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writing exist than his description of the coronation procession daughter of Pascoe Grenfell and sister of Mrs Charles Kingsley; of Anne Boleyn through the streets of London, few more full of died in 1860; his second, a daughter of John Warre, M.P. for picturesque power than that in which he relates how the spire Taunton, died in 1874. of St Paul's was struck by lightning; and to have once read is Froude's Life, by Herbert Paul, was published in 1905. to remember for ever the touching and stately words in which
(W. Hu.) be compares the monks of the London Charterhouse preparing FRUCTOSE, LAEVULOSE, or FRUIT-SUGAR, a carbohydrate for death with the Spartans at Thermopylae. Prooss of his of the formula C6H1z0.. It is closely related to ordinary do power in the sustained narration of stirring events are abundant; glucose, with which it occurs in many fruits, starches and also his treatment of the Pilgrimage of Grace, of the sea fight at in honey. It is a hydrolytic product of inulin, from which it St Helens and the repulse of the French invasion, and of the may be prepared; but it is more usual to obtain it from “ invert murder of Rizzio, are among the most conspicuous examples of sugar," the mixture obtained by hydrolysing cane sugar with it. Nor is he less successful when recording pathetic events, sulphuric acid. Cane sugar then yields a syrupy mixture of for his stories of certain martyrdoms, and of the execution of glucose and fructose, which, having been freed from the acid Mary queen of Scots, are told with exquisite feeling and in and concentrated, is mixed with water, cooled in ice and calcium language of well-restrained emotion. And his characters are hydroxide added. The fructose is precipitated as a saccharate, alive. We may not always agree with his portraiture, but the which is filtered, suspended in water and decomposed by carbon men and women whom he saw exist for us instinct with the life dioxide. The liquid is filtered, the filtrate concentrated, and with which he endows them and animated by the motives which the syrup so obtained washed with cold alcohol. On cooling the he attributes to them. His successes must be set against his fructose separates. It may be obtained as a syrup, as fine, failures. At the least he wrote a great history, one which can silky needles, a white crystalline powder, or as a granular never be disregarded by future writers on his period, be their crystallinc, somewhat hygroscopic mass. When anhydrous it opinions what they may; which attracts and delights a multitude melts at about 95° C. It is readily soluble in water and in dilute of readers, and is a splendid example of literary form and grace alcohol, but insoluble in absolute alcohol. It is sweeter than in historical composition.
cane sugar and is more easily assimilated. It has been employed The merits of his work met with full recognition. Each under the name diabetin as a sweetening agent for diabetics, instalment of his History, in common with almost everything since it does not increase the sugar-content of the urine; other which he wrote, was widely read, and in spite of some adverse medicinal applications are in phthisis (mixed with quassia or criticisms was received with eager applause. In 1868 he was other bitter), and for children suffering from tuberculosis or elected rector of St Andrews University, defeating Disraeli scrofula in place of cane sugar or milk-sugar. by a majority of fourteen. He was warmly welcomed in the Chemically, fructose is an oxyketone or ketose, its structural United States, which he visited in 1872, but the lectures on formula being CH2OH(CH-OH)3.CO-CH2OH; this result folIreland which he delivered there caused much dissatisfaction. lowed from its conversion by H. Kiliani into methylbutylacetic On the death of his adversary Freeman in 1892, he was appointed, acid. The form described above is loevo-rotatory, but it is on the recommendation of Lord Salisbury, to succeed him as termed d-fructose, since it is related to d-glucose. Solutions regius professor of modern history at Oxford. Except to a exhibit mutarotation, fresh solutions having a specific rotafew Oxford men, who considered that historical scholarship tion of – 104.0°, which gradually diminishes to -92°. It was should have been held to be a necessary qualification for the synthesized by Emil Fischer, who found the synthetic sugar oflice, his appointment gave general satisfaction. His lectures which he named a-acrose to be (d+1)-fructose, and by splitting on Erasmus and other 16th-century subjects were largely this mixture he obtained both the d and I forms. Fructose attended. With some allowance for the purpose for which resembles d-glucose in being fermentable by yeast (it is the one they were originally written, they present much the same ketose which exhibits this property), and also in its power of characteristics as his earlier historical books. His health gave reducing alkaline copper and silver solutions; this latter way in the summer of 1894, and he died on the 20th of property is assigned to the readiness with which hydroxyl and October.
