole and the rapacity of the Jew. As a It is a hilly, not mountainous, region, the highest summits (of Silesian, Freytag had no great love for his Slavonic neighbours, which the Vanil Noir, 7858 st., is the lostiest) rising in the Gruyère and being a native of a province which owed everything to district at its south-eastern extremity, the best known being Prussia, he was naturally an earnest champion of Prussian probably the Moléson (6582 ft.) and the Berra (5653 ft.). But hegemony over Germany. His powerful advocacy of this idea it is the heart of pastoral Switzerland, is famed for its cheese and in his Grenzbolen gained him the friendship of the duke of Saxe- cattle, and is the original home of the “ Ranz des Vaches,” the Coburg-Gotha, whose neighbour he had become, on acquiring the melody by which the herdsmen call their cattle home at milking estate of Siebleben near Gotha. At the duke's request Freytag time. It is watered by the Sarine or Saane river (with its tribuwas attached to the staff of the crown prince of Prussia in the taries the Singine or Sense and the Glâne) that flows through the campaign of 1870, and was present at the battles of Wörth and canton from north to south, and traverses its capital town. Sedan. Before this he had published another novel, Die verlorene The upper course of the Broye (like the Sarine, a tributary of Handschrift (1864), in which he endeavoured to do for German the Aar) and that of the Veveyse (flowing to the Lake of Geneva) university life what in Soll send Haben he had done for commercial are in the southern portion of the canton. A small share of the life. The hero is a young German prosessor, who is so wrapt up lakes of Neuchâtel and of Morat belongs to the canton, wherein in his search for a manuscript by Tacitus that he is oblivious the largest sheet of water is the Lac Noir or Schwarzsce. A to an impending tragedy in his domestic life. The book was, sulphur spring rises near the last-named lake, and there are other however, less successful than its predecessor. Between 1859 and such springs in the canton at Montbarry and at Bonn, near the 1867 Freytag published in five volumes Bilder aus der deutschen capital. There are about 150 m. of railways in the canton, the Vergangenheit, a most valuable work on popular lines, illustrating I main line from Lausanne to Bern past Fribourg running through