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The railway employés support one-twentieth of the entire popula- , to the religious life of the time, and to thousands it came as a new tion, and most of their associations maintain organizations to provide revelation. There is evidence to show that the arrangement their members with relief and insurance. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, the Order of Railway Conductors of America, for this “publishing of Truth” rested mainly with Fox, and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemnen, the Brotherhood of that the expenses of it and of the foreign missions were borne Railway Trainmen, the Brotherhood of Railway Trackmen, the Switchmen's Union, the Brotherhood of Railway Carmen, and the

out of a common fund. Margaret Fell (1614-1702), wife of Order of Railway Telegraphers, all have relief and benefit features.

Thomas Fell (1598-1658), vice-chancellor of the duchy of LanThe oldest and largest of these is the International Brotherhood of caster, and afterwards of George Fox, opened her house, SwarthLocomotive Engineers, founded at Detroit in August 1863. Like more Hall near Ulverston, to these preachers and probably other labour organizations of the higher class of workmen, the contributed largely to this fund. objects of the brotherhoods of railway employés are partly social and partly educational, but in addition to these great purposes they made it impossible for Friends to countenance the setting apart

Their insistence on the personal aspect of religious experience seek to protect their members through relief and benefit features. Of course the relief departments of the railway companies are of any man or building for the purpose of divine worship to competitors of the relief and insurance features of the railway the exclusion of all others. The operation of the Spirit was in employés orders, but both methods of providing assistance have proved successful and beneficial.

no way limited to time, or individual or place. The great stress For a history of the various American organizations, sec Albert C. which they laid upon this aspect of Christian truth caused them Stevens, The Cyclopaedia of Fraternities (New York, 1899); Fads to be charged with unbelief in the current orthodox views as for Fraternalists, published by the Fraternal Monitor, Rochester, to the inspiration of the Scriptures, and the person and work of N.Y.; for annual statements, The World Almanac,

" “ Railway Christ, a charge which they always denied. Contrary to the Relief Departments," “ Brotherhood Relief and Insurance of Railway Employés," Mutual Relief and Benefit Associations Puritan teaching of the time, they insisted on the possibility, in the Printing Trade," “ Benefit Features of American Trade in this life, of complete victory over sin. Robert Barclay, writing Unions," Bulletins Nos. 8, 17, 19 and 22 of the U.S. Department some twenty years later, admits of degrees of perfection, and the of Labour.

(C. D. W.) possibility of a fall from it (Apology, Prop. viii.). Such teaching FRIENDS, SOCIETY OF, the name adopted by a body of necessarily brought Fox and his friends into conflict with all Christians, who, in law and general usage, are commonly called the religious bodies of England, and they were continually QUAKERS. Though small in number, the Society occupies a engaged in strise with the Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, position of singular interest. To the student of ecclesiastical Episcopalians and the wilder sectaries, such as the Ranters and history it is remarkable as exhibiting a form of Christianity the Muggletonians. The strife was often conducted on both sides widely divergent from the prevalent types, being a religious with a zeal and bitterness of language which were characterfellowship which has no formulated creed demanding definiteistic of the period. Although there was little or no stress laid subscription, and no liturgy, priesthood or outward sacrament, on either the joys or the terrors of a future life, the movement and which gives to women an equal place with men in church was not infrequently accompanied by most of those physical organization. The student of English constitutional history symptoms which usually go with vehement appeals to the will observe the success with which Friends have, by the mere conscience and emotions of a rude multitude. It was owing to force of passive resistance, obtained, from the legislature and the these physical manifestations that the name Quaker" was courts, indulgence for all their scruples and a legal recognition either first given or was regarded as appropriate when given for of their customs. In American history they occupy an another reason (see Fox's Journal concerning Justice Bennet at important place because of the very prominent part which Derby in 1650 and Barclay's Apology, Prop. 11, $ 8). The early they played in the colonization of New Jersey and Penn- Friends definitely asserted that those who did not know quaking sylvania.

and trembling were strangers to the experience of Moses, David The history of Quakerism in England may be divided into and other saints. three periods:-(1) from the first preaching of George Fox in Some of the earliest adherents indulged in extravagances of 1647 to the Toleration Act 1689; (2) from 1689 to the evangelical no measured kind. Some of them imitated the Hebrew prophets movement in 1835; (3) from 1835 to the present time.