ketone groups in close proximity sufier oxidation. For the His long life was full of literary work. Besides his labours as structural (stereochemical) relations of fructose see SUGAR. an author, he was for fourteen years editor of Fraser's Magazine. FRUGONI, CARLO INNOCENZIO MARIA (1692-1768), He was one of Carlyle's literary executors, and brought some Italian poet, was born at Genoa on the 21st of November 1692. sharp criticism upon himself by publishing Carlyle's Re- He was originally destined for the church and at the age of miniscences and the Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle, for they fifteen, in opposition to his strong wishes, was shut up in a exhibited the domestic life and character of his old fricnd in an convent; but although in the following year he was induced to unpleasant light. Carlyle had given the manuscripts to him, pronounce monastic vows, he had no liking for this life. He telling him that he might publish them he thought it well acquired considerable reputation as an elegant writer both of to do so, and at the close of his life agreed to their publication. Latin and Italian prose and verse; and from 1716 to 1724 hc Froude therefore declared that in giving them to the world he filled the chairs of rhetoric at Brescia, Rome, Genoa, Bologna was carrying out his friend's wish by cnabling him to make a and Modena successively, attracting by his brilliant fluency a posthumous confession of his faults. Besides publishing these large number of students at each university. Through Cardinal manuscripts he wrote a Life of Carlyle. His earlier study of Bentivoglio he was recommended to Antonio Farnese, duke of Irish history afforded him suggestions for a historical novel Parma, who appointed him his poet laureate; and he remained entitled The Two Chiefs of Dunboy (1889). In spite of one or at the court of Parma until the death of Antonio, after which two stirring scenes it is a tedious book, and its personages are he returned to Genoa. Shortly afterwards, through the interlittle more than machines for the enunciation of the author's cession of Bentivoglio, he obtained from the pope the remission opinions and sentiments. Though Froude had some intimate of his monastic vows, and ultimately succeeded in recovering friends he was generally reserved. When he cared to please, a portion of his paternal inheritance. After the peace of Aix-lahis manners and conversation were charming. Those who Chapelle he returned to the court of Parma, and there devoted knew him well formed a high estimate of his ability in practical the later years of his life chiefly to poetical composition. He affairs. In 1874 Lord Carnarvon, then colonial secretary, sent died on the 20th of December 1768. As a poet Frugoni was Froude to South Africa to report on the best means of promoting one of the best of the school of the Arcadian Academy, and a confederation of its colonies and states, and in 1875 he was his lyrics and pastorals had great facility and elegance. again sent to the Cape as a member of a proposed conference to iurther confederation. Froude's speeches in South Africa were
His collected works were published at Parma in 10 vols. in 1799.
and a more complete edition appeared at Lucca in the same year in rather injudicious, and his mission was a failure (see SOUTII
15 vols. A selection from his works was published at Brescia in AFRICA: History). He was twice married. His first wife, a l 1782, in 4 vols.
FRUIT (through the French from the Lat. fruclus; frui, to its formation. In the gooseberry. (fig. 29), grape, guava, tomato enjoy), in its widest sense, any product of the soil that can be and pomegranate, the seeds nestle in pulp formed by the placentas. enjoyed by man or animals; the word is so used constantly by succulent cells, which are produced from the inner partitioned
In the orange the pulpy matter surrounding the seeds is formed in the Bible, and extended, as a Hebraism, to offspring or lining of the pericarp. In the strawberry the receptacle becomes progeny of man and of animals, in such expressions as the succulent, and bears the mature carpels on its convex surface (fig. 2): fruit of the body," “ of the womb," "fruit of ihy cattle” (Deut. I in the rose there is a fleshy hollow receptacle which bears the carpels xxviii. 4), &c., and generally to the product of any action or
on its concave surface (fig. 3). In the juniper the scaly bracts grow
up round the seeds and become succulent, and in the fig (fig. 4) the effort. Between this wide and frequently figurative use of the receptacle becomes succulent and encloses an inflorescence. word and its application in the strict botanical sense treated The pericarp consists usually of three layers, the external, or below, there is a popular meaning, regarding the objects denoted epicarp (fig. 5. ep); the middle, or mesocarp, m; and the internal, by the word entirely from the standpoint of edibility, and differentiating them roughly from those other products of the soil, which, regarded similarly, are known as vegetables. In this sense "fruit" is applied to such seed-envelopes of plants as are edible, either raw or cooked, and are usually sweet, juicy or of a refreshing flavour. But applications of the word in this sense are apt to be loose and shifting according to the fashion of the time.
