Page images
PDF
EPUB

oi a spike of Powers, as in the fruit of the pine-apple (fig. 34), the, in the plants called angiospermous; while in gymnospermous plants, bread-fruit and jack-fruit. Similarly the fruit of the mulberry such as Coniferae and Cycadaceae, it is naked, or, in other words, represents a catkin-like inflorescence.

has no true pericarp. It sometimes happens in Angiosperms, that The syconus is an anthocarpous fruit, in which the receptacle the seed-vessel is ruptured at an early period of growth, so that completely encloses numerous flowers and becomes succulent. The the seeds become more or less exposed during their development; fig (fig. 4) is of this nature, and what are called its seeds are the this occurs in mignonette, where the capsule opens at the apex, achenes of the numerous flowers scattered over the succulent hollowed and in Cuphea, where the placenta bursts through the ovary and receptacle. In Dorstenia the axis is less deeply hollowed, and of a floral envelopes, and appears as an erect process bearing the young harder texture, the fruit exhibiting osten very anomalous forms. seeds. After fertilization the ovule is greatly changed, in connexion

The strobilus, or cone, is a sced-bearing spike, more or less elon with the formation of the embryo. In the embryo-sac of most
gated, covered with scales, cach of which may be regarded as reprc-Angiosperms (q.v.) there is a development of cellular tissue, the
senting a separate flower, and has often two secds at its base; the endosperm, more or less filling the embryo-sac. In Gymnosperms
seeds are naked, no ovary being present. This fruit is seen in the (9.0.) the endosperm is formed preparatory to fertilization.' The
cones of firs, spruces, larches and cedars, which have received the fertilized egg enlarges and becomes multicellular, forming the

embryo. The cmbryo-sac enlarges greatly. displacing gradually
the surrounding nucellus, which eventually forms merely a thin layer
around the sac, or completely disappears. The remainder of the
nucellus and the integuments of the ovules form the secd-coats.
In some cases (fig. 35) a delicate inner coat or legmen can be dis-
tinguished from a tougher outer coat or testa; often, however, the
layers are not thus separable. The consistency of the seed-coat,
its thickness, the character of its surface, &c., vary widely, the
variations being often closcly associated with the environment or
with the means of seed-dispersal. An account of the development
of the seed from the ovule will be found in the article ANGIOSPERMS.
When the pericarp is dehiscent the secd-covering is of a strong and
often rough character; but when the pericarp is indehiscent and
encloses the seed for a long period, the outer seed-coat is thin and
sost. The cells of the testa are often

coloured, and have projections
and appendages of various kinds. Thus in Abrus precalorius and
Adenanthera pavonina it is of a bright red colour; in French beans
it is beautifully mottled; in the almond it is veined; in the tulip

[ocr errors]

FIG. 33.

[ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

Fig. 35.

Fig. 32.--Honesty (Lunaria biennis), showing the septum after the carpels have fallen away.

From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Boranik, by permission of Gustav Fischer. FIG. 33.-Silicula or pouch of shepherd's purse (Capsella), opening by two folded valves, which separate from above downwards. The partition is narrow, hence the silicula is angustiseptal. From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Bolanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

ch Fig. 34.-Fruit of the pine-apple (Ananassa saliva), developed

FIG. 36. from a spike of numerous flowers with bracts, united so as to form a collective or anthocarpous fruit. The crown of the pine-apple, Remaining cotyledon; ch, chalaza-point at which the nourishing

FIG: 35.-Seed of Pea (Pisum) with one cotyledon reinoved. C, C, consists of a series of empty bracts prolonged beyond the fruit.

vessels cnter; e, tegmen or inner coat; f, funicle or stalk; 8, name of Coniferae, or cone-bearers, on this account. Cone-like plumule of embryo; m, micropyle; pli placenta; , radicle of fruit is also seen in most Cycadaccae. The scales of the strobilus embryo; 1, tigellum or stalk between root and plumule; le, testa. are sometimes thick and closely united, so as to form a more or less F16. 36.-Seed of Asclepias, with a cluster of hairs arising from angular and rounded mass, as in the cypress; while in the juniper the edges of the micropyle. they become fleshy, and are so incorporated as to form a globular and primrose it is rough; in the snapdragon it is marked with fruit of the juniper have received the name of galbulus. In the hop depressions; in cotton and Asclepias (fig. 36) it has hairs attached to the fruit is called also a strobilus, but in it the scales are thin and it and in mahogany, Bignonia, and the pines and firs it is expanded membranous, and the seeds are not naked but are contained in in the form of wing-like appendages (fig. 37). In Collomia, Acanthopericarps.