in the performance of symbolic acts of denunciation, foretelling 1. Period 1647-1689.-George Fox (1624-1691), the son of a or warning, going barefoot, or in sackcloth or undress, and, in a weaver of Drayton-in-the-Clay (now called Fenny Drayton) in few cases, for brief periods, altogether naked; even women in

Leicestershire, was the founder of the Society. He some cases distinguished themselves by extravagance of conduct. George

began his public ministry in 1647, but there is no The case of James Nayler (16177-1660), who, in spite of Fox's

evidence to show that he set out to form a separate grave warning, allowed Messianic homage to be paid to him, is the religious body. Impressed by the fofmalism and deadness of best known of these instances; they are to be explained partly contemporary Christianity (of which there is much evidence by mental disturbance, resulting from the undue prominence of in the confessions of the Puritan writers themselves) he empha- a single idea, and partly by the general religious excitement of sized the importance of repentance and personal striving after the time and the rudeness of manners prevailing in the classes of the truth. When, however, his preaching attracted followers, society from which many of these individuals came. It must be a community began to be formed, and traces of organization remembered that at this time, and for long after, there was no and discipline may be noted in very early times. In 1652 a definite or formal membership or system of admission to the number of people in Westmorland and north Lancashire who society, and it was open to any one by attending the mectings had separated from the common national worship, came under to gain the reputation of being a Quaker. the influence of Fox, and it was this community (if it can be so The activity of the early Friends was not confined to England called) at Preston Patrick which formed the nucleus of the or even to the British Isles. Fox and others travelled in America Quaker church. For two years the movement spread rapidly and the West India Islands; another reached Jerusalem and throughout the north of England, and in 1654 more than sixty preached against the superstition of the monks; Mary Fisher ministers went to Norwich, London, Bristol, the Midlands, (f. 1652–1697), “a religious maiden,” visited Smyrna, the Wales and other parts. Fox and his fellow-preachers spoke Morea and the court of Mahommcd IV. at Adrianople; Alexwhenever opportunity offered, -sometimes in churches(declining, ander Parker (1628–1689) went to Africa; others made their for the most part, to occupy the pulpit), sometimes in barns, way to Rome; two women were imprisoned by the Inquisition sometimes at market crosses. The insistence on an inward at Malta; (wo men passed into Austria and Hungary; and spiritual experience was the great contribution made by Friends William Penn, George Fox and several others preached in

Holland and Germany. 1 At the time referred to, and during the Commonwealth, the pulpits of the cathedrals and churches were occupied by Episcopalians itself with an organization. The beginning of this appears to be

It was only gradually that the Quaker community clothed Baptists. It is these, and not the clergy of the Church of England, duc to William Dewsbury (1621–1688) and George Fox; it was who are continually referred to by George Fox as