Fruit, in the botanical sense, is developed from the flower as the result of fertilization of the ovule. After fertilization various changes take place in the parts of the flower. Those more immediately concerned in the process, the antber and
FIG. 2. stigma, rapidly wither and decay, while the filaments and style often remain for some time; the floral envelopes become dry,
FIG. I. the petals fall, and the sepals are either deciduous, or remain persistent in an altered form; the ovary becomes enlarged, forming the pericarp; and the ovules are developed as the
ep seeds, containing the embryo-plant. The term fruit is strictly applied to the mature pistil or ovary, with the seeds in its interior; but it often includes other parts of the flower, such as the bracts and floral envelopes. Thus the fruit of the hazel and oak consists of the ovary enveloped by the bracts; that of the apple and pear, of the ovary and floral receptacle; and that of the pineapple, of the whole inflorescence. Such fruits are sometimes distinguished as pseudocarps. In popular language, the fruit includes all those parts which exhibit a striking change as the result of Fig. 1.-Samara or winged fruit of Ash (Fraxinus). 1, Entire, fertilization. In general, the fruit is not ripened unless fertiliza- with its wing a; 2, lower portion cut transversely, to show that it tion has been effected; but cases occur as the result of cultivation consists of two cells; one of which, l, is abortive, and is reduced to in which the fruit swells and becomes to all appearance perfect, with a seed g.
a very small cavity, while the other is much enlarged and filled while no seeds are produced. Thus, there are seedless oranges, FIG. 2.- Fruit of the Strawberry (Fragaria vesca), consisting of grapes and pineapples. When the ovules are unfertilized, it is an enlarged succulent receptacle, bearing on its surface the small common to find that the ovary withers and does not come to
dry seed-like fruits (achenes). (After Duchartre.)
From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Bolanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer. maturity; but in the case of bananas, plantains and breadfruit, FIG. 3.-Fruit of the Rose cut vertically. s', Fleshy hollowed the non development of seeds seems to lead to a larger growth receptacle; s, persistent sepals; fr, ripe carpels; e, stamens,
withered. and a greater succulence of fruit.
Fig. 4.- Peduncle of Fig (Ficus Carica), ending in a hollow The fruit, like the ovary, may be formed of a single carpel or of receptacle enclosing numerous male and female flowers. several. It may have one cell or cavity, being unilocular; or many, Fig. 5.-Fruit of Cherry (Prunus Cerasus) in longitudinal section. multilocular, &c. The number and nature of the divisions depend ep. Epicarp: m, mesocarp; en, endocarp. on the number of carpels and the extent to which their edges are From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer. folded inwards. The appearances presented by the ovary do not or endocarp, en. These layers are well secn in such a fruit as the always remain permanent in the fruit. Great changes are observed peach, plum or cherry, where they are separable one from the to take place, not merely as regards the increased size of the ovary. Other; in them the epicarp forms what is commonly called the its softening or hardening, but also in its internal structure, owing skin; the mesocarp. much developed, forms the flesh or pulp, to the suppression, additional formation or enlargement of parts. and hence has sometimes been called sarcocarp; while the endocarp. Thus, in the ash (fig. 1) an ovary with two cells, each containing an hardened by the production of woody cells, forms the stone or ovule attached to a central placenta, is changed into a unilocular putamen immediately covering the kernel or secd. The pulpy fruit with one seed; one ovule becomes abortive, while the other, 8, matter found in the interior of fruits, such as the gooseberry, grape gradually enlarging until the septum is pushed to one side, unites and others, is formed from the placentas, and must not be conwith the walls of the cell, and the placenta appears to be parietal. founded with the sarcocarp. In some fruits, as in the nut, the In the oak and hazel, an ovary with three and two cells respectively, thrce layers become blended together and are indistinguishable. and two ovules in each, produces a one-celled fruit with one seed. In bladder senna (Colulea arborescens) the pericarp retains its leafIn the coco-nut, a trilocular and triovular ovary produces a one- like appearance, but in most cases it becomes altered both in concelled, one-seeded fruit. This abortion may depend on the pressure sistence and in colour. Thus in the date the epicarp is the outer caused by the development of certain ovules, or it may proceed from brownish skin, the pulpy matter is the mesocarp, or sarcocarp, and non-fertilization of all the ovules and consequent non-enlargement the thin papery-like lining is the endocarp covering the hard seed. of the carpels. Again, by the growth of the placenta, or the folding in the medlar the endocarp becomes of a stony hardness. In the inwards of parts of the carpeis, divisions occur in the fruit which melon the epicarp and endocarp are very thin, while the mesocarp did not exist in the ovary. In Catharlocarpus Fistula a one-celled forms the bulk of the fruit, differing in texture and taste in its ex. ovary is changed into a fruit having cach of its seeds in a separate ternal and internal parts. The rind of the orange consists of epicarp cell, in consequence of spurious dissepiments being produced hori- and mesocarp, while the endocarp forms partitions in the interior, zontal from the inner wall of the ovary. In fax (Linum) by the filled with pulpy cells. The part of the pericarp attached to the folding inwards of the back of the carpels a five-celled ovary becomes peduncle is the base, and the point where the style or stigma existed a ten-celled fruit. In Astragalus the folding inwards of the dorsal is the apex. This latter is not always the apparent apex, as in the suture converts a one-celled ovary into a two-celled fruit; and in case of the ovary; it may be lateral or even basilar. The style Oxytropis the folding of the ventral suture gives rise to a similar sometimes remains in a hardened form, rendering the fruit apiculate; change. The development of cellular or pulpy matter, and the at other times it falls off, leaving only traces of its existence. The enlargement of parts not forming whorls of the flower, frequently presence of the style or stigma serves to distinguish certain single alter the appearance of the fruit, and render it difficult to discover I seeded pericarps from seeds.