dium, Cobaea scandens and other seeds, it contains spiral cells, from The same causes which produce alterations in the other parts of which, when moistened with water, the fibres uncoil in a beautiful the flower give rise to anomalous appearances in the fruit. The manner; and in Nax (Linum) and others the cells are converted into carpels, in place of bearing seeds, are sometimes changed into leaves, plants have relation to the scattering of the seed and its germination the upper part of the fruit. In the genus Citrus, to which the orange and lemon belong, it is very common to meet with a scparation of

structures which subserve the same purpose; this especially occurs the carpels, so as to produce what are called horned oranges and

in small pericarps enclosing single seeds, as achencs, caryopsides, &c. fingered citrons. In this case a syncarpous fruit has a tendency to

Thus in Compositae and valerian, the pappose limb of the calyx become apocarpous. In the orange we occasionally find a super- forms a parachute to the pericarp: in Labiatae and some Compositae numerary row of carpels produced, giving rise to the appearance of spiral cells are formed in the epicarp; and the epicarp is prolonged small and imperfect oranges enclosed within the original one; the as a wing in Fraxinus (fig. 1) and Acer (fig. 21). navel orange is of this nature. It sometimes happens that, by the

Sometimes there is an additional covering to the sccd, formed fruit is produced, not by the incorporation of two flowers, but by placenta or extremity of the funicle at the base of thic ovule and union of flowers, double fruits are produced. Occasionally a double after fertilization, to which the name arillus has been given (fig. 38). the abnormal development of a second carpel in the flower.

passes upwards towards the apex, leaving the micropyle uncovered. Arrangement of Fruits.

In the nutmeg and spindle tree this additional coat is formed from A. True fruits--developed from the ovary alonc.

above downwards, constituting in the forner case a laciniated 1. Pericarp not fleshy or fibrous.

scarlet covering called mace. In such instances it has been called
i. Indehiscent—not opening to allow the escape of the an arillode (fig. 39). This arillode, after growing downwards, may
seeds-generally one-sceded. Achene; caryopsis: scarlet covering formed around the naked seed in the yew is by

be reflected upwards so as to cover the micropyle. The fleshy
cypsela; nut; schizocarp.
ii. Dehiscent-the pericarp splits to allow the escape points, there are produced at times other cellular bodies, to which

some considered of the nature of an aril. On the testa, at various
of the seeds-generally many-sccded. Folliclc: | the name of strophioles, or caruncles, has been given, the seeds being

legume; siliqua; capsule. 2. Pericarp generally differentiated into distinct layers, one

strophiolate or carunculate. These tumours may occur near the of which is succulent or fibrous. Drupc; berry.

base of the seed, as in Polygala, or at the apex, as in Castor oil B. Pseudocarps-the development extends beyond the ovary. plant (Ricinus), or they may occur in the course of the raphe, as in Pome; syconus; sorosis.

blood-root (Sanguinaria) and A sarabacca. The funicles of the ovules

frequently attain a great length in the sced, and in some magnolias, The Seed. The seed is formed from the ovule as the result of when the fruit dehisces, they appear as long scarlet cords suspending fertilization. It is contained in a seed-vessel formed from the ovary I the secds outside. The hilum or umbilicus of the seed is usually

[ocr errors]

0604

FIG. 37

Fig. 39.

FIG. 40.

FIG. 41.

well marked, as a scar of varying size; in the calabar bean and in When either endosperm or perisperm or both are present the seed some species of Muuna and Dolichos it extends along a large is said to be albuminous. portion of the edge of the seed; it frequently exhibits marked The albumen varies much in its nature and consistence, and colours, being black in the bean, white in many species of Phaseolus, furnishes important characters. It may be farinaceous or mealy, &c. The micropyle (fig. 35, m) of the seed may be recognizable by consisting chiefly of cells filled with starch, as in cereal grains, the naked eye, as in the pea and bean tribe, Iris, &c., or it may be where it is abundant; fleshy or cartilaginous, consisting of thicker very minute or microscopic. It indicates the true apex of the seed, cells which are still soft, as in the coco-nut, and which sometimes and is important as marking the point to which the root of the em- contain oil, as in the oily albumen of Croton, Ricinus and poppy; bryo is directed. At the micropyle in the bean is observed a small horny, when the cell-walls are slightly thickened and capable of process of integument, which, when the young plant sprouts, is distension, as in date and coffee; the cell-walls sometimes beconie pushed up like a lid; it is called the embryolega. The chalaza (fig. greatly thickened, filling up the testa as a hard mass, as in vegetable 38, ck) is often of a different colour from the rest of the seed. In the Ivory (Phytelephas). The albumen may be uniform throughout, or orange (fig. 40) it is of a reddish-brown colour, and is easily recognized it may present a mottled appear. at one end of the seed when the integuments are carefully removed. ance, as in the nutmeg, the seeds of In anatropal seeds the raphe forms a distinct ridge along one side Anonaceae and some Palms, where of the seed (fig. 41).

is called ruminated. This The position of the seed as regards the pericarp resembles that of mottled appearance is due to a the ovule in the ovary; and the same terms are applied --erect, protrusion of a dark lamella of ascending, pendulous, suspended, curved, &c. These terms have ihe integument between folded no reference to the mode in which the fruit is attached to the axis. protuberances of albumen. А