not until 1666 that a complete system of church organization


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was established. The introduction of an ordered system and suspected of Roman Catholicism would be required to take an discipline was, naturally, viewed witb some suspicion by people oath abjuring the papal authority and transubstantiation. The taught to believe that the inward light of each individual man Quakers, accused as they were of being Jesuits, and refusing to was the only true guide for his conduct. The project met with take the oath, suffered under this proclamation and under the determined opposition for about twenty years (1675-1695) more stringent act of 1656. A considerable number were flogged from persons of considerable repute in the body. John Wilkinson under the Vagrancy Acts (39 Eliz. c. 4; 7 Jac. I. c. 4), which were and John Story of Westmorland, together with William Rogers strained to cover the case of itinerant Quaker preachers. They of Bristol, raised a party against Fox concerning the management also came under the provisions of the acts of 1644, 1650 and 1656 of the affairs of the society, regarding with suspicion any fixed directed against travelling on the Lord's day. The interruption arrangement for meetings for conducting church business, and of preachers when celebrating divine service rendered the ofiender in fact hardly finding a place for such meetings at all. They liable to three months' imprisonment under a statute of the first stood for the principle of Independency against the Presbyterian year of Mary, but Friends generally waited to speak till the form of church government which Fox had recently established service was over.' The Lord's Day Act 1656 also enacted in the “Monthly Meetings ” (sce below). They opposed all penalties against any one disturbing the service, but apart from arrangement for the orderly distribution of travelling ministers statute many Friends were imprisoned for open contempt of to different localities, and even for the payment of their expenses ministers and magistrates. At the Restoration 700 Friends, (see above); they also strongly objected to any disciplinary | imprisoned for contempt and some minor offences, were set at power being entrusted to the women's separate meetings for liberty. After the Restoration there began a persecution of business, which had become of considerable importance after Friends and other Nonconformists as such, notwithstanding the the Plague (1665) and the Fire of London (1666) in consequence king's Declaration of Breda which had proclaimed liberty for of the need for poor relief. They also claimed the right to meet tender consciences as long as no disturbance of the peace was secretly for worship in time of persecution (see below). They caused. Among the most common causes of imprisonment was drew a considerable following away with them and set up a the practice adopted by judges and magistrates of icndering to rival organization, but before long a number returned to their Friends (particularly when no other charge could be proved original leader. William Rogers set forth his views in The against them) the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance (5 Eliz. Christian Quaker, 1680; the story of the dissension is told, 10 c. 1 & 7 Jac. I. c. 6). The refusal in any circumstance to take some extent, in The Inner Life of the Religious Socielies of the an oath led to much suffering. The Act 3 Jac. I. c. 4, passed Commonwealth, by R. Barclay (not the “ Apologist "); the best in consequence of the Gunpowder Plot, against Roman Caiholics account is given in a pamphlet entitled Micah's Mother by John for not attending church, was put in force against Friends, and S. Rowntree.

under it enormous fines were levied. The Quaker Act 1662 Robert Barclay (9.0.), a descendant of an ancient Scottish and the Conventicle Acts of 1664 and 1670, designed to enforce family, who had received a liberal education, principally in Paris, attendance at church, and inflicting severe penalties on those at the Scots College, of which his uncle was rector, joined the attending other religious gatherings, were responsible for the Quakers about 1666, and William Penn (9.2.) came to them about most severe persecution of all. The act of 1670 gave to informers two years later. The Quakers had always been active contro- a pecuniary interest (they were to have one-third of the fine versialists, and a great body of tracts and papers was issued by imposed) in hunting down Nonconformists who broke the law, them; but hitherto these had been of small account from a and this and other statutes were unduly strained to secure conliterary point of view. Now, however, a more logical and victions. A somewhat similar act of 35 Eliz. C. I., enacting even scholarly aspect was given to their literature by the writings of more severe penalties, had never been repealed, and was someBarclay, especially his A pology for the True Christian Divinity times put in force against Friends. The Militia Act 1663 (14 Car. published in Latin (1676) and in English (1678), and by the II. c. 3), enacting fines against those who refused to find a man for works of Penn, amongst which No Cross No Crown and the the militia, was occasionally put in force. The refusal to pay Marims or Fruils of Solitude are the best known.

tithes and other ecclesiastical demands led to continuous and During the whole time between their rise and the passing of heavy distraints, under the various laws made in that behalf. the Toleration Act 1689, the Quakers were the object of almost This state of things continucd to some extent into the 19th

continuous persecution which they endured with century. For further information see “ The Penal Laws afiect-
extraordinary constancy and patience; they insisted | ing Early Friends in England” (from which the foregoing sum-

on the duty of meeting openly in time of persecu- mary is taken) by Wm. Chas. Braithwaite in The First Publishers Lion, declining to hold secret assemblies for worship as other of Truth. On the 15th of March 1672 Charles II. issued his Nonconformists were doing. The number who died in prison declaration suspending the penal laws in ecclesiastical matters, approached 400, and at least 100 more perished from violence and shortly afterwards, by pardon under the great seal, he and ill-usage. A petition to the first parliament of Charles II. released nearly 500 Quakers from prison, remitted their fines and stated that 3179 had been imprisoned; the number rose to 4500 released such of their estates as were forscited by pracmunire. in 1662, the Fifth Monarchy outbreak, in which Friends were