When the fruit is mature and the seeds are ripe, the carpels | united carpels, two types of dehiscence occur-a longitudinal and a usually give way cither
at the ventral or dorsal suture or at both, transverse. In the longitudinal the separation may take place by Dehiscence
and so allow the seeds to escape. The fruit in this case the dissepiments throughout their length, so that the fruit is resolved of fruits.
is dehiscent. But some fruits are indehiscent, falling to into its original carpels, and each valve represents a carpel, as in
the ground entire, and the seeds eventually reaching the rhododendron, Colchicum, &c.; this dehiscence, in consequence of soil by their decay. By dehiscence the pericarp becomes divided taking place through the septum, is called septicidal (figs. 9, 10). into different pieces, or valves, the fruit being univalvular, bivalvular The valves separate from their commissure, or central line of union, or multivalvular, &c., according as there are one, two or many carrying the placentas with them, or they leave the latter in the valves. The splitting extends the whole length of the fruit, or is centre, so as to form with the axis a column of a cylindrical, conical
partial, the valves forming teeth or prismatic shape. Dehiscence is loculicidal when the union
at the apex, as in the order Caryo-between the edges of the carpels is persistent, and they dehisce by phyllaceae (fig. 6). Sometimes the dorsal suture, or through the back of the loculaments, as in the the valves are detached only at lily and iris (figs. 11, 12). In these cases cach valve consists of a certain points, and thus dehiscence hall of each of two contiguous carpels. The placentas either remain takes place by pores at the apex, united to the axis, or they separate from it, being attached to the as in poppy (hig. 7), or at the base, septa on the valves. When the outer walls of the carpels break off as in Campanula. Indehiscent from the septa, leaving them attached to the central column, the fruits are either dry, as the nut, dehiscence is said to be septifragal (fig. 13), and where, as in Linum or feshy, as the cherry and apple. catharticum and Calluna, the splitting takes place first of all in a
They are formed of one or several septicidal manner, the fruit is described as septicidally septifragal; FIG. 6. carpels. In the former case they while in other cases, as in thorn
apple (Datura Stramonium), where usually contain only a single seed, the splitting is at first loculicidal, the dehiscence is loculicidally FIG. 6.--Seed-vessel or capsule which may become so incorporated septifragal. In all those forms the separation of the valves takes of Campion, opening by ten with the pericarp as to appear to place either from above downwards or from below upwards. In tieth at the apex. The calyx cbe naked,
as in the grain of wheat is seen surrounding the seed- and generally in grasses. In such
ไ%byระนั้น vessel. cases the presence of the remains
2. FM 911 210-88 FIG. 7:-Capsule of Poppy, of style or stigma determines opening by pores p, under the their true nature. radiating peltate stigma s. Dehiscent fruits, when com
posed of single carpels, may open by the ventral suture only, as in the paeony, hellebore, Aquilegia (fig. 26) and Caltha; by the dorsal suture only, as in magnolias and some Proieaceae, or by both together, as in the pea (fig. 8) and bean; in these cases the dehiscence is sulural. When composed of several
iso ho to wait
od ni unya
100 opening by two valves, which separate from the base upwards,
From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
FIG. 15.-Capsule of an Orchid (Xylobium). », valve.
FIG. 16.-Sced-vessel of Anagallisarvensis, opening by circum
scissile dehiscence. Fig. 8.
From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
FIG. 17.--Lomentum of Hedysarum which, when ripe, separates transversely into single-seeded portions or mericarps.