Thus the seed may be erect while the fruit itsell is pendent, in the cavity is sometimes left in the ordinary meaning of that term. The part of the seed next the axis centre which is usually filled with or the ventral suture is its face, the opposite side being the back. fluid, as in the coconut. The Fig. 42.- The dicotyledonous Seeds exhibit great varieties of form. They may be flattened relative size of the embryo and of embryo of the Pea laid open. laterally (compressed), or from above downwards (de pressed). They the endosperm varies much. In , 6,

The two fleshy cotyledons, may be round, oval, triangular, polygonal, rolled up like a snail, as in Monocotyledons the embryo is or seed-lobes, which remain under Physostemon, or coiled up like a snake, as in Ophiocar yon paradoxum. usually small, and the endosperm ground when the plant sprouts;

large, and the same is true in the 7, the radicular extremity of the case of coffee and many other axis whence the root arises; 1, plants amongst Dicotyledons. the axis (hypocotyl) bearing the The opposite is the case in other young stalk and leaves & (plum. plants, as in the Labiatae, Plum. ule), which lie in a depression of baginaceae, &c.

the cotyledons f. The embryo consists of an axis bearing the colyledons (fig. 42, c). or the first leaves of the plant. To that part of this axis immediately beneath the cotyledons the terms hypocotyl, caulide or tigeilum (1) have been applied, and continuous backwards with it is the young root or radide (?), the descending axis, their point of union being the collar or neck. The terminal growing bud of the axis is called

the plumule or gemmule (g), and represents the ascending axis. The FIG. 38.

radicular extremity points towards the micropyle, while the coty. FIG. 37.-Seed of Pine (Pinus), with a membranous appendage chalaza. Hence, by ascertaining the position of the micropyle and

ledonary extremity is pointed towards the base of the ovule or the u to the testa, called a wing. alba), cut vertically. It is attached to the placenta by the funicle fi embryo; thus in Cuscuta, the embryo appears as an elongated

FIG. 38.---Young anatropal seed of the white Water-lily (Nymphaea chalaza, the two extremities of the embryo can in general be discellular prolongations from which form an aril a a. The vessels of

axis without divisions; and in Caryocar the mass of the embryo is the cord are prolonged to the base of the nucellus n by means of the rapher. The base of the nucellus is indicated by the chalaza ch,

made up by the radicular extremity and hypocotyl, in a groove of

which the cotyledonary extremity líes embedded (fig. 52). In some while the apex is at the micropyle m. The covering of the seed is marked i. nis the nucellus or perisperm, enclosing the embryo-sac es,

monocotyledonous embryos, as in Orchidaceae, the embryo is a

cellular mass showing no parts. is which the endosperm is formed. The embryo e, with its suspensor,

In parasitic plants also which form is contained in the sac, the radicle pointing to the micropyle m.

no chlorophyll, as Orobanche, Monotropo, &c., the embryo remains FIG. 39.--Arillodea, or false aril, of the Spindle-tree (Euonymus), ripening of the seed. When the embryo is surrounded by the endo

without differentiation, consisting merely of a mass of cells until the arising from the micropyle f.

FIG. 40.-Anatropal" seed of the Orange (Citrus Aurantium) sperm on all sides except its radicular extremity it is internal (see opened to show the chalaza c, which forms a brown spot at one end.

figs. 19, 20); when lying outside the endosperm, and only coming

into contact with it at certain points, it is external, as in grasses (c.8. Fig. 41.-Entire anatropal seed of the Orange (Citrus Aurantium),

wheat, fig. 22). When the embryo follows the direction of the axis with its rugose or wrinkled testa, and the rapher ramilying in the

of the seed, it is axile or axial (fig. 43); when it is not in the direction thickness of the testa on one side.

of the axis, it becomes abaxile or abaxial. In campylotropal seeds

the embryo is curved, and in place of being embedded in endosperm, The endosperm formed in the embryo-sac of angiosperms after is frequently external to it, following the concavity of the seed (hg. fertilization, and found previous to it in gymnosperms, consists of 44), and becoming peripherical, with the chala za situated in the cells containing nitrogenous and starchy or latty matter, destined curvature of the embryo, as in Caryophyllaccae. for the nutriment of the embryo. It occupied the whole cavity of It has been already stated that the radicle of the embryo is the embryo-sac, or is formed only at certain portions of it, at the directed to the micropyle, and the cotyledons to the chalaza. In apex, as in Rhinanthus, at the base, as in Vaccinium, or in the middle,