It is of interest to note that, although John Bunyan was bitterly in no way concerned, being largely responsible for this increase. opposed to Quakers, his friends, on hearing of the petition There is no evidence to show that they were in any way con- contemplated by them, requested them to insert his name on the nected with any of the plots of the Commonwealth or Restoration list, and in this way he gained his freedom. The dissatisfaction periods. A petition to James II. in 1685 stated that 1460 were which this exercise of the royal prerogative aroused induced the ihen in prison. Under the Quaker Act of 1662 and the Con- king, in the following year, to withdraw his proclamation, and, venticle Act of 1664 a number were transported out of England, not withstanding appeals io him, the persecution continued and under the last-named act and that of 1670 (the second intermittently throughout his reign. On the accession of James Conventicle Act) hundreds of households were despoiled of all II. the Quakers addressed him (see above) with some hope on their goods. The penal laws under which Friends suffered may account of his known friendship for William Penn, and the king be divided chronologically into those of the Commonwealth and

not long afterwards directed a stay of proceedings in all matters the Restoration periods. Under the former there were a few pending in the exchequer against Quakers on the ground of noncharges of plotting against the government. Several imprison attendance at the national worship. In 1687 came his declaration ments, including that of George Fox at Derby in 1650-1651, were for liberty of conscience, and, after the Revolution of 1688, the brought about under the Blasphemy Act of 1050, which inflicted Toleration Act 1689 put an end to the persecution of Quakers penalties on any one who asserted himself to be very God or equal (along with other Dissenters) for non-attendance at church. with God, a charge to which the Friends were peculiarly liable

1 On the whole subject of preaching "after the pricst had done." owing to their doctrine of perfection. After a royalist insurrec

see Barclay's Inner Life of lkc Religious Socielies of the Common. tion in 1655, a proclamation was issued announcing that persons I wealth, ch. xii.

Persecue tion.


Period of

For many years after this they were liable to imprisonment for of Friends (Beaconites as they are sometimes called) departed non-payment of tithes, and, together with other Dissenters, from the parent stock. They left behind them, however, many they remained under various civil disabilities, the gradual removal influential members, who may be described as a middle party, of which is part of the general history of England. In the years and who strove to give a more “evangelical ” tone to Quaker succeeding the Toleration Act at least twelve of their number doctrine. Joseph John Gurney of Norwich, a brother of Elizawere prosecuted (often more than once in the spiritual and other beth Fry, by means of his high social position and his various courts) for keeping school without a bishop's licence. It is writings (some published before 1835), was the most prominent coming to be recognized that the growth of religious toleration actor in this movement. Those who quitted the Society mainowed much to the early Quakers who, with the exception of a tained, for some little time, a separate organization of their íew Baptists at the first, stood almost alone among Dissenters in own, but sooner or later most of them joined the Evangelical holding their public meetings openly and regularly.

Church or the Plymouth Brethren. The Toleration Act was not the only law of William and Mary Other causes have been at work modifying the Quaker society. which benefited Quakers. The legislature has continually had | The repeal of the Test Act, the admission of Quakers to Parliaregard to their refusal to take oaths, and not only the said ment in consequence of their being allowed to afhrm instead of act but also another of the same reign, and numerous others, taking the oath (1832, when Joseph Pease was elected for South subsequently passed, have respected the peculiar scruples of Durham), the establishment of the University of London, and, Friends (see Davis's Digest of Legislative Enactments relating more recently, the opening of the universities of Oxford and lo Friends, Bristol, 1820).

Cambridge 10 Nonconformists, have all had their effect upon the Period 1689-1835. From the beginning of the 18th body. It has abandoned its peculiarities of dress and language, century the zeal of the Quaker body abated. Although many as well as its hostility to music and art, and it has cultivated a

“ General ” and other meetings were held in different wider taste in literature. In fact, the number of men, either parts of the country for the purpose of setting forth Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy

Quakerism, the notion that the whole Christian church positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to would be absorbed in it, and that the Quakers were, in fact, the the small body with which they are connected. During the 19th church, gave place to the conception that they were “ a peculiar century the interests of Friends became widened and they are people " to whom, more than to others, had been given an under- no longer a close community. standing of the will of God. The Quakerism of this period was Doctrine.- It is not easy to state with certainty the doctrines largely of a traditional kind; it dwelt with increasing emphasis of a body which (in England at least) has never demanded subon the peculiarities of its dress and language; it rested much scription to any creed, and whose views have undoubtedly upon discipline, which developed and hardened into rigorous. undergone more or less definite changes. There is not now the forms; and the correction or exclusion of its members occupied sharp distinction which formerly existed between Friends and more attention than did the winning of converts.