FIG. 18.-Fruit of Geranium pralense, after splitting.
Saxifraga a splitting for a short distance of the ventral sutures of Fig. 8.-Dry dehiscent fruit. The pod the carpels takes place, so that a large apical pore is formed. In (legume) of the Pea; 1, the dorsal suture; the fruit of Cruciferae, as wallflower (fig. 14), the valves separate b, the ventral; c, calyx; s, seeds.
from the base of the fruit, leaving a central replum, or frame, which From Vines' Students' Text-Book of Botany, by per- supports the false septum formed by a prolongation from the parietal mission of Swan Sonnenschein & Co.
placentas on opposite sides of the fruit, extending between the FIG. 9,-(1) Fruit or capsule of Meadow ventral sutures of the carpels. In Orchidaceae (fig. 15) the pericarp, Saffron (Colchicum autumnale), dehiscing along when ripe, separates into three valves in a loculicidal manner,
the septa (septicidally); (2) same cut across, but the midribs of the carpels, to which the placentas are attached, so showing the three chambers with the seeds often remain adherent to the axis both at the apex and base after
attached along the middle line (axile placen- the valves bearing the seeds have fallen. The other type of detation).
hiscence is transverse, or circumscissile, when the upper part of the Fig. 11. F16. 10.-Diagram to illustrate the septi- united carpels falls off in the form of a lid or operculum, as in Anagallis
cidal dehiscence in a pentalocular capsule. and in henbane (Hyoscyamus) (fig. 16). The loculaments i correspond to the number of the carpels, which Sometimes the axis is prolonged beyond the base of the carpels, separate by splitting through the septa, s.
as in the mallow and castor-oil plant, the carpels being united to it FIG. 11.-The seed vessel (capsule) of the Flower-de-Luce (Iris), throughout their length by their faces, and separating from it without opening in a loculicidal manner. The three valves bear the septa opening. In the Umbelliferae the two carpels separate from the in the centre, and the opening takes place through the back of the lower part of the axis, and remain attached by their apices to a loculaments. Each valve is formed by the halves of contiguous prolongation of it, called a carpophore or podocarp. which splits carpels.
into two (fig. 25) and suspends them; hence the fruit is termed a FIG. 12.-Diagram to illustrate loculicidal dehiscence. The locula-cremocarp, which divides into two mericarps. The general term ments 1, split at the back, and the valves separate, bearing the schizocarp is applied to all dry fruits, which break up into two or septa s on their centres.
more one-seeded indehiscent mericarps, as in Hedysarum (fig. 17). FIG. 13.-Diagram to illustrate septifragal dehiscence, in which in the order Geraniaceae the styles remain attached to a centrai the dehiscence takes place through the back of the loculaments i, column, and the mericarps separate from below upwards, before and the valves separate from the septa s, which are left attached to dehiscing by their ventral suture (fig. 18). Carpels which separate the placentas in the centre.
one from another in this manner are called cocci. They are well
of frult or seed.
seen in the order Euphorbiaceae, where there are usually three such of Jericho, a small cruciserous plant (Anastatica hierotuntica), where carpels, and the fruit is termed tricoccus. In many of them, as the plant dries up after developing its fruits and becomes detached Hura crepitans, the cocci separate with great force and elasticity from the ground, the branches curl inwards, and the whole plant is In many leguminous plants, such as Ornithopus, Hedysarum (fig. 17), rolled over the dry ground by the wind. The wind also aids the Enlada, Coronilla and the gum-arabic plant (Acacia arabica), the dispersal of the seeds in the case of fruits which open by small teeth fruit becomes a schizocarp by the formation of transverse partitions (many Caryophyllaceae (fig. 6]) or pores (poppy (fig. 71. Campanula from the folding in of the sides of the pericarp, and distinct separa. &c.); the seeds are in these cases small and numerous, and are jerked tions taking place at these partitions.
through the pores when the capsules, which are generally borne on Fruits are formed by one flower, or are the product of several long, dry stems or stalks, are shaken by the wind. (4) In other cases flowers combined. In the former case they are either apocarpous, members of the animal world aid in seed-dispersal. Fruits often of one mature carpel or of several separate free carpels: or syn- bear stiff hairs or small hooks, which cling to the coat of an animal car pous, of several carpels, more or less completely united. When or the feathers of a bird; such are fruits of cleavers (Galium A parine), the fruit is composed of the ovaries of several flowers united, it is a common hedge-row plant, Ranunculus arvensis (fig. 20), carrot, usual to find the bracts and floral envelopes also joined with them, Geum, &c.; or the fruit or seed has an often bright-coloured, fleshy so as to form one mass; hence such fruits are known as multiple, confluent or anthocar pous. The term simple is applied to fruits which are formed by the ovary of a single flower, whether they are composed of one or several carpels, and whether these carpels are: separate or combined.