some cases, by the growth of the integuments, the former is turned as in Veronica. As the endosperm increases in size along with the round so as not to correspond with the apex of the nucellus, and then ernbryo-sac and the embryo, the substance of the original nucellus the embryo has the radicle directed to one side, and is called excentric, of the ovule is gradually absorbed. Sometimes, however, as in as is seen in Primulaceae, Plantaginaceae and many palms, especially Musaceae, Cannaceae, Zingiberaceae, no endosperm is formed; the date. The position of the embryo in different kinds of seeds the cells of the original nucellus, becoming filled with food-materials varies. In an orthotropal seed the embryo is inverted or antitropol, for the embryo, are not absorbed, but remain surrounding the the radicle pointing to the apex of the seed, or to the part opposite embryo-sac with the embryo, and constitute the perisperm. Again, the hilum. Again, in an anatropal seed the embryo is erect or in other plants, as Nymphaeaceae (hg. 38) and Piperaceae, both homotropal (fig. 43), the radicle being directed to the base of the endosperm and perisperm are present It was from observations seed. In curved or campylotropal seeds the embryo is folded so on cases such as these that old authors, imagining a resemblance that its radicular and cotyledonary extremities are approximated, betwixt the plant-ovule and the animal ovum, applied the name and it becomes amphitropol (hg. 44).

In this instance the seed albumen to the outer nutrient mass or perisperm, and designated may be exalbuminous, and the embryo may be folded on itself; the endosperm as vitellus. The term albumen is very generally or albuminous, the embryo surrounding more or less completely the used as including all the nutrient matter stored up in the seed, but endosperm and being peripherical. Arcording to the mode in it would be advisable to discard the name as implying a defnite which the seed is attached to the pericarp. the radicle may be chemical substance. There is a large class of plants in which directed upwards or downwards, or laterally, as regards the ovary although at first after fertilization a mass of endosperm is formed, In an orthotropal seed attached to the base of the pericarp it is yet, as the embryo increases in size, the nutrient matter from the superior, as also in a suspended anatropal seed. In other anatropal endospermic cells passes out from them, and is absorbed by the seeds the radicle is inferior. When the seed is horizontal as regards cells of the embryo plant. In the mature seed, in such cases, there the pericarp, the radicle is either centrifugal, when it points to the is no separate mass of tissue containing nutrient food-material outer wall of the ovary: or centripetal, when it points to the axis apart from the embryo itself. Such a seed is said to be exalbuminous, or inner wall of the ovary. These characters are of value for purposes as in Compositae, Cruciferae and most Leguminosae (e.g. pea, fig. 35). I of classification, as they are often constant in large groups of genera. Plants in which there are two cotyledons produced in the embryo In those plants in which there is only a single cotyledon in the are dicotyledonous. The two cotyledons thus formed are opposite embryo, hence called monocolyledonous, the embryo usually has a to each other (figs. 42 and 45), but are not always of the same size. cylindrical form more or less rounded at the extremities, or elongated Thus, in Abronia and other members of the order Nyctaginaceae, one and fusiform, often oblique. The axis is usually very short comof them is smaller than the other (often very small), and in Carapa pared with the cotyledon, which in general encloses the plumule guianensis there appears to be only one, in consequence of the by its lower portion, and exhibits on one side a small slit which indi. intimate union which takes place between the two. The union cates the union of the edges of the vaginal or sheathing portion of between the cotyledonary leaves may continue after the young plant the leaf (fig.: 50). In grasses, by the enlargement of the embryo in a begins to germinate. Such embryos have been called pseudomono- particular direction, the endosperm is pushed on one side, and thus cotyledonous. The texture of the cotyledons varies. They may be the embryo comes to lie outside at the base of the endosperm (higs. 22, thick, as in the pea (hig. 42), exhibiting no traces of venation, with 51). Thé lamina of the cotyledon is not developed. Upon the side their flat internal surfaces in contact, and their backs more or less of the embryo next the endosperm and enveloping it is a large convex; or they may be in the form of thin and delicate laminae, shield-shaped body, termed the sculellum. This is an outgrowth Aattened on both sides, and having distinct venation, as in Ricinus, from the base of the cotyledon, enveloping more or less the cotyledon Jatropho, Euonymus, &c. The cotyledons usually form the greater part of the mature embryo, and this is remarkably well seen in such exalbuminous seeds as the bean and pea.

Cotyledons are usually entire and sessile. But they occasionally become lobed, as in the walnut and the lime; or petiolate, as in Geranium molle; or auriculate, as in the ash. Like leaves in the

ck

0.0

ca

FIG. 46.

FIG. 49.

FIG. 50.

FIG. 51.

FIG. 52.

FIG. 43

Fig. 47.

FIG. 44.

FIG. 45.

FIG. 49. -Polycotyledonous embryo of the Pine (Pinus) beginning to sprout. I, Hypocotyl;, radicle. The cotyledons c are numerous. Within the cotyledons the primordial leaves are seen, constituting the plumule or first bud of the plant.

Fig. 50.-Embryo of a species of Arrow-grass (Triglochin), showing a uniform conical mass, with a slit s near the lower part. The cotyledonc envelops the young bud, which protrudes at the slit

during germination. The radicle is developed from the lower part FIG. 48.

of the axis r.

