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regarded and continued ever afterwards to regard a prince | wanderings in which the best part of his life was to be consumed. gallant in the field, glittering of apparel, lavish of largesse, as He first visited Avignon, perhaps to ask for a benefice, perhaps almost a god.

as the bearer of a message from the bishop of Cambray to pope The moon, he says, rules the first four years of life; Mercury or cardinal. It was in the year 1360, and in the pontificate of the next ten; Venus follows. He was fourteen when the last Innocent VI. From the papal city he seems to have gone to goddess appeared to him in person, as he tells us, after the Paris, perhaps charged with a diplomatic mission. In 1361 he manner of bis time, and informed him that he was to love a lady, returned to England after an absence of five years. He certainly “belle, jone, et gente." Awaiting this happy event, he began to interpreted his leave of absence in a liberal spirit, and it may have consider how best to earn his livelihood. They first placed him in been with a view of averting the displeasure of his kind-hearted some commercial position-impossible now to say of what kind protector that he brought with him as a present a book of -which he simply calls “ la marchandise.” This undoubtedly rhymed chronicles written by himself. He says that not withmeans some kind of buying and selling, not a handicraft standing his youth, he took upon himself the task "à rimer et at all. He very soon abandoned merchandise" car vaut à dicter "-which can only mean to “turn into verse "-an mieux science qu'argens"-and resolved on becoming a learned account of the wars of his own time, which he carried over to clerk. He then naturally began to make verses, like every other England in a book "tout compilé,”-complete to date,--and learned clerk. Quite as naturally, and still in the character of a presented to his noble mistress Philippa of Hainaut, who joylearned clerk, he fulfilled the prophecy of Venus and fell in love. fully and gently received it of him. Such a rhymed chronicle He found one day a demoiselle reading a book of romances. He was no new thing. One Colin had already turned the battle of did not know who she was, but stealing gently towards her, he Crécy into verse. The queen made young Froissart one of her asked her what book she was reading. It was the romance of secretaries, and he began to serve her with “beaux dittiés et Cleomades. He remarks the singular beauty of her blue eyes traités amoureux." and fair hair, while she reads a page or two, and then-one would Froissart would probably have been content to go on living • almost suspect a reminiscence of Dante

at ease in this congenial atmosphere of flattery, praise and Adont laissa mes nous le lire."

caresses, pouring out his virelays and chansons according to He was thus provided with that essential for soldier, knight demand with facile monotony, but for the instigation of Queen or poet, a mistress--one for whom he could write verses. She Philippa, who seems to have suggested to him the propriety of was rich and he was poor; she was nobly born and he obscure; travelling in order to get information for more rhymed chronicles. it was long before she would accept the devotion, even of the It was at her charges that Froissart made his first serious journey. conventional kind which Froissart offered her, and which would He seems to have travelled a great part of the way alone, or in no way interfere with the practical business of her life. And accompanied only by his servants, for he was fain to beguile in this hopeless way, the passion of the young poet remaining the journcy by composing an imaginary conversation in verse the same, and the coldness of the lady being unaltered, the course between his horse and his hound. This may be found among his of this passion ran on for some time. Nor was it until the day published poems, but it does not repay perusal. In Scotland of Froissart's departure from his native town that she gave him he met with a favourable reception, not only from King David an interview and spoke kindly to him, even promising, with tears but from William of Douglas, and from the earls of Fife, in her eyes, that “Doulce Pensée" would assure him that she Mar, March and others. The souvenirs of this journey are would have no joyous day until she should see him again found scattered about in the chronicles. He was evidently much

He was eighteen years of age; he had learned all that he impressed with the Scots; he speaks of the valour of the Douglas, wanted to learn; he possessed the mechanical art of verse; the Campbell, the Ramsay and the Graham; he describes the he had read the slender stock of classical literature accessible; hospitality and rude life of the Highlanders; he admires the he longed to see the world. He must already have acquired great castles of Stirling and Roxburgh and the famous abbey of some distinction, because, on setting out for the court of England, Melrose. His travels in Scotland lasted for six months. Returnhe was able to take with him letters of recommendation from ing southwards he rode along the whole course of the Roman the king of Bohemia and the count of Hainaut to Queen Philippa, wall, a thing alone sufficient to show that he possessed the true niece of the latter. He was well received by the queen, always spirit of an archaeologist; he thought that Carlisle was Carlyon, ready to welcome her own countrymen; he wrote ballades and and congratulated himself on having found King Arthur's virelays for her and her ladies. But after a year he began to capital; he calls Westmorland, where the common people still pine for another sight of " la très douce, simple, et quoie," whom spoke the ancient British tongue, North Wales; he rode down he loved loyally. Good Queen Philippa, perceiving his altered the banks of the Severn, and returned to London by way of looks and guessing the cause, made him confess that he was in Oxford-"l'escole d'Asque-Suffort.” love and longed to see his mistress. She gave him his congé on In London Froissart entered into the service of King John the condition that he was to return. It is clear that the young of France as secretary, and grew daily more courtly, more in clerk had already learned to ingratiate himself with princes. favour with princes and great ladies. He probably acquired at