The object of the fruit in the economy of the plant is the protection and nursing of the developing seed and the dispersion of the ripe
while fruits containing more than one seed open to allow
possible. The form, colour, structure and method of dehiscence of fruits and the form of the contained
seeds are intimately associated with the means of dispersal, which fall into several categories. (1) By a mechanism residing in the fruit. Thus many
zmijl fruits open suddenly when they are dry, and the sceds are ejected by the twisting or curving of the valves, or in some other way;
spr. e.g. in gorse, by the spiral curving of the valves; in Impatiens, by the twisting of the cocci; in squirting cucumber, by the pressure
Fig. 22. exerted on the pulpy contents by the walls of the pericarp. (2) By aid of various external agencies such as water. Fruits or seeds are sometimes sufficiently buoyant to float for a long time on seaor fresh-water; 6.8: coco-nut, by means of its thick, fibrous coat (mesocarp), is carried hundreds of miles in the sca, the tough, leathery outer coat (epicarp) preventing it from becoming watersoaked. Fruits and seeds of West Indian plants are thrown up on
Fig. 22.--Vertical section of a grain of wheat, showing embryo the coasts of north-west Europe, having bcen carried by the Gulf Stream, and will often germinate; many are rendered buoyant by embryo from endosperm; f.!, foliage leal; p.s, sheath of plumule;
below at the base of the endosperm e; s, scutellum separating water by the tough coat of fruit or seed. Water-lily seeds are per primary root: s.p.r, sheath of primary root.
Fig. 23.-Fruit of Comfrey (Symphylum) surrounded by persistent float for some distance before dropping to the bottom. (3) The calyx,
c. The style s appears to arise from the base of the carpels, most general agent in the dispersal of seeds is the wind or currents
enlarged. of air—the fruit or seed being rendered buoyant by wing-develop longitudinal section. After Berg and Schmidt, magnificd.)
Fig. 24.-Ovary of Foeniculum officinale with pendulous ovules, in ments as in fruits of ash (fig. :) or maple (hig, 21), seeds of pincs
From Strasburger's Lehrbuck de Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer. and firs, or many members of the order Bignoniaceae; or hair. developments as in fruits of clematis, where the style forms a scathery fruit. The two carpels have separated so as to form two mericarps
Fig. 25.-Fruit of Carum Carui. A, Ovary of the flower; B, ripe (m). Part of the septum constitutes the carpophore (a). P. Top of Power-stalk; d, disk on top of ovary; 11, stigma. From Vines Students' Text-Book of Belany, by permission of Swan Sonaenschein covering, which is sought by birds as food, as in stone-fruits such as
plum, cherry (fig. 5), &c., where the seed is protected from injury 11
in the mouth or stomach of the animal by the hard endocarp; or the hips of the rose (fig. 3). where the succulent scarlet "fruit" (the swollen receptacle) envelops a number of small dry true fruits (achenes), which cling by means of stiff hairs to the beak of the bird.
Simple fruits have cither a dry or succulen! pericarp: The achene is a dry, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit, the pericarp of which is closely applied to the seed, but separable from it. It is solitary: Forms of forming a single fruit, as in the dock (fig. 19) and in the cashew, where it is supported on a fleshy peduncle; or aggregate, as in Ranunculus (fig. 20), where several achenes are placed on a common elevated receptacle. In the strawberry the achcnes (fig. 2) are aggregated on a convex succulent receptacle. In the rose they are supported on a concave receptacle (fig. 3), and in the fig the succulent receptacle completely encloses the achenes
(fig. 4). "In Dorstenia the achenes are situated on a flat or slightly From Vines' Students' Text Book of Bulany, by
concave receptacle. Hence what in common language are called the FIG. 20. permission of Swan Sonncoschein & Co.
seeds of the strawberry, rose and fig, are in reality ripe carpels.
The styles occasionally remain attached to the achenes in the form Fig. 19.-Dry one-seeded fruit of dock (Rumex) cut vertically, of feathery appendages, as in Clematis. In Compositae, the fruit ov, Pericarp formed from ovary wall; s, seed; e, endosperm: pl, is an inferior achene (cypsela), to which the pappus (modified calyx) embryo with radicle pointing upwards and cotyledons downwards- remains adherent. Such is also the nature of the fruit in enlarged.