FIG. 55.-Grain of Wheat (Triticum) germinating, showing (6) FIG. 43.-Seed of Pansy (Viola tricolor) cut vertically. The em.

the cotyledon and (c) the rootlets surrounded by their sheaths

(colcorrhizae). bryo pl is axial, in the midst of fleshy endosperm al. The seed is anatropal, and the embryo is homotropal; the cotyledons, co point the winole mass, becoming narrowed and curved at its extremity.

FIG. 52.-Embryo of Caryocar. I, Thick hypocotyl, forming nearly to the base of the nucellus or chalaza 'ch, while the radicle, or the other extremity of the embryo, points to the micropyle, close to the

and applied to the groove s. In the figure this narrowed portion is hilum h. The hilum or base of the seed, and the chalaza or base of slightly separated from the groove; c, two rudimentary cotyledons. the nucellus are united by means of the rapher.

FIG. 44: ---Seed of the Red Campion (Lychnis), cut vertically, and plumule, in some cases, as in maize, completely investing it; showing the peripherical embryo, with its iwo cotyledons and its in other cases, as in rice, merely sending small prolongations over its radicle. The embryo is curved round the albumen, so that its anterior face at the apex. By others this scutellum is considered cotyledons and radicle both come near the hilum (amphitropa!). as the true cotyledon, and the sheathing structure covering the

FIG. 45.-Mature dicotyledonous embryo of the Almond, with plumule is regarded as a ligule or axillary stipule (see GRASSES). one of the cotyledons removed. !, Radicle; I, young stemor

In many aquatic monocotyledons (e.g. Potamogeton, Ruppia and caulicle; c, one of the cotyledons left: 1, line of insertion of the others) there is a much-developed hypocotyl, which forms the cotyledon which has been removed: 8. plumulc.

greater part of the embryo and acts as a store of nutriment in Fig. 46.-Exalbuminous seed of Wallflower (Cheiranthus) cut germination; these are known as macropodous embryos. A similar vertically. The radicle r is folded on the edges of the cotyledons c case is that of Caryocar among Dicotyledons, where the swollen which are accumbent.

hypocotyl occupies most of the embryo (fig. 52). In some grasses, Fig. 47.-Transverse section of the seed of the Wallflower (Cheir. as oats and rice, a projection of cellular tissue is seen upon the side anikus), showing the radicle r folded on the edges of the accumbent of the embryo opposite to the scutellum, that is, on the anterior cotyledons c.

side. This has been termed the epiblast. It is very large in rice. Fig. 48.--Transverse section of the seed of the Dame's Violet This by some was considered the rudimentary second cotyledon, (Hesperis). The radicle r is folded on the back of the cotyledons c, but is now generally regarded as an outgrowth of the sheath of the which are said to be incumbent.

true cotyledon.

(A. B. R.)

FRUIT AND FLOWER PARMING. The different sorts of bud, cotyledons may be either applied directly to cach other, or may be solded in various ways. In geranium the cotyledons are

fruits and flowers are dealt with in articles under their own twisted and doubled; in convolvulus they are corrugated; and in headings, to which reference may be made, and these give the potato and in Bunias, they are spiral. ---the same terms being the substantial facts as to their cultivation. See also the article applied as to the foliage leaves. The radicle and cotyledons are

HORTICULTURE. either straight or variously curved. Thus, in some cruciferous plants, as the wallflower, the cotyledons are applied by their faces,

GREAT BRITAIN and the radicle (figs. 46, 47) is folded on their edges, so as to be lateral; the cotyledons are here accumbent. In others, as Hesperis, The extent of the fruit industry may be gathered from the the cotyledons (fig: 48) are applied to each other by their faces; figures for the acreage of land under cultivation in orchards and the radicle, 7, is folded on their back, so as to be dorsal, and and small fruit plantations The Board of Agriculture returns the cotyledons are incumbent. Again, the cotyledons are conduplicate when the radicle is dorsal, and enclosed between their folds. concerning the orchard areas of Great Britain showed a continuous In other divisions the radicle is folded in a spiral manner, and the expansion year by year from 199,178 acres in 1888 to 234,660 cotyledons follow the same course.

acres in 1901, as will be learnt from Table I. There was, it is In many gymnosperms more than two cotyledons are present, and they are arranged in a whorl. This occurs in Coniferae, especi: true, an exception in 1892, but the decline in that year is exally in the pine, fir (fig. 49), spruce and larch, in which six, nine,

plained by the circumstance that since 1891 the agricultural twelve and even fifteen have been observed. They are lincar, and returns have been collected only from holdings of more than resemble in their form and mode of development the clustered or one acre, whercas they were previously obtained from all holdings fasciculated leaves of the larch. Plants having numerous coty

of a quarter of an acre or more. As there are many holdings ledons are termed polycotyledonous. In species of Streptocarpus the cotyledons are permanent, and act the part of leaves. One of them

of less than an acre in extent upon which fruit is grown, and as is frequently largely developed, while the other is small or abortive. fruit is largely raised also in suburban and other gardens which