The conclusion of his single love adventure is simply and this period that art, in which he has probably never been surunalectedly told in his Tretlic de l'espinetle amourcuse. It passed, of making people tell him all they knew. No newspaper was a passion conducted on the well-known lines of conventional correspondent, no American interviewer, has ever equalled this love; the pair exchanged violets and roses, the lady accepted medieval collector of intelligence. From Queen Philippa, who ballads; Froissart became either openly or in secret ber recog- confided to him the tender story of her youthful and lasting love nized lover, a mere title of honour, which conferred distinction for her great husband, down to the simplest knight-Froissart on her who bestowed it, as well as upon him who received it. conversed with none beneath the rank of gentlemen-all united But the progress of the amour was rudely interrupted by the arts in telling this man what he wanted to know. He wanted to of "Malebouche," or Calumny. The story, whatever it was, know everything: he liked the story of a battle from both sides that Malebouche whispered in the ear of the lady led to a and from many points of view; he wanted the details of every complete rupture. The demoiselle not only scornfully refused little cavalry skirmish, every capture of a castle, every gallant to speak to her lover or acknowledge him, but even seized him action and brave deed. And what was more remarkable, he by the hair and pulled out a handful. Nor would she ever forgot nothing. “I had," he says, “ thanks to God, sense, be reconciled to him again. Years afterwards, when Froissart memory, good remembrance of everything, and an intellect writes the story of his one love passage, he shows that he still clear and keen to seize upon the acts, which I could learn." But takes delight in the remembrance of her, loves to draw her as yet he had not begun to write in prose. portrait, and lingers with fondoess over the thought of what At the age of twenty-nine, in 1366, Froissart once more left she once was to him.

England. This time he repaired first to Brussels, whither were Perhaps to get healed of his sorrow, Froissart began those I gathered together a great concourse of minstrels from all parts,

from the courts of the kings of Denmark, Navarre and Aragon, | drank with the rest, and listened if they sang his own, not the from those of the dukes of Lancaster, Bavaria and Brunswick. coarse country songs. Mostly he preferred the society of Gerard Hither came all who could“ rimer et dicter.” What distinction d'Obies, provost of Binche, and the little circle of knights within Froissart gained is not stated; but he received a gift of money, that town. Or-for it was not incumbent on him to be always as appears from the accounts: "uni Fritsardo, dictori, qui est in residence- he repaired to the court of Coudenberg, and became cum regina Angliae, dicto die, vi. mottones.”

moult frère et accointé " with the duke of Brabant. And then After this congress of versifiers, he made his way to Brittany, came Gui de Blois, one of King John's hostages in London in the where he heard from eye-witnesses and knights who had actually old days. He had been fighting in Prussia with the Teutonic fought there details of the battles of Cocherel and Auray, the knights, and now, a little tired of war, proposed to settle down Great Day of the Thirty and the heroism of Jeanne de Montfort. for a time in his castle of Beaumont. This prince was a member Windsor Herald told him something about Auray, and a French of the great house of Chatillon. He was count of Blois, of knight, one Antoine de Beaujeu, gave him the details of Cocherel. Soissons and of Chimay. He had now, about the year 1374, an From Brittany he went southwards to Nantes, La Rochelle and excellent reputation as a good captain. In him Froissart, who Bordeaux, where he arrived a few days before the visit of Richard, hastened to resume acquaintance, found a new patron. More afterwards second of that name. He accompanied the Black than that, it was this sire de Beaumont, in emulation of his Prince to Dax, and hoped to go on with him into Spain, but grandfather, the patron of Jean le Bel, who advised Froissart was despatched to England on a mission. He next formed part seriously to take in hand the history of his own time. Froissart of the expedition which escorted Lionel duke of Clarence to was then in his thirty-sixth year. For twenty years he had been Milan, to marry the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti. Chaucer rhyming, for eighteen he had been making verses for queens and was also one of the prince's suite. At the wedding banquet ladies. Yet during all this time he had been accumulating in his Petrarch was a guest sitting among the princes.