Dipsacaceae (e.g. scabious). When the pericarp. is thin, and Fig. 20.--Achene of Ranunculus arvensis in longitudinal section;
appears like a bladder surrounding the seed, the achene is termed , endosperm; pl. embryo. (Aster Baillon, enlarged.),
a utricle, as in Amarantaccae. When the pericarp is extended in From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
the form of a winged appendage, a samara or samaroid achene is Fig. 21.-Fruit of Common Sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus), produced, as in the ash (fig. 1) and common sycamore (fig. 21). dividing into two mericarps m; s, pedicel; f, wings (nat. size). In these cases there are usually two achenes united, one of which,
however, as in Fraxinus (fig. 1), may be abortive. The wing surappendage, fruits of many Compositae (dandelion, thistle, &c.), rounds the fruit longitudinally in the elm. When the pericarp bewhich are crowned by a plumose pappus, or secus of willow and comes so incorporated with the seed as to be inseparable from it, poplar, or Asclepias (fig: 36), which bear tufts of silky hairs; to as in grains of wheat (fig. 22), maize, oats and other grasses, then the this category belong bladder-like fruits, such as bladder-senna, which are easily rolled by the wind, or cases like the so-called rose I schizocarps olten take the form of achenes, e.g. the mericarps of the
name caryopsis is given. The one-seeded portions (mericarps) of
mallows or of umbellifers (figs. 24, 25). In Labiatac and Boragin- , is twisted like a snail, and in Caesalpinia coriaria, or Divi-divi, it is aceae (e.g comfrey, fig. 23), where the bicarpellary ovary becomes vermiform or curved like a worm. Sometimes the number of seeds our one-seeded portions in the fruit, the partial fruits are of the is reduced, as in Erythrina monosperma and Geoffroya superba, nature of achenes or nutlets according to the texture (leathery or which are one-seeded, and in Plerocarpus and Dalbergio, which are hard) of the pericarp.
two-seeded. The nul or glans is a dry one-celled indehiscent fruit with a The berry (bacca) is a term applied generally to all fruits with hardened pericarp, often surrounded by bracts at the base, and, seeds immersed in pulp, and includes fruits of very various origin.
when mature, containing only In Actaea (baneberry) or Berberis
or more ovules, but only one ever, it is the product of a syn.
trated by the fruits of the hazel as in grape or potato, or inferior, P...
and chestnut, which are covered as in gooseberry (fig. 29) or currant.
Fig. 31.-Transverse section The drupe is a succulent locular syncarpous fruit, in which of the fruit of the Melon usually one-seeded indehiscent the seeds are immersed in pulp.
(Cucumis Melo), showing the fruit, with a pericarp easily The pepo, another indehiscent placentas with the seeds attached From Strasburger's Letobucke der Botanik, distinguishable into epicarp, syncarpous fruit, is illustrated by to them.
The three car pels mesocarp and endocarp: This the fruit of the gourd, melon (fig: forming the pepo are separated by permission of Gustav Fischer. Fig. 26.-Cupule of Quercus
term is applied to such fruits 31), and other Cucurbitaceae. It by partitions. From the centre Aegilops. cp. cupule; gl. fruit.
as the cherry (fig. 5). peach, is formed of three carpels, sur; processes pass outwards, ending (Alter Duchartre.)
plum, apricot or mango. The mounted by the calyx; the rind in the curved placenta.
endocarp is usually hard, form- is thick and fleshy, and there are ing the stone (putamen) of the fruit, which encloses the kernel three or more sced-bcaring parietal placentas, either surrounding a or seed. The mesocarp is generally pulpy and succulent, so as to be central cavity or prolonged inwards into it. The fruit
of the papaw truly a sarcocarp. as in the peach, but it is sometimes of a tough resembles the pepo, but the calyx is not superior. texture, as in the almond, and at other times is more or less fibrous, The hesperidium is the name given to such indehiscent fleshy as in the coco-nut. In the almond there are often two ovules syncarpous fruits as the orange, lemon and shaddock, in which the formed, only one of which comes to perfection. In the raspberry cpicarp and mesocarp form a separable rind, and the endocarp and bramble several small drupes or drupels are aggregated so as to sends prolongations inwards, forming triangular divisions, to the constitute an etaerio.