1895

1900

do not come into the returns, it may be taken for granted that | Oxford, Salop, Sussex, Warwick and Wilts. Apples are the the actual extent of land devoted to fruit culture exceeds that principal fruit grown in the western and south-western counties, which is indicated by the official figures. In the Board of pears also being fairly common. In parts of Gloucestershire, Agriculture returns up to June 1908, 308,000 acres are stated however, and in the Evesham and Pershore districts of Worcesterto be devoted to fruit cultivation of all kinds in Great Britain.shire, plum orchards exist. Plums are almost as largely grown TABLE I.--Extent of Orchards in Great Britain in cach Year, as apples in Cambridgeshire. Large quantities of apples, plums, 1887 to 1901.

damsons, cherries, and a fair quantity of pears are grown for the

market in Kent, whilst apples, plums and pears predominate in Year. Acres. Year. Acres. Year. Acres.

Middlesex. In many counties damsons are cultivated around 1887

202,234 1892 208,950 1897 224,116 fruit plantations to shelter the latter from the wind.
1888
199,178

1893
211,664 1898

226,059 Of small fruit (currants,gooseberries,strawberries, raspberries, 1889 199,897 1894 214,187 1899 228,603 &c.) no return was made of the acreage previous to 1888, in 1890 202,305

218,428

232,129

which year it was given as 36,724 acres for Great Britain. In 1891 209,996 1896 221,254 1901

234,660

1889 it rose to 41,933 acres. Table II. shows that the expansion of the orchard area of Great Later figures are shown in Table III. It will be observed that, Britain is mainly confined to England, for it has slightly de- owing to corrections made in the enumeration in 1897, a considercreased in Wales and Scotland. The acreage officially returned

Table III.-Areas of Small Fruil in Great Britain. as under orchards is that of arable or grass land which is also

Year. Acres. Year. Acres. Year. Acres. TABLE II. ---Areas under Orchards in Exgland, Wales and ScotlandAcres.

1890

46,234 1894 68,415 1898 69,753

1891 Year. Wales.

58704 England.

74.547

1895 Scotland. Great Britain.

71.526

1899 1892 62,148 1896 76,245 1900

73.780 1896

1893 65.487 1897 69,792 1901
3677
215.642

74.999 1935

221,254 1897 218,261

3707 2148 224,116 1898 220,220

and 3690

able reduction in the arca is recorded for that
2149
226,059

year, pre1899 222,712

3606 2225

228,603

sumably the error then discovered existed in all the preceding 1900 226,164 3695 2270

232,129 returns. The returns for 1907 gave the acreage of small fruit 1901 228.580 3767 2313

234,660

as 82,175 acres, and in 1908 at 84,880 acres--an area more than 1908 244,430

3577
2290
250,297

double that of 1889. used for fruit trees of any kind. Conditions of soil and climate There has undoubtedly been a considerable expansion, rather determine the irregular distribution of orchards in Great Britain. than a contraction, of small fruit plantations since 1896. The The dozen counties which possess the largest extent of orchard acreage of small fruit in Great Britain is about one-third that of land all lie in the south or west of the island. According to the the orchards. As may be seen in Table IV., it is mainly confined returns for 1908 (excluding small fruit arcas) they were the

to England, though Scotland has over 4000 more acres of small following:

TABLE IV.- Areas under Small Fruit in England, Wales and Scotland

-Acres. County. Acres. County. Acres. County. Acres.

Year.

Wales. Scotland.
England.

Great Britain. 32,751 Worcester

23,653 Salop 4685 Devon 27,200 Cloucester 20,424

Dorset
4464

1898 63,438
Monmouth

1044

5271 Herelord

69.753
28,316 | Cornwall
5.415

3914
Somerset
Middlesex
Wilts

61,867 1106
25,279
3630

5553
5,300

71,526
1900
66.749

I109
5922

73,780
67,828
1092 6079

74.999 Leaving out of consideration the county of Kent, which grows 1908 75,750

7930

84,880 a greater variety of fruit than any of the others, the counties of Devon, Hereford, Somerset, Worcester and Gloucester have fruit than of orchards. About one-third of the area of small an aggregate orchard area of 124,872 acres. These five counties fruit in England belongs to Kent alone, that county having of the west and south-west of England-constituting in one returned