retentive brain the materials for his future work. • From Milan Froissart, accepting gratefully a cotle hardie with He began by editing, so to speak, that is, by rewriting with 20 florins of gold, set out upon his travels in Italy. At Bologna, additions, the work of Jean le Bel; Gui de Blois, among others, then in decadence, he met Peter king of Cyprus, from whose supplied him with additional information. His own notes, taken follower and minister, Eustache de Conflans, he learned many from information obtained in his travels, gave him more details, interesting particulars of the king's exploits. He accompanied and when in 1374 Gui married Marie de Namur, Froissart found Peter as far as Venice, where he left him after receiving a gift in the bride's father, Robert de Namur, one who had himself of 40 ducats. With them and his colle hardie, still lined we may largely shared in the events which he had to relate. He, for hope with the 20 florins, Froissart betook himself to Rome. instance, is the authority for the story of the siege of Calais The city was then at its lowest point: the churches were roofless; and the six burgesses. Provided with these materials, Froissart there was no pope; there were no pilgrims; there was no remained at Lestines, or at Beaumont, arranging and writing splendour; and yet, says Froissart sadly,

his chronicles. During this period, too, he composed his Espinelle "Ce furent jadis en Rome

amoureuse, and the Joli Buisson de joncsce, and his romance of
Li plus preu et li plus sage homme,

Meliodor. He also became chaplain to the count of Blois, and
Car par sens tons les arts passèrent."
It was at Rome that he learned of the death of his friend King nothing more of Lestines, which he probably resigned.

obtained a canonry of Chimay. Aiter this appointment we hear
Peter of Cyprus, and, worse still, an irreparable loss to him,
that of the good Queen Philippa, of whom he writes, in grateful we hear nothing, probably because there was nothing to tell.

In these quiet pursuits he passed iwelve years, years of which
“ Propices li soit Diex à l'âme!

In 1386 his travels began again, when he accompanied Gui to
J'en suis bien tenus de pryer

his castle at Blois, in order to celebrate the marriage of his son
Et ses larghesces escuyer,

Louis de Dunois with Marie de Berry. He wrote a pastourelle
Car elle me fist et créa.'

in honour of the event. Then he attached himself for a few days Philippa dead, Froissart looked around for a new patron. to the duke of Berry, from whom he learned certain particulars Then he hastened back to his own country and presented himself, of current events, and then, becoming aware of what promised to with a new book in French, to the duchess of Brabant, from be the most mighty feat of arms of his time, he hastened to Sluys whom he received the sum of 16 francs, given in the accounts in order to be on the spot. At this port the French were collecting as paid uni Frissardo dictatori. The use of the word uni does an enormous fleet, and making preparations of the greatest not imply any meanness of position, but is simply an equivalent magnitude in order to repeat the invasion of William the Conto the modern French sieur. Froissart may also have found a queror. They were tired of being invaded by the English and patron in Yolande de Bar, grandmother of King René of Anjou. wished to turn the tables. The talk was all of conquering the In any case he received a substantial gift from some one in the country and dividing it among the knights, as had been done by shape of the benefice of Lestines, a village some three or four the Normans. It is not clear whether Froissart intended to go miles from the town of Binche. Also, in addition to his cure, he over with the invaders; but as his sympathies are ever with the got placed upon the duke of Brabant's pension list, and was side where he happens to be, he exhausts himself in admiration entitled to a yearly grant of grain and wine, with some small of this grand gathering of ships and men. Any one,” he says, sum in money.

“who had a fever would have been cured of his malady merely It is clear, from Froissart's own account of himself, that he by going to look at the fleet." But ihe delays of the duke of was by no means a man who would at the age of four or five and Berry, and the arrival of bad weather, spoiled everything. There thirty be contented to sit down at ease to discharge the duties was no invasion of England. In Flanders Froissart met many of parish priest, to say mass, to bury the dead, to marry the knights who had fought at Rosebeque, and could tell him of the villagers and to baptize the young. In those days, and in that troubles which in a few years desolated that country, once so country, it does not seem that other duties were expected. prosperous. He set himself to ascertain the history with as Preaching was not required, godliness of life, piety, good works, much accuracy as the comparison of various accounts by eye. and the graces of a modern ecclesiastic were not looked for. witnesses and actors would allow. He stayed at Ghent, among Therefore, when Froissarı complains to himself that the taverns those ruined merchants and mechanics, for whom, as one of the of Lestines got 500 francs of his money, we need not at once set same class, he felt a sympathy never extended to English or him down as either a bad priest or exceptionally given to drink. French, perhaps quite as unfortunate, and he devotes no fewer The people of the place were greatly addicted to wine; the than 300 chapters to the Flemish troubles, an amount out of laverniers de Lestines proverbially sold good wine; the Flemings all proportion to the comparative importance of the events were proverbially of a joyous disposition

This portion of the chronicle was written at Valenciennes. "Ceux de Hainaut chantent à pleines gorges."

