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to act as the banker of the Habsburgs, a connexion destined to | Marcus was the author of a book on horse-breeding, Wie und bring fame and fortune to his house. Under the lead of Jakob, wo man ein Geslül von gulen edeln Kriegsrossen aufricklen soll who had been trained for business in Venice, the Fuggers were (1578), and of a German translation of the Historia ecclesiastica interested in silver mines in Tirol and copper mines in Hungary, of Nicephorus Callistus. He founded the Nordendorf branch while their trade in spices, wool and silk extended to almost of the family, which became extinct on the death of his grandson, all parts of Europe. Their wealth enabled them to make large Nicolaus, in 1676. Another grandson of Marcus was Franz loans to the German king, Maximilian I., who pledged to them Fugger (1612-1664), who served under Wallenstein during the the county of Kirchberg, the lordship of Weissenborn and other Thirty Years' War, and was afterwards governor of Ingolstadt. lands, and bestowed various privileges upon them. Jakob He was killed at the battle of St Gotthard on the ist of August built the castle of Fuggerau in Tirol, and erected the Fuggerei 1664. at Augsburg, a collection of 106 dwellings, which were let at low Johann Fugger had three sons, Christoph (d. 1615) and rents to poor people and which still exist. Jakob Fugger and Marcus (d. 1614), who founded the families of Fugger-Glölt and his two nephews, Ulrich (d. 1525) and Hieronymus (d. 1536), Fugger-Kirchheim respectively, and Jakob, bishop of Constance the sons of Ulrich, died without direct heirs, and the family was from 1604 until his death in 1626. Christoph's son, Otto Heincontinued by Georg's sons, Raimund (1489–1535) and Anton rich (1592-1644), was a soldier of some distinction and a knight (1493–1560), under whom the Fuggers attained the summit of of the order of the Gulden Flecce. He was one of the most their wealth and influence.
active of the Bavarian generals during the Thirty Years' War, Jakob Fugger's florins had contributed largely to the election and acted as governor of Augsburg, where his rule aroused of Charles V. to the imperial throne in 1519, and his nephews much discontent. The family of Kirchheim died out in 1672. and heirs maintained close and friendly relations with the great That of Glött was divided into several branches by the sons emperor. In addition to lending him large sums of money, they of Otto Heinrich and of his brother Johann Ernst (d. 1628). farmed his valuable quicksilver mines at Almaden, his silver These lines, however, have gradually become extinct except the mines at Guadalcanal, the great estates of the military orders eldest line, represented in 1909 by Karl Ernst, Count Fugger of which had passed into his hands, and other parts of his revenue Glött (b. 1859). Anton Fugger's third son Jakob, the founder of as king of Spain; receiving in return several tokens of the the family of Wellenburg, had two sons who left issue, but in 1777 emperor's favour. In 1530 Raimund and Anton were granted the possessions of this branch of the family were again united by the imperial dignity of counts of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn, Anselm Joseph (d. 1793), Count Fugger of Babenhausen. In and obtained full possession of these mortgaged properties; 1803 Anselm's son, Anselm Maria (d. 1921), was made a prince of in 1534 they were given the right of coining money; and in 1541 the Holy Roman Empire, the title of Prince Fugger of Babenreceived rights of jurisdiction over their lands. During the diet hausen being borne by his direct descendant Karl (b. 1861). On of Augsburg in 1530 Charles V. was the guest of Anton Fugger the fall of the empire in 1806 the lands of the Fuggers, which at his house in the Weinmarkt, and the story relates how the were held directly of the empire, were mediatized under Bavaria merchant astonished the emperor by lighting a fire of cinnamon and Württemberg. The heads of the three existing branches with an imperial bond for money due to him. This incident of the Fuggers are all hereditary members of the Bavarian forms the subject of a picture by Carl Becker which is in the Upper House. National Gallery at Berlin. Continuing their mercantile career, Augsburg has many interesting mementoes of the Fuggers, the Fuggers brought the new world within the sphere of their including the family burial-chapel in the church oi St Anna; operations, and also carried on an extensive and lucrative the Fugger chapel in the church of St Ulrich and St Asra; the business in farming indulgences. Moreover, both brothers Fuggerhaus, still in the possession of one branch of the family; found time to acquire landed property, and were munificent and a statue of Johann Jakob Fugger. patrons of literature and art. When Anton died he is said to In 1593 a collection of portraits of the Fuggers, engraved by have been worth 6,000,000 florins, besides a vast amount of Dominique Custos of Antwerp, was issued at Augsburg. Editions property in Europe, Asia and America; and before this time panied by a genealogy in Latin, the latter by one in German. Another