other non-sacerdotal evangelical bodies; these have, in theory Excluded from political and municipal life by the laws which at least, largely accepted the spiritual message of Quakerism. required either the taking of an oath or joining in the Lord's By their special insistence on the fact of immediate communion Supper according to the rites of the Established Church, exclud between God and man, Friends have been led into those views ing themselves not only from the frivolous pursuits of pleasure, and practices which still mark them off from their fellowbut from music and art in general, attaining no high average Christians. level of literary culture (though producing some men of eminence Nearly all their distinctive views (e.g. their refusal to take in science and medicine), the Quakers occupied themselves oaths, their testimony against war, their disuse of a professional mainly with trade, the business of their Society, and the calls of ministry, and their recognition of women's ministry) were being philanthropy. From early times George Fox and many others put forward in England, by various individuals or sects, in the had taken a keen interest in education, and in 1779 there was strife which raged during the intense religious excitement of the sounded at Ackworth, near Pontefract, a school for boys and middle of the 17th century. Nevertheless, before the rise of the girls; this was followed by the reconstitution, in 1808, of a Quakers, these views were nowhere found in conjunction as held school at Sidcot in the Mendips, and in 1811, of one in Islington by any one set of people; still less were they regarded as the Road, London; it was afterwards removed to Croydon, and, outcome of any one central belief or principle. It is rather in later, to Saffron Walden. Others have since been established their emphasis on this thought of Divine communion, in their at York and in other parts of England and Ireland.

None of insistence on its reasonable consequences (as it seems to them), them are now reserved exclusively for the children of Friends. that Friends constitute a separate community. The appoint

During this period Quakerism was sketched from the outside ment of one man to preach, to the exclusion of others, whether by two very different men. Voltaire (Dictionnaire Philosophique, he feels a divine call so to do or not, is regarded as a limitation

Quaker,” Toleration ") described the body, which attracted of the work of the Spirit and an undue concentration of that his curiosity, his sympathy and his sneers, with all his brilliance. responsibility which ought to be shared by a wider circle. For Thomas Clarkson (Portraiture of Quakerism:) has given an the same reason they refuse to occupy the time of worship with elaborate and sympathetic account of the Quakers as he knew an arranged programme of vocal service; they meet in silence, them when he travelled amongst them from house to house on his desiring that the service of the meeting shall depend

Public crusade against the slave trade.

on spiritual guidance. Thus it is left to any man or

worship 3. From 1835.-During the 18th century the doctrine of the woman to offer vocal prayer, to read the Scriptures, Inward Light acquired such exclusive prominence as to bring or to utter such exhortation or teaching as may seem to be about a tendency to disparage, or, at least, to neglect, the written called for. Of late years, in certain of their meetings on Sunday word (the Scriptures) as being “outward” and non-essential. evening, it has become customary for part of the time to be in the early part of the 19th century an American Friend, Elias occupied with set addresses for the purpose of instructing the Hicks, pressed this doctrine to its furthest limits, and, in doing so, members of the congregation, or of conveying the Quaker message he laid stress on “Christ within " in such a way as practically to others who may be present, all their meetings for worship to take little account of the person and work of the “ outward," being freely open to the public. In a few meetings hymns are i.e. the historic Christ. The result was a separation of the Society occasionally sung, very rarely as part of any arrangement, in America into two divisions which persist to the present day but almost always upon the request of some individual sor a (sce below, " Quakerism in America "). This led to a counter particular hymn appropriate to the need of the congregation. movement in England, known as the Beacon Controversy, The periods of silence are regarded as times of worship equally from the name of a warning publication issued by Isaac Crewdson with those occupied with vocal service, inasmuch as Friends of Manchester in 1835, advocating views of a pronounced“ evan

hold that robust ness of spiritual life is best promoted by earnest gelical ”type. Much controversy ensued, and a certain number I striving on the part of each one to know the will of God for