During this residence in his birthplace his verses were crowned Froissart, the parish priest of courtly manners, no doubt ' at the “puys d'amour" of Valenciennes and Tournay

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This part of his work finished, he considered what to do next. I him. There was, in fact, at this great commercial centre, a There was small chance of anything important happening in colony of Portuguese. From them he learned that a certain Picardy or Hainault, and he determined on making a journey Portuguese knight, Dom Juan Fernand Pacheco, was at the to the south of France in order to learn something new.

He was

moment in Middelburg on the point of starting for Prussia. then fifty-one years of age, and being still, as he tells us, in his He instantly embarked at Sluys, reached Middelburg in time prime, "of an age, strength, and limbs able to bear fatigue,"to catch this knight, introduced himself, and conversed with him he set out as eager to see new places as when, 33 years before, uninterruptedly for the space of six days, getting his information he rode through Scotland and marvelled at the bravery of the on the promise of due acknowledgment. During the next two Douglas. What he had, in addition to strength, good memory years we learn little of his movements. He seems, however, and good spirits, was a manner singularly pleasing and great to have had trouble with his seigneur Gui de Blois, and even to personal force of character. This he does not tell us, but it have resigned his chaplaincy. Froissart is tender with Gui's comes out abundantly in his writings; and, which he does tell reputation, mindful of past favours and remembering how great us, he took a singular delight in his book. “ The more I work a lord he is. Yet the truth is clear that in his declining years at it," he says, " the better am I pleased with it."

the once gallant Gui de Blois became a glutton and a drunkard, On this occasion he rode first to Blois; on the way he fell in and allowed his affairs to fall into the greatest disorder. So with two knights who told him of the disasters of the English much was he crippled with debt that he was obliged to sell his army in Spain; one of them also informed him of the splendid castle and county of Blois to the king of France. Froissart lays hospitalities and generosity of Gaston Phoebus, count of Foix, all the blame on evil counsellors. “He was my lord and master," on hearing of which Froissart resolved to seek him out. He he says simply, “an honourable lord and of great reputation; avoided the English provinces of Poitou and Guienne, and rode but he trusted too easily in those who looked for neither his southwards through Berry, Auvergne and Languedoc. Arrived welfare nor his honour.” Although canon of Chimay and perhaps at Foix he discovered that the count was at Orthez, whither he curé of Lestines as well, it would seem as if Froissart was not able proceeded in company with a knight named Espaing de Lyon, to live without a patron. He next calls Robert de Namur his who, Froissart sound, had not only fought, but could describe. seigneur, and dedicates to him, in a general introduction, the