inner angle of which the seeds are attached, pulpy cells being develThe follicle is a dry unilocular many-seeded fruit, formed from oped around them from the wall. Both pepo and hesperidium may one carpel and dehiscing by the ventral suture. It is rare to meet be considered as modifications of the berry. with a solitary follicle forming the fruit. There are usually several The pome (fig. 30). seen in the apple, pear, quince, medlar and aggregated together, either in a whorl on a shortened receptacle, hawthorn, is a fleshy indehiscent syncarpous fruit, in the formation as in hellebore, aconite, larkspur, columbine (figs. 27. 28) or the order of which the receptacle takes part. The outer succulent part is the Crassulaceae, or in a spiral manner on an elongated receptacle, as swollen receptacle, the horny core being the true fruit developed in Magnolia and Banksia. Occasionally, follicles dehisce by the from the usually five carpels and cnclosing the seeds. In the medlar dorsal suture, as in Magnolia grandiflora and Banksia.
the core (or true pericarp) is of a stony hardness, while the outer The legume or pod is a dry monocarpellary unilocular many-seeded succulent covering is open at the summit. The pome somewhat fruit, formed from one carpel, dehiscing both by the ventral and the resembles the fruit of the rose (fig. 3), where the succulent receptacle
surrounds a number of separate achenes.
The name capsule is applied gencrally to all dry syncarpous fruits, which dehisce by valves. It may thus be unilocular or multilocular, one., or many-seeded. The true valvular capsule is observed in Colchicum (hig. 9), lily and iris (fig. 11). The porose capsule is seen in the poppy (fig. 7). Antirrhinum and Campanula. In Cam panula the pores occur at the base of the capsule, which becomes inverted when ripe. When the capsule opens by a lid, or by circumscissile dehiscence, it is called å pyxidium, as in pimpernel (A nagallis arvensis) (fig. 16), henbane and monkey-pot (Lecythis). The capsule assumes a screw-like form in Helicleres, and a star-like form in star. anise (Ilicium anisalum). In certain instances the cells of the capsule separate from each other, and open with elasticity to scatter the seeds. This kind of capsule is met with in the sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) and other Euphorbiaceae, where the cocci, containing cach a single seed, burst asunder with force; and in Gerani. accac, where the cocci, each containing, when mature, usually one
seed, separate from the carpophore, become curved upwards by their FIG. 28.
adherent styles, and open by the ventral suture (fig. 18). FIG. 27.-Fruit of Columbine (Aquilegia), formed of five follicles from two carpels, with a false septum, dehiscing by, two valves
The siliqua is a dry syncarpous bilocular many-seeded fruit, formed FIG. 28. --Single sollicle, showing dehiscence by the ventral suture from below upwards, the valves separating from the placentas and
FIG. 29.-Transverse section of berry of Gooseberry, showing the leaving them united by the septum (fig. 32). The seeds are attached seeds attached to the parietal placentas and immersed in pulp, on both sides of the septum, either in one row or in two. which is formed partly from the endocarp, partly from the seed-coat. the fruit is long and narrow it is a siliqua (fig. 14); when broad
FIG. 30.-Section of the fruit of the Apple (Pyrus Malus), or pome, and short, silicula (fig. 33). It occurs in cruciferous plants, as wallconsisting of a fleshy covering formed by the floral receptacle and Power, cabbage and cress. in Glaucium and Eschscholtzia (Papathe true fruit or core with five cavities with seeds.
veraceae) the dissepiment is of a spongy nature. It may become
transversely constricted (lomentaceous), as in radish (Raphanus) dorsal suture. It characterizes leguminous plants, as the bean and and sea-kale, and it may be reduced, as in woad (Isatis), to a onepea (fig. 8). In the bladder-senna it forms an inflated legume. In seeded condition. some Leguminosae, as Arachis, Cathartocarpus Fistula and the It sometimes happens that the ovaries of two flowers unite so as tamarind, the fruit must be considered a legume, although it does to form a double fruit (syncard). This may be seen in many species not dehisce. The first of these plants produces its fruit under of honeysuckle. But the fruits which are now to be considered ground, and is called earth-nut; the second has a partitioned consist usually of the Aoral envelopes, as well as the ovaries of legume and is schizocarpic; and both the second and third have several flowers united into one, and are called multiple or confluent. pulpy matter surrounding the seeds. Some legumes are schizocarpic The term anthocar pous has also been applied as indicating that the by the formation of constrictions externally. Such a form is the foral envelopes as well as the carpels are concerned in the formation lomentum or lomentaceous legume of Hedysarum (fig. 17). Coronilla, of the fruit. Ornithopus, Entada and of some Acacias. In Medicago the legume The sorosis is a succulent multiple fruit formed by the confluence