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himself, and to be drawn into Christian fellowship with the impulses of human nature, and not from the seed of divine life other worshippers. The points on which special stress is laid with its infinite capacity of response to the Spirit of God. Their are:-(1) the share of responsibility resting on each individual, testimony is not based primarily on any objection to whether called to vocal service or not, for the right spiritual the use of force in itself, or even on the fact that atmosphere of the Meeting, and for the welfare of the congrega- war involves suffering and loss of life; their root objection is tion; (2) the privilege which may be enjoyed by each worshipper based on the fact that war is both the outcome and the cause of of waiting upon the Lord without relying on spoken words, ambition, pride, greed, hatred and everything that is opposed to however helpful, or on other outward matters; (3) freedom the mind of Christ; and that no end to be attained can justify for each individual (whether a Friend or not) to speak, for the the use of such means. While not unaware that with this, as help of others, such message as he or she may feel called to utter; with all moral questions, there may be a certain borderland of (4) a fresh sense of a divine call to deliver the message on that practical difficulty, Friends endeavour to bring all things to the particular occasion, whether previous thought has been given test of the Realities which, though not seen, are eternal, and toit or not. The idea which ought to underlie a Friends' meeting to hold up the ideal, set forth by George Fox, of living in the is thus set forth by Robert Barclay: “When I came into the virtue of that life and power which takes away the occasion of silent assemblies of God's people, I felt a secret power among war. them, which touched my heart, and as I gave way unto it, I Friends have always held that the attempt to enforce truthfound the evil weakening in me and the good raised up ” (A pology, speaking by means of an oath, in courts of law and elsewhere, xi. 7). In many places Friends have felt the need of bringing tends to create a double standard of truth. They find spiritual help to those who are unable to profit by the somewhat Scripture warrant for this belief in Matt. v. 33-37 and severe discipline of their ordinary manner of worship. To meet James v. 12. Their testimony in this respect is the better underthis need they hold (chiefly on Sunday evenings) meetings which stood when we bear in mind the large amount of perjury in the are not professedly “ Friends' meetings for worship,” but which law courts, and profane swearing in general which prevailed are services conducted on lines similar to those of other religious at the time when the Society took its rise. “ People swear to bodies, with, in some cases, a portion of time set apart for silent the end that they may speak truth; Christ would have men worship, and freedom for any one of the congregation to utter speak truth to the end they might not swear" (W. Penn, A words of exhortation or prayer.

Treatise of Oaths). From the beginning Friends have not practised the outward With regard to the fundamental doctrines of Christianity ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, even in a non- the belief of the Society of Friends does not essentially differ sacerdotal spirit. They attach, however, supreme value to the from that of other Christian bodies. At the same time

Theolog: realities of which the observances are reminders or types-on the their avoidance of exact definition embodied in a rigid Baptism which is more than putting away the filth of the flesh, creed, together with their disuse of the outward ordinances of and on the vital union with Christ which is behind any outward Baptism and the Supper, has laid them open to considerable ceremony. Their testimony is not primarily against these misunderstanding. As will have been seen, they hold an exalted outward observances; their disuse of them is due to a sense view of the divinity and work of Christ as the Word become of the danger of substituting the shadow for the reality. They flesh and the Saviour of the world; but they have always shrunk believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample from rigid Trinitarian definitions. They believe that the same warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a Spirit who gave forth the Scriptures still guides men to a right perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that understanding of them. “You profess the Holy Scriptures: it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules but what do you witness and experience? What interest have for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church you in them? Can you set to your seal that they are true by should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the the work of the same spirit in you that gave them forth in the varying needs of the day. Their contention that every event of holy ancients?" (William Penn, A Summons or Call to Chrislife may be turned into a sacrament, a means of grace, is summed tendom). At certain periods this doctrine, pushed to an extreme, up in the words of Stephen Grellet: “I very much doubt has led to a practical undervaluing of the Scriptures, but of late whether, since the Lord by His grace brought me into the faith times it has enabled Friends to face fearlessly the conclusions of His dear Son, I have ever broken bread or drunk wine, even of modern criticism, and has contributed to a largely increased in the ordinary course of life, without the remembrance of, and interest in Bible study. During the past few years a new movesome devout feeling regarding, the broken body and the blood- ment has been started in the shape of lecture schools, lasting for shedding of my dear Lord and Saviour.”