The account of those few days' ride with Espaing de Lyon is whole of his chronicles. We then find him at Abbeville, trying the most charming, the most graphic, and the most vivid chapter to learn all about the negotiations pending between Charles VI. in the whole of Froissart. Every turn of the road brings with and the English. He was unsuccessful, either because he could it the sight of a ruined castle, about which this knight of many not get at those who knew what was going on, or because the memories has a tale or a reminiscence. The whole country secret was too well kept. He next made his last visit to England, teems with fighting stories. Froissart never tires of listening where, after forty years' absence, he naturally found no one nor the good knight of telling “Sainte Marie!” cries Froissart who remembered him. Here he gave King Richard a copy of his in mere rapture. “How pleasant are your tales, and how much "traités amoureux," and got favour at court. He stayed in do they profit me while you relate then! And you shall not lose England some months, seeking information on all points from your trouble, for they shall all be set down in memory and remem- his friends Henry Chrystead and Richard Stury, from the dukes brance in the history which I am writing," Arrived at length of York and Gloucester, and from Robert the Hermit. at Orthez, Froissart lost no time in presenting his credentials to On his return to France, he found preparations going on the count of Foix. Gaston Phoebus was at this time fifty-nine for that unlucky crusade, the end of which he describes in his years of age. His wife, from whom he was separated, was that Chronicle. It was headed by the count of Nevers. After him princess, sister of Charles of Navarre, with whom Guillaumc de floated many a banner of knights, descendants of the crusaders, Machault carried on his innocent and poetical amour. The story who bore the proud titles of duke of Athens, duke of Thebes, of the miserable death of his son is well known, and may be read sirc de Sidon, sire de Jericho. They were going to invade the in Froissart. But that was already a tale of the past, and the sultan's empire by way of Hungary; they were going to march state which the count kept up was that of a monarch. To such a south; they would reconquer the holy places. And presently prince such a visitor as Froissart would be in every way welcome. we read how it all came to nothing, and how the slaughtered Mindful no doubt of those paid clerks who were always writing knights lay dead outside the city of Nikopoli. In almost the verses, Froissart introduced himself as a chronicler. He could, concluding words of the Chronicle the murder of Richard II. of course, rhyme, and in proof he brought with him his romance of England is described. His death ends the long and crowded of Méliador; but he did not present himself as a wandering Chronicle, though the pen of the writer struggles through a few poet. The count received him graciously, speedily discovered more unfinished sentences. the good qualities of his guest, and often invited him to read his The rest is vague tradition. He is said to have died at Chimay; Maliador aloud in the evening, during which time, says Froissart, it is further said that he died in poverty so great that his relations “nobody dared to say a word, because he wished me to be heard, could not even afford to carve his name upon the headstone of such great delight did he take in listening.” Very soon Froissart, his tomb; not one of his friends, not even Eustache Deschamps, from reader of a romance, became raconteur of the things he had writes a line of regret in remembrance; the greatest historian seen and heard; the next step was that the count himself began of his age had a reputation so limited that his death was no to talk of affairs, so that the notebook was again in requisition. more regarded than that of any common monk or obscure There was a good deal, too, to be learned of people about the priest. We would willingly place the date of his death, where court. One knight recently returned from the East told about his Chronicle stops, in the year 1400; but tradition assigns the Genoese occupation of Famagosta; two more had been in the the date of 1410. What date more fitting than the close of the fray of Otterbourne; others had been in the Spanish wars. century for one who has made that century illustrious for ever?

Leaving Gaston at length, Froissart assisted at the wedding Among his friends were Guillaume de Machault, Eustache of the old duke of Berry with the youthful Jeanne de Bourbon, Deschamps, the most vigorous poet of this age of decadence, and was present at the grand reception given to Isabeau of and Cuvelier, a follower of Bertrand du Guesclin. These alliances Bavaria by the Parisians. He then returned to Valenciennes, are certain. It is probable that he knew Chaucer, with whom and sat down to write his fourth book. A journey undertaken Deschamps maintained a poetical correspondence; there is at this time is characteristic of the thorough and conscientious nothing to show that he ever made the acquaintance of Christine spirit in which he composed his work; it illustrates also his de Pisan. Froissart was more proud of his poetry than his prose. restless and curious spirit. While engaged in the events of the Posterity has reversed this opinion, and though a selection of year 1385 he became aware that his notes taken at Orthez and his verse has been published, it would be difficult to find an elsewhere on the affairs of Castile and Portugal were wanting in admirer, or even a reader, of his poems. The selection published completeness. He left Valenciennes and hastened to Bruges, by Buchon in 1829 consists of the Dil dou florin, half of which wbere, he felt certain, he should find some one who would help lis a description of the power of money; the Débal dou cheval


e dou levrier, written during his journey in Scotland; the medii aevi, i. (Berlin, 1896).. An abridgment was made in Latin by Diltie de la flour de la Murgherite; a Dillie d'amour called

Belleforest, and published in 1672. An English translation was

made by Bouchier, Lord Berners, and published in London, 1525 L'Orlose amoureus, in which he compares himself, the imaginary See the Tudor Translations " 'edition of Berners (Nutt, 1901). lover, with a clock; the Espinette amoureuse, which contains a with introduction by W. P. Ker; and the

edition, with sketch of his early life, freely and pleasantly drawn, accompanied introduction by G. C. Macaulay. The translation by Thomas by rondeaux and virelays; the Buisson de jonesce, in which Johnes was originally published in 1802-1805. For Froissart's he returns to the recollections of his own youth; and various poems see Scheler's text in K. de Lettenhove's complete edition:

Méliador has been edited by Longnon for the Société des Anciens smaller pieces. The verses are monotonous; the thoughts are Textes (1895-1899). Sce also Madaine Darmesteter (Duclaux), not without poetical grace, but they are expressed at tedious Froissart (1894).