24,137 acres in 1908. Cambridge now ranks next with continuous area what is essentially the cider country of Great 6878 acres, followed by Norfolk with 5876 acres, Worcestershire Britain-embrace therefore rather less than half of the entire with 4852 acres, Middlesex with 4163 acres, Hants with 3320 orchard area of the island, while Salop, Monmouth and Wilts acres and Essex with 2150 acres. It should be remarked that have about 300 less than they had a few years ago. Five English between 1900 and 1908 Cambridgeshire had almost doubled counties have less than 1000 acres each of orchards, namely, its arca of small fruits, from 3740 to 6878 acres; whilst both the county of London, and the northern counties of Cumberland, Norfolk and Worcestershire in 1908 had larger areas devoted Westmorland, Northumberland and Durham. Rutland has to small fruits than Middlesex-in which county there had just over 100 acres. The largest orchard areas in Wales are in been a decrease of about 400 acres during the same period. the two counties adjoining Hereford--Brecon with 1136 acres The largest county area of small fruit in Wales is 806 acres and Radnor with 727 acres; at the other extreme is Anglesey, in Denbighshire, and in Scotland 2791 acres in Perthshire, with a decreasing orchard area of only 22 acres. Of the Scottish 2259 acres in Lanarkshire, followed by 412.acres in Forfarshire. counties, Lanark takes the lead with 1285 acres, Perth, Stirling The only counties in Great Britain which makc no return under and Haddington following with 684 and 129 acres respectively. the head of small fruit are Orkney and Shetland; and Sutherland Ayr and Midlothian are the only other counties possessing 100 only gives as acres. It is hardly necessary to say that consideracres or more of orchards, whilst Kincardine, Orkney and able arcas of small fruit, in kitchen gardens and elsewhere, find Shetland return no orchard area, and Banff, Bute, Kinross, no place in the official returns, which, however, include small Nairn, Peebles, Sutherland and Wigtown return less than 10 fruit grown between and under orchard trees. acres each. It may be added that in 1908 Jersey returned 1090 Gooseberries are largely grown in most small fruit districts. acres of orchards, Guernsey, &c., 144 acres, and the Isle of Man, Currants are less widely cultivated, but the red currant is more 121 acres; the two last-named places showing a decline as extensively grown than the black, the latter having suffored compared with eight years previously.

seriously from the .ravages of the black currant mite. Kent is Outside the cider counties proper of England, the counties in the great centre for raspberries and for strawberries, though, which orchards for commercial fruit-growing have increased in addition, the latter fruit is largely grown in Cambridgeshire considerably in recent years include Berks, Buckingham, (2411 acres), Hampshire (2327 acres), Norfolk (2067 acres) Cambridge, Essex, Lincoln, Middlesex, Monmouth, Norfolk, I and Worcestershire (1273 acres). Essex, Lincolnsbire, Cheshire,

Kent.

1899

1901

1 200

Acres,

Acres.

Pears.

Plums.

Cherries.

20,501

979

1894

3292

4200

1044

219 312 402 281

994

159

558 4231

1

5934 6601

3491

2131

200

394

[blocks in formation]

Cornwall and Middlesex each has more than 500 acres devoted | rose in 1908 to $60,000. In 1900, also, currants, gooseberries and to strawberry cultivation.

strawberries, hitherto included in unenumerated raw fruit, were The following statement from returns for 1908 shows the the import was 64.462 cwt., valued at £87.170 (1908, £121.850):

likewise for the first time separately returned. Of raw currants area under different kinds of fruit in 1907 and 1908 in Great of raw gooseberries 26,045 cwt., valued af (14.626 (1908, £25.520); Britain and also whether there had been an increase or decrease: and of raw strawberries, 52,225.cut., valued at £85,949. In 1907

only 44.000 cut. of strawberries were imported. In 1901 the Increase or

quantities and values were respectively-currants, 70,402 cwt.,
1907.

1908.
Decrease. Table V.- Imports of Raw Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries and

Grapes into the United Kingdom, 1892 lo 1901. Quantilies in
Acres.

Thousands of Bushels (thousands of cwl. in 1900 and 1901).
Small Fruit-

Values in Thousands of Pounds Sterling Strawberries 27,827 28,815

+ 988 Raspberries

8,878
9,323
+ 445

Quantities.
Currants and Goose-

Year. berries

25.590
26,241 + 651
Apples.

Grapes.
Other kinds.
19,880

+ 621

1892
4515
637
413
217

762
82,175
84,880 +2705

1893
3460
915
777

346
4969 1310

777
311

833 Orchards

1895

407
401
196

865
Apples
172,643 172.751

+ 108
1896 6177

483
560

883 Pears

8,911
9,604
+ 693
1897

1052 Cherries

12,027
11,868

1898 3459

492
922

1136 Plums

14.901
15,683
+ 782
1899 3861
572

1158 Other kinds :

41,694
40,391
-1303

1900
2129
477

243
1901 1830

264
250,176 250,297
+ 121

Values.
It appears from the Board of Agriculture returns that 27,433
acres of small fruit was grown in orchards, so that the total

1892 1354
297

135 extent of land under fruit cultivation in Great Britain at the end

1893 844

347
332
195

530
1389
411
302

167 of 1908 was about 308,000 acres.