longer or shorter periods, for the purpose of studying Biblical, When the ministry of any man or woman has been found to ecclesiastical and social subjects. In 1903 there was established be helpful to the congregation, the Monthly Meeting (see below) at Woodbrooke, an estate at Selly Oak on the outskirts of

may, after solemn consideration, record the fact that Birmingham, a permanent settlement for men and women, for

it believes the individual to have a divine call to the the study of these questions on modern lines. The outward ministry, and that it encourages him or her to be faithful to the beginning of this movement was the Manchester Conference of gift. Such ministers are said to be “acknowledged ” or “re-1895, a turning point in Quaker history Speaking generally, corded "; they are emphatically not appointed to preach, and it may be noted that the Society includes various shades of the fact of their acknowledgment is not regarded as conferring opinion, from that known as “evangelical,” with a certain any special status upon them. The various Monthly Meetings hesitation in receiving modern thought, to the more" advanced " appoint Elders, or some body of Friends, to give advice of position which finds greater freedom to consider and adopt new encouragement or restraint as may be needed, and, generally, suggestions of scientific, religious or other thinkers. The to take the ministry under their care.

differences, however, are seldom pressed, and rarely become acute. With regard to the ministry of women, Friends hold that Apart from points of doctrine which can be more or less definitely there is no evidence that the gifts of prophecy and teaching are stated (not always with unanimity) Quakerism is an atmosphere,

confined to one sex. On the contrary, they see that a a manner of life, a method of approaching questions, a habit and

manifest blessing has rested on women's preaching, attitude of mind. and they regard its almost universal prohibition as a relic of the Quakerism in Scolland.--Quakerism was preached in Scotland seclusion of women which was customary in the countries where very soor after its rise in England; but in the north and south Christianity took its rise. The particular prohibition of Paul of Scotland there existed, independently of and before this (1 Cor. xiv. 34, 35) they regard as due to the special circumstances preaching, groups of persons who were dissatisfied with the of time and place.

national form of worship and who met together in silence for Friends have always held that war is contrary to the precepts devotion. They naturally fell into this Society. In Aberdeen and spirit of the Gospel, believing that it springs from the lower the Quakers took considerable hold, and were there joined by



some persons of influence and position, especially Alexander Quakers, was held. They agreed to raise an annual sum of £200 Jaffray, sometime provost of Aberdeen, and Colonel David for the expenses of their commonwealth; they assigned their govBarclay of Ury and his son Robert, the author of the Apology. ernor a salary of £20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits Much light has been thrown on the history of the Quakers in to the Indians and imprisonment for debt. (See New JERSEY.) Aberdeenshire by the discovery in 1826 at Ury of a MS. Diary, But beyond question the most interesting event in connexion of Jaffray, since published with elucidations (2nd ed., London, with Quakerism in America is the foundation by William Penn 1836).

(9.8.) of the colony of Pennsylvania, where he hoped Ireland-The father of Quakerism in Ireland was William to carry into effect the principles of his sect-to found


Pean Edmondson; his preaching began in 1653-1654. The History of and govern a colony without armies or military the Quakers in Ireland (from 1653 to 1752), by Wight and Rutty, power, to reduce the Indians by justice and kindness to civilizamay be consulted. Dublin Yearly Meeting, constituted in 1670, tion and Christianity, to administer justice without oaths, and is independent of London Yearly Meeting (see below).

to extend an equal toleration to all persons who professed a America.--In July 1656 two women Quakers, Mary Fisher and belief in God. The history of this is part of the history of America Ann Austin, arrived at Boston. Under the general law against and of Pennsylvania (9.0.) in particular. The chief point of heresy their books were burnt by the hangman, they were interest in the history of Friends in America during the 18th searched for signs of witchcraft, they were imprisoned for five century is their effort to clear themselves of complicity in weeks and then sent away. During the same year eight others slavery and the slave trade. As early as 1671 George Fox when were sent back to England.