(W. BE.) length. It would be, however, absurd to expect in Froissart the vigour and verve possessed by none of his predecessors. PROME, a'market town in the Frome parliamentary division The time was gone when Marie de France, Rutebauf and of Somersetshire, England, 107 m. W. by S. of London by the Thibaut de Champagne made the 13th-century language a Great Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 11,057. It medium for verse of which any literature might be proud. is uncvenly built on high ground above the river Frome, which Briefly, Froissart's poetry. unless the unpublished portion is here crossed by a stone bridge of five arches. It was formerly be better than that before us, is monotonous and mechanical. called Frome or Froome Selwood, after the neighbouring forest The chief merit it possesses is in simplicity of diction. This not of Selwood; and the country round is still richly wooded and infrequently produces a pleasing effect.

picturesque. The parish church of St John the Baptist, with As for the character of his Chronicle, little need be said. its fine tower and spire, was built about the close of the 14th There has never been any difference of opinion on the distinctive century, and, though largely restored, has a beautiful chancel, merits of this great work. It presents a vivid and faithful Lady chapel and baptistery. Fragments of Norman work are drawing of the things done in the 14th century. No more left; the interior is elaborately adorned with sculptures and graphic account exists of any age. No historian has drawn stained glass. The market-hall, museum, school of art, and a so many and such faithful portraits. They are, it is true, portraits free grammar school, founded under Edward VI., may be noted of men as they seemed to the writer, not of men as they were. among buildings and institutions. The chief industries are Froissart was uncritical; he accepted princes by their appearance. brewing and art metal-working, also printing, metal-founding, Who, for instance, would recognize in his portrait of Gaston and the manufacture of cloth, silk, tools and cards for woolPhoebus de Foix the cruel voluptuary, stained with the blood dressing. Dairy farming is largely practised in the neighbourof his own son, which we know him to have been? Froissart, hood. Selwood forest was long a favourite haunt of brigands, again, had no sense of historical responsibility; he was no and even in the 18th century gave shelter to a gang of coiners and judge to inquire into motives and condemn actions; he was highwaymen. simply a chronicler. He has been accused by French authors The Saxon occupation of Frome (From) is the earliest of of lacking patriotism. Yet it must be remembered that he was which there is evidence, the settlement being due to the foundaneither a Frenchman nor an Englishman, but a Fleming. He lion of a monastery by Aldhelm in 705. A witеnagemot was has been accused of insensibility to suffering. Indignation held there in 934, so that Frome must already have been a place against oppression was not, however, common in the 14th of some size. At the time of the Domesday Survey the manor century; why demand of Froissart a quality which is rare was owned by King William. Local tradition asserts that enough even in our own time? Yet there are moments when, Frome was a medieval borough, and the reeve of Frome iš as in describing the massacre of Limoges, he speaks with tears occasionally mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward in his voice.

I., but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and Let him be judged by his own aims. “ Before I commence no trace of any charter granted to it. It was not represented this book," he says, “I pray the Saviour of all the world, who in parliament until given one member by the Reform Act of created every thing out of nothing, that He will also create and 1832. Separate representation ceased in 1885. Frome was put in me sense and understanding of so much worth, that this never incorporated. A charter of Henry VII. to Edmund book, which I have begun, I may continue and persevere in, Leversedge, then lord of the manor, granted the right to have so that all those who shall read, see, and hear it may find in it fairs on the 22nd of July and the 21st of September. In the delight and pleasance.” To give delight and pleasure, then, 18th century two other fairs on the 24th of February and the was his sole design.

25th of November were held. Cattle fairs are now held on the As regards his personal character, Froissart depicts it himself last Wednesday in February and November, and a cheese fair

Such as he was in youth, he tells us, so he remained in on the last Wednesday in September. The Wednesday market more advanced life; rejoicing mightily in dances and carols, is held under the charter of Henry VII. There is also a Saturday in hearing minstrels and poems; inclined to love all those who cattle market. The manufacture of woollen cloth has been love dogs and hawks; pricking up his ears at the uncorking of established since the 15th century, Frome being the only Somerbottles,—“Car au voire prens grand plaisir "'; pleased with set town in which this staple industry has flourished continuously. good cheer, gorgeous apparel and joyous society, but no common- FROMENTIN, EUGÈNE (1820-1876), French painter, was place reveller or greedy voluptuary,-everything in Froissart born at La Rochelle in December 1820. After leaving school was ruled by the good manners which he set before all else; he studied for some years under Louis Cabat, the landscape and always eager to listen to tales of war and battle. As we have painter. Fromentin was one of the earliest pictorial interpreters said above, he shows, not only by his success at courts, but also of Algeria, having been able, while quite young, to visit the by the whole tone of his writings, that he possessed a singularly land and people that suggested the subjects of most of his winning manner and strong personal character. He lived works, and to store his memory as well as his portfolio with the wholly in the present, and had no thought of the coming changes. picturesque and characteristic details of North African life. In Born when chivalrous ideas were most widely spread, but the 1849 he obtained a medal of the second class. In 1852 he paid spirit of chivalry itself, as inculcated by the best writers, in its a second visit to Algeria, accompanying an archaeological decadence, he is penetrated with the sense of knightly honour, mission, and then completed that minute study of the scenery and ascribes to all his heroes alike those qualities which only the of the country and of the habits of its people which enabled him ideal knight possessed.