1895
960
167
166
96

487 There are no official returns as to the acreage devoted to 1896 1582

207
242

443 orchard cultivation in Ireland. The figures relating to small fruit,

1897 1187

378
498
178

495 moreover, extend back only to 1899, when the area under this

1898

435
231

550
1899 1186

266
294

154 head was returned as 4809 acres, which became 4359 acres in 1900

1225
367 393

308

595 1900 and 4877 acres in 1901. In most parts of the country

1901
1183
296
244
214

695 there are districts savourable to the culture of small fruits,

1908 2079

515
428
235

728 such as strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries and currants,

1 Thousands of cwts. and of top fruits, such as apples, pears, plums and damsons. £75,308; gooseberries, 21.735 cwt., £11,420; strawberries, 38,604 The only localities largely identified with fruit culture as an cwt., £51,290. Up to 1899 the imports of tomatoes were included industry are the Drogheda district and the Armagh district. amongst unenumerated raw vegetables, so that the quantity was In the former all the kinds named are grown except strawberries, not separately ascertainable. For 1900 the import of tomatoes the speciality being raspberries, which are marketed in Dublin, Traction under 2 d. per Ib. For 1901 the quantity was 793.991 cwt.; Belfast and Liverpool. In the Armagh district, again, all the and the value (734,051; for 1906, there were 1,124.700 cwt., valued kinds named are grown, but in this case strawberries are the aí 1953,475; for 1907, 1,135.499 cut., valued at 11,020,805; and speciality, the markets utilized being Richhill, Belfast, and those for 1908, 1,160,283, cwl., valued at 1955.983. in Scotland. In the Drogheda district the grower bears the fruits, such as can easily be produced at home, was 4,195,654.

In 1908 the outlay of the United Kingdom upon imported raw
cost of picking, packing and shipping, but he cannot estimate made up as follows:
his net returns until his fruit is on the market. Around Armagh

Apples.
£2.079.703 Plums

£428,966 the Scottish system prevails--that is, the fruit is sold while Grapes.

728,026 Currants

121,852 growing, the buyer being responsible for the picking and

Pears

515.914 Apricots and peaches 60,141 Cherries

235,523

Gooseberries marketing.

25,529 The amount of fruit imported into the United Kingdom has fruit, and 560,000 on nuts other than almonds " used as fruit,"

In addition about £280,000 was spent upon unenumerated such an important bearing on the possibilities of the industry which would include walnuts and filberts, both produced at home. that the following figures also may be useful:

It is certain, therefore, that the expenditure on imported fruits, The quantities of apples, pears, plums, cherries and such as are grown within the limits of the United Kingdom, exceeds

grapes imported in the raw condition into the United Kingdom in each four millions sterling per annum. The remainder of the outlay on year, 1892 to 1901, are shown in Table V. Previous io 1892 apples imported fruit in 1908, amounting to over £5,000,000, was made only were separatelyenumerated. Upto 1899 inclusive the quantities up of £2,269,651 for oranges. £471,713 for lemons, 41.769,249 for were given in bushels, but in 1900 a change was made to hundred- bananas, and (560,301 for almond-nuts; these cannot be grown on weights. This renders the quantities in that and subsequent years

an industrial scale in the British Isles. not directly comparable with those in earlier years, but the com

It may be interesting to note the source of some of these imported parison of the values, which are also given in the table, continues fruits. The United States and Canada send most of the apples, to hold good. The figures for 1908 have been added to show the the quantity for 1907 being 1,413,000 cwt. and 1.588,000 cwt. increase that had taken place. In some years the value of imported respectively, while Australia contributes 280,000 cwt. Plums apples exceeds the aggregate value of the pears, plums, cherries come chiefly from France (200,000 cwt.), followed with 38.000 cwt. and grapes imported. The extreme values for apples shown in the from Germany and 28,000 cwt. from the Netherlands.

Pears are table are 1844.000 in 1893 and £2,079,000 in 1908. Grapes rank next imported chictly from France (204.000 cwt.) and Belgium (176,000); to apples in point of value, and over the seventeen years the amount

but the Netherlands send 52,000 'wt., and the United States 24.000 ranged between £394,000 in 1892 and £728,000 in 1908.. On the

The great bulk of imported , 7matoes comes from the Canary average, the annual outlay on imported pears is slightly in excess Islands, the quantity in 1907 being 604.692 cut. The Channel of that on plums. The extremes 'shown are (167,000 in 1895 and

Islands also sent 223.800 cwt., Frarice 115.500 cwt., Spain 169.000 1515,000 in 1908. In the case of plums, the smallest outlay tabulated cwt., and Portugal a long way behind with 11,700' cut. is [166,000 in 1895, whilst the largest is £498,000 in 1897. The the strawberries imported come from France (33,800 cwi.) and the amounts expended upon imported cherries varied between [96,000 Netherlands (10,300 cwt.). in 1895 and 1308,000 in 1900. In 1900 apricots and peaches, im. Fruit-growing in Kenl.-Kent is by far the largest fruit-growing ported raw, previously included with raw plums, were for the first county in England. For centuries that county has been famous ime separately enumerated, the import into the United Kingdom for its

fruit, and appears to have been the centre for the dis. ributhe quantity was 13,463 cwt. and the value £32,350. The latter I tion of trees and grafts throughout the country. The cultivasion

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]
« PreviousContinue »