in Barbados counselled kind treatment of slaves and ultimate In 1656, 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the intro- liberation of them. William Penn provided for the freedom duction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was enacted of slaves after fourteen years' service. In 1688 the German that on the first conviction one ear should be cut off, on the Friends of Germantown, Philadelphia, raised the first official second the remaining ear, and that on the third conviction the protest uttered by any religious body against slavery. In 1711 tongue should be bored with a hot iron. Fines were laid upon a law was passed in Pennsylvania prohibiting the importation all who entertained these people or were present at their meetings. of slaves, but it was rejected by the Council in England. The Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the prominent anti-slavery workers were Ralph Sandiford, Benjamin obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Lay, Anthony Benezet and John Woolman. By the end of Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as is invited, and the result the 18th century slavery was practically extinct among Friends, was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of and the Society as a whole laboured for its abolition, which came death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged about in 1865, the poet Whittier being one of the chief writers for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately and workers in the cause. From early times up to the present returning within it. That the Quakers were, at times, irritating day Friends have laboured for the welfare of the North American cannot be denied: some of them appear to have publicly Indians. The history of the 19th century is largely one of mocked the institutions and the rulers of the colony and to have division. Elias Hicks (9.0.), of Long Island, N.Y., propounded interrupted public worship; and a few of their men and women doctrines inconsistent with the orthodox views concerning acted with the fanaticism and disorder which frequently charac-Christ and the Scriptures, and a separation resulted in 1827terized the religious controversics of the time. The particulars 1828 (see above).

His followers are known as Hicksites," of the proceedings of Governor Endecott and the magistrates of a name not officially used by themselves, and only assented to New England as given in Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers (see for purposes of description under some protest. They have below) are startling to read. On the Restoration of Charles II. their own organization, being divided into seven yearly meetings a memorial was presented to him by the Quakers in England numbering about 20,000 members, but these meetings form no stating the persecutions which their fellow-members had under- part of the official organization which links London Yearly gone in New England. Even the careless Charles was moved Meeting with other bodies of Friends on the American continent. to issue an order to the colony which effectually stopped the This separation led to strong insistence on “evangelical ” views hanging of the Quakers for their religion, though it by no means in the usual sense of the term) concerning Christ,the Atonement, put an end to the persecution of the body in New England. imputed righteousness, the Scriptures, &c. This showed itself

It is not wonderful that the Quakers, persecuted and oppressed in the Beaconite controversy in England (see above), and in a at home and in New England, should turn their eyes to the further division in America. John Wilbur, a minister of New unoccupied parts of America, and cherish the hope of founding, England, headed a party of protest against the new evangelicalamidst their woods, some refuge from oppression, and some ism, laying extreme stress on the “Inward Light”; the result likeness of a city of God upon earth. As early as 1660 George was a further separation of

“ Wilburites" or the smaller Fox was considering the question of buying land from the body," who, like the “ Hicksites," have a separate independent indians. In 1671-1673 he had visited the American plantations organization of their own. In 1907 they were divided into seven from Carolina to Rhode Island and had preached alike to Indians yearly meetings (together with some smaller independent and to settlers; in 1674 a portion of New Jersey (9.v.) was sold bodies, the result of extreme cmphasis laid on individualism), by Lord Berkeley to John Fenwicke in trust for Edward Byllynge. with a membership of about 5000. Broadly speaking, the Both these men were Quakers, and in 1675 Fenwicke with a large “smaller body" is characterized by a rigid adherence to old company of his co-religionists crossed the Atlantic, sailed up forms of dress and speech, to a disapproval of music and art, Delaware Bay, and landed at a fertile spot which he called and to an insistence on the “ Inward Light " which, at times, Salem. Byllynge, having become embarrassed in his circum- Icaves but little room for the Scriptures or the historic Christ, stances, placed his interest in the land in the hands of Penn and although with no definite or intended repudiation of them. others as trustees for his creditors; they invited buyers, and in 1908 the number of “ orthodox ” yearly meetings in America, companies of Quakers in Yorkshire and London were amongst including one in Canada, was fifteen, with a total membership the largest purchasers. In 1677-1678 five vessels with eight of about 100,000. They have, for the most part, adopted, to a hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in the colony (then greater or less degree, the “pastoral system,” i.e. the appointseparated from the rest of New Jersey, under the name of Westment of one man or woman in each congregation to “conduct " New Jersey), and the town of Burlington was established. In the meeting for worship and to carry on pastoral work. In most 1677 the fundamental laws of West New Jersey were published, cases the pastor receives a salary. A few of them demand from and recognized in a most absolute form the principles of deino- their ministers definite subscription to a specific body of doctrine, cratic equality and perfect freedom of conscience. Notwith mostly of the ordinary “ evangelical " type. In the matters of standing certain troubles from claims of the governor of New

1 Woolman's Journal and Works are remarkable. He had a York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, and in 1681

vision of a political economy based not on selfishness but on love, the first legislative assembly of the colony, consisting mainly of not on desire but on self-denial.

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