to give to his aster-work the realistic accuracy that comes from The first edition of Froissart's Chronicles was published in Paris. intimate knowledge. In a certain sense his works are not more It bears no date: the next editions are those of the years 1505. 1514, artistic results than contributions to ethnological science. His 1518 and 1520. The edition of Buchon, 1824, was a continuation of one commenced by Dacier. The best modern editions are those

first great success was produced at the Salon of 1847, by the of Kervyn de Lettenhove (Brussels, 1863-1877) and Siméon Luce Gorges de la Chiffa." Among his more important works are (Paris, 1869-1888); for bibliography see Potthast, Bibliotheca hisi. "La Place de la brèche à Constantine " (1849); " Enterrement


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Maure" (1853); “ Bateleurs nègres " and "Audience chez un LITERATURE.-G. Godet, Gaston Frommel (Neuchâtel, 1906), a chalife" (1859); “ Berger kabyle" and Courriers arabes"

compact sketch, with full citation of sources;ci. H. Bois, in Sainte

Croir for 1906, for "L'Étudiant et le professeur." A complete (1861); “Bivouac arabe,” “ Chasse au faucon,” “Fauconnier edition of his writings was begun in 1907.

(J.V.B.) grabe (now at Luxembourg) (1863); “Chasse au héron" (1865); “ Voleurs de nuit

(1867); Centaurs et arabes FRONDE, THE, the name given to a civil war in France aitaqués par une lionne ” (1868); “ Halte de muletiers ” (1869); which lasted from 1648 to 1652, and to its sequel, the war with ** Le Nil” and “ Un Souvenir d'Esneh ” (1875). Fromentin was Spain in 1653-59. The word means a sling, and was applied 10 much influenced in style by Eugène Delacroix. His works are this contest from the circumstance that the windows of Cardinal distinguished by striking composition, great dexterity of hand-Mazarin's adherents were pelted with stones by the Paris mob. ling and brilliancy of colour. In them is given with great its original object was the redress of grievances, but the move. truth and refinement the unconscious grandeur of barbarian ment soon degenerated into a factional contest among the nobles, and animal attitudes and gestures. His later works, however, who sought to reverse the results of Richelicu's work and to show signs of an exhausted vein and of an exhausted spirit, overthrow his successor Mazarin. In May 1648 a tax levied on accompanied or caused by physical eníceblement. But it must judicial officers of the parlement of Paris was met by that body, be observed that Fromentin's paintings show only one side of not merely with a refusal to pay, but with a condemnation of a genius that was perhaps even more felicitously expressed in earlier financial cdicts, and even with a demand for the acceptliterature, though of course with less profusion. Dominique," ance of a scheme of constitutional reforms framed by a combrst published in the Revue des deux mondes in 1862, and mittee of the parlement. This charter was somewhat influenced dedicated to George Sand, is remarkable among the fiction by contemporary events in England. But, there is no real of the century for delicate and imaginative observation and for likeness between the two revolutions, the French parlement emotional earnestness. Fromentin's other literary works are being no more representative of the people than the Inns of Visites artistiques (1852); Simples Pèlerinages (1850); Un ÉLE Court were in England. The political history of the time is dans le Sahara (1857); Une Année dans le Sahel (1858); and dealt with in the article FRANCE: History, the present article Las Maitres d'autrefois (1876). In 1876 he was an unsuccessful being concerned chicfly with the military operations of what candidate for the Academy. He died suddenly at La Rochelle was perhaps the most costly and least necessary civil war in on the 27th of August 1876.