with :27 portraits appeared in 1618 and 1620, the former accomthe total wealth of the family had been estimated at 63,000,000 cdition of this Pinacotheca Fuggerorum, published at Vienna in 1754. florins. The Fuggers were devotedly attached to the Roman includes 139 portraits. See Chronik der Familie Fugger vom Jakre Catholic Church, which benefited from their liberality. Jakob 1590, edited by C. Meyer (Munich, 1902); A. Geiger, Jakob Fugger, had been made a count palatine (Pfalzgraf) and had received 1459-1525 (Regensburg, 1895); A. Schulte, Die Fugger in Rom, other marks of favour from Pope Leo X., and several members (Jena, 1896); K. Häbler, Die Geschichte der Fuggerschen Handlung
1495-1523 (Leipzig, 1904); R. Ehrenberg. Das Zeitalter der Fugger of the family had entered the church; one, Raimund's son, in Spanien (Weimar, 1897); A. Stauber, Das Haus Fugger (Augs. Sigmund, becoming bishop of Regensburg.
burg. 1900); and M. Jansen, Die Anfänge der Fugger (Leipzig, In addition to the bishop, three of Raimund Fugger's sons
1907). attained some degree of elebrity. Johann Jakob (1516-1575), FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWS, a term applied in the United was the author of Wahrhaftigen Beschreibung des österreichischen States to the Statutes passed by Congress in 1793 and 1850 to und habsburgischen Nahmens, which was largely used by S. von provide for the return of negro slaves who escaped from one Bircken in his Spiegel der Ehren des Erzhauses Österreich (Nurem- state into another or into a public territory. A fugitive slave berg, 1668), and of a Geheim Ernbuch des Fuggerischen Geschlechtes.clause was inserted in the Articles of Confederation of the New He was also a patron of art, and a distinguished counsellor of England Confederation of 1643, providing for the return of the Duke Albert IV. of Bavaria. After the death of his son Konfugitive upon the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction stantin, in 1627, this branch of the family was divided into three out of which the said servant fled--noirial by jury being provided lines, which became extinct in 1738, 1795 and 1846 respectively. for. This seems to have been the only instance of an interAnother of Raimund's sons was Ulrich (1526-1584), who, after colonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, serving Pope Paul III. at Rome, became a Protestant. Hated indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to on this account by the other members of his family, he took another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery refuge in the Rhenish Palatinate; greatly interested in the sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it Greck classics, he occupied himself in collecting valuable manu- became necessary to adopt a uniform met hod for the return of scripts, which he bequeathed to the university of Heidelberg. fugitive slaves. Such provision was made in the Ordinance of Raimund's other son was Georg (d. 1579), who inherited the 1787 (for the Northwest Territory), which in Article VI. provided countships of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn, and founded a branch that in the case of “any person escaping into the same (the of the family which still exists, its present head being Georg, Northwest Territory) from whom labor or service is lawfully Count Fugger of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn (b. 1850).
claimed in any one of the original states, such fugitive may be Anton Fugger left three sons, Marcus (1520-1597), Johann lawsully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or (d. 1598) and Jakob (d. 1598), all of whom left male issue. her labor or service as aforesaid.” An agreement of the sort was necessary to persuade the slave-holding states to union, and in penalties were imposed upon marshals who refused to enforce the the Federal Constitution, Article IV., Section II., it is provided law or from whom a fugitive should escape, and upon individuals that “no person held 10 service or labor in one state, under the who aided negroes 10 escape; the marshal might raise a posse laws thercol, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any comitatus; a fee of $10 was paid to the commissioner when his law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or decision favoured the claimant and only $5 when it favoured the labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom fugitive; and both the fact of the escape and the identity of the such service or labour may be due."
fugitive were to be determined on purely ex parte testimony, The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the The severity of this measure led to gross abuses and defeated its 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest purpose; the number of abolitionists increased, the operations Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did of the Underground Railroad became more efficient, and new not contain the word " slave "; by its provisions any Federal Personal Liberty Laws were enacted in Vermont (1850), Condistrict or circuit judge or any stale magistrale was authorized necticut (1854), Rhode Island (1854), Massachusetts (1855), to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged Michigan (1855), Maine (1855 and 1857), Kansas (1858) and fugitive. The measure soon met with strong opposition in the Wisconsin (1858). These Personal Liberty Laws forbade justices northern states, and Personal Liberty Laws were passed to hamper and judges to take cognizance of claims, extended the habeas olbicials in the execution of the law; Indiana in 1824 and Con-corpus act and the privilege of jury trial to fugitives, and necticut in 1828 providing jury trial for sugitives who appealed punished false testimony severely. The supreme court of from an original decision against them. In 1840 New York and Wisconsin went so far (1859) as to declare the Fugitive Slave Law Vermont extended the right of trial by jury to fugitives and unconstitutional. These state laws were one of the grievances provided them with attorneys. As early as the first decade of officially referred to by South Carolina (in Dec. 1860) as justifying the 19th century individual dissatisfaction with the law of 1793 her secession from the Union. Attempts to carry into eflect the had taken the form of systematic assistance rendered to negroes law of 1850 aroused much bitterness. The arrests of Sims and escaping from the South to Canada or New England--the of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of “Jerry" M'Henry, in so-called “
· Underground Railroad."! The decision of the Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Prigg v. 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Pennsylvania in 1842 (16 Peters 539), that state authorities Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave could not be forced to act in fugitive slave cases, but that Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the national authorities must carry out the national law, was Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories. followed by legislation in Massachusetts (1843), Vermont (1843), With the beginning of the Civil War the legal status of the Pennsylvania (1847) and Rhode Island (1848), sorbidding state slave was changed by his master's being in arms. General B. F. officials to help enforce the law and refusing the use of state Butler, in May 1861, declared negro slaves contraband of war. gaols for fugitive slaves. The demand from the South for more A confiscation bill was passed in August 1861 discharging from effective Federal legislation was voiced in the second sugitive slave his service or labour any slave employed in aiding or promoting law, drafted by Senator J. M. Mason of Virginia, and enacted on any insurrection against the government of the United States. the 18th of September 1850 as a part of the Compromise Measures By an act of the 17th of July 1862 any slave of a disloyal master of that year. Special commissioners were to have concurrent who was in territory occupied by northern troops was declared jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the ipso facto frec. But for some time the Fugitive Slave Law was inferior courts of Territories in ensorcing the law; fugitives could considered still to hold in the case of fugitives from masters in not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; the border states who were loyal to the Union government, and
it was not until the 28th of June 1864 that the Act of 1850 was 1 The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad repealed. cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the presidents" of
See J. F. Rhodes, flistory of the United States from the Compromise the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many
of 1850, vols. i. and ii. (New York, 1893); and M. G. M.Dougall, ductors," and their discussion of the packages" and " freight
Fugitive Slaves, 1619-1865 (Boston, 1891). shipped by them. The system reached from Kentucky and Virginia FUGLEMAN (from the Ger. Flügelmann, the man on the across Ohio, and from Maryland across Pennsylvania and New York, to New England and Canada, and as carly as 1817 a group of Flügel or wing), properly a military term for a soldier who is anti-slavery men in southern Ohio had helped to Canada as many as
selected to act as “guide," and posted generally on the flanks 1000 slaves. The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the with the duty of directing the march in the required line, or of work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of giving the time, &c., to the remainder of the unit, which conforms them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania. I io his movements, in any military exercise. The word is then who, in 1822, rcmoved to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and applied to a ringleader or one who takes the lead in any movewas fined $8000; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.
mcnt or concerted movement. The most picturesque figure of the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman (c. 1820), called by her friend: John Brown, of voices or parts. It was, up to the end of the 16th century,
PUGUE (Lat. fuga, flight), in music, the mutual "pursuit "General ” Tubman, and by her fellow negroes made about a score of trips into the South, Bringing out with her if not later, the name applied to two art-forms. (A) Fuga 300 negroes altogether. At one time a reward of S40,000 was offered ligata was the exact reproduction by one or more voices of the for her capture. She was a mystic, with remarkable clairvoyant statement of a leading part. The reproducing voice (comes) powers, and did great service as a nurse, a spy and a scout in the Civil War. Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a native of North Carolina
was seldom if ever written out, for all differences between it (whose cousin, Vestal Coffin, had cstablished before 1819 a "station"
and the dux were rigidly systematic; e.g. it was an exact inversion, of the Underground near what is now Guilford College, North Caro- or exactly twice as slow, or to be sung backwards, &c. &c. lina), in 1826 settled in Wayne County, Ohio; his home at New Hence, a rule or canon was given, often in enigmatic form, by Garden (now Fountain City) was the mecting point of three " lines " from Kentucky; and in 1847 he removed to Cincinnati, where his which the comes was deduced from the dux: and so the term labours in bringing slaves out of the South were even more successful.
canon became the appropriate name for the form itself, and is It has been argued that the Underground Railroad delayed the final still retained. (B) A composition in which the canonic style decision of the slavery question, inasmuch as it was a " safety was cultivated without canonic restriction was, in the 16th valve "; for, without it, the more intelligent and capable of the negro slaves would, it is asserted, have become the leaders of in: century, called fuga ricercala or simply a ricercarc, a term which surrections in the South, and would not have been removed from is still used by Bach as a title for the fugues in Das musikalische the places where they could have done most damage. Consult Opfer. William Still, The Underground Railroad (Philadelphia, 1872), a collec- The whole conception of fugue, rightly understood, is one of tion of anecdotes by a negro agent of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery the most important in music, and the reasons why some con. Society, and of the Philadelphia branch of the Railroad; and the important and scholarly work of Wilbur H. Sicbert, The Underground trapuntal compositions are called fugues, while others are not, Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1898).
are so trivial, technically as well as aesthetically, that we have
preferred to treat the subject separately under the general of Bach. Every word is a definition, both retrospective and heading of CONTRAPUNTAL FORMs, reserving only technical prophetic; and in “transverse" we see all that Sir Frederick terms for definition here.
Gore Ousteley expresses in his popular distinction between the (i.) If in the beginning or "exposition" the material with which "perpendicular” or homophonic style in which harmony is the opening voice accompanies the answer is faithfully reproduced built up in chords, and the horizontal " or polyphonic style in as the accompaniment to subsequent entries of the subject, it which it is woven in threads of independent melody. (D. F.T.) is called a countersubject (sce COUNTERPOINT, under sub-heading FÜHRICH, JOSEPH VON (1800-1876), Austrian painier, was Double Counter poini). Obviously the process may be carried born at Kratzau in Bohemia on the 9th of February 1800. Decply further, the first countersubject going on to a second when the impressed as a boy by rude pictures adorning the wayside chapels subject enters in the third part and so on. The term is also of his native country, his first attempt at composition was a applied to new subjects appearing later in the fugue in combina- sketch of the Nativity for the festival of Christmas in his father's tion (immediate or destined) with the original subject. Cherubini, house. He lived to sce the day when, becoming celebrated as bolding the doctrine that a fugue cannot have more than one a composer of scriptural episodes, his sacred subjects were subject, insists on applying the term to the less prominent of transferred in numberless repctitions to the roadside churches of the subjects of what are commonly called double sugues, i.e. the Austrian state, where humble peasants thus learnt to admire fugues which begin with two parts and two subjects simultan- modern art reviving the models of earlier ages. Führich has eously, and so also with Iriple and quadruple fugues.
been fairly described as a “ Nazarenc," a romantic religious artist (ii.) Episodes are passages separating the entries of the subject.' whose pencil did more than any other to restore the old spirit Episodes are usually developed from the material of the subject of Dürer and give new shape to countless incidents of the gospel and countersubjects; they are very rarely independent, but and scriptural legends. Without the power of Cornelius or the then conspicuously