history. FROMMEL, GASTON (1862-1906), Swiss theologian, pro- The military record of the first or “ parliamentary" Fronde fessor of theology in the university of Geneva from 1894 10 1906. is almost blank. In August 1648, strengthened by the news An Alsatian by birth, he belonged mainly to French Switzerland, of Condé's victory at Lens, Mazarin suddenly arrested the where he spent most of his life. He may besi be described as leaders of the parlement, whereupon Paris broke into insurrection continuing the spirit of Vinct (q.v.) amid the mental conditions and barricaded the streets. The court, having no army at its marking the end of the 19th century. Like Vinet, he derived immediate disposal, had to release the prisoners and to promise bis philosophy of religion from a peculiarly deep experience of reforms, and Red from Paris on the night of the 22nd of October. the Gospel of Christ as meeting the demands of the moral con- But the signing of the peace of Westphalia set free Condé's sciousness; but he developed even further than Vinet the army, and by January 1649 it was besieging Paris. The peace psychological analysis of conscience and the method of verifying of Rueil was signed in March, after little blood had been shed. every doctrine by direct reference to spiritual experience. Both The Parisians, though still and always anti-cardinalist, refused made much of moral individuality or personality as the crown to ask for Spanish aid, as proposed by their princely and noble and criterion of reality, believing that its correlation with adherents, and having no prospect of military success without Christianity, both historically and philosophically, was most such aid, submitted and received concessions. Thenceforward intimate. But while Vinet laid most stress on the liberty from the Fronde becomes a story of sordid intrigues and half-hearted buman authority essential to the moral consciousness, the warfare, losing all trace of its first constitutional phase. The changed needs of the age caused Frommel to develop rather the leaders were discontented princes and nobles-Monsieur (Gaston aspect of man's dependence as a moral being upon God's spiritual of Orléans, the king's uncle), the great Condé and his brother initiative, “the conditional nature of his liberty." Liberty Conti, the duc de Bouillon and his brother Turenne. To these is not the primary, but the secondary characteristic" of con- must be added Gaston's daughter, Mademoiselle de Montpensier science; “ before being free, it is the subject of obligation." (La grande Mademoisclle), Conde's sister, Madame de LongueOn this depends its objectivity as a real revelation of the Divine ville, Madame de Chevreuse, and the astute intriguer Paul de Will Thus he claimed that a decper analysis carried one beyond Gondi, later Cardinal de Retz. The military operations fell the human subjectivity of even Kant's categorical imperative, into the hands of war-experienced mercenaries, led by two since consciousness of obligation was “ une expérience imposée great, and many second-rate, generals, and of nobles to whom sous le mode de l'absolu.” By his use of imposée Frommel war was a polite pastime. The feelings of the people at large emphasized the priority of man's sense of obligation to his were enlisted on neither side. consciousness either of self or of God. Here he appealed to the This peace of Rucil lasted until the end of 1649. The princes, current psychology of the subconscious for confirmation of his rcccived at court once more, renewed their intrigues against analysis, by which he claimed to transcend mere intellectualism. Mazarin, who, having come to an understanding with Monsieur, In his language on this fundamental point he was perhaps too Gondi and Madame de Chevreuse, suddenly arrested Condé, jealous of admitting an ideal element as implicit in the fceling Conti and Longueville (January 14, 1650). The war which of obligation. Still he did well in insisting on priority to self- followed this coup is called the “Princes' Fronde.” This time conscious thought as a mark of metaphysical objectivity in the it was Turcnne, before and afterwards the most loyal soldier case of moral, no less than of physical experience. Further, he of his day, who headed the armed rebellion. Listening to the found in the Christian revelation the same characteristics as promptings of his Egeria, Madame de Longueville, he resolved belonged to the universal revelation involved in conscience, to rescue her brother, his old comrade of Freiburg and Nördviz. God's sovereign initiative and his living action in history.lingen. It was with Spanish assistance that he hoped to do so; From this standpoint he argued against a purely psychological and a powerful army of that nation assembled in Artois under the type of religion (agnosticisme religieux, as he termed it)--a archduke Leopold, governor-general of the Spanish Netherlands. tendency to which he saw even in A. Sabatier and the symbolo- But the peasants of the country-side rose against the invaders,

teisme of the Paris School-as giving up a real and unifying the royal army in Champagne was in the capable hands of César faith. His influence on men, especially the student class, was de Choiseul, comte du Plessis-Praslin, who counted fifty-two greatly enhanced by the religious force and charm of his per- years of age and thirty-six of war experience, and the little sonality. Finally, like Vinet, he was a man of letters and a fortress of Guise successfully resisted the archduke's attack. penetrating critic of men and systems.

Thereupon, however, Mazarin drew upon Plessis-Praslin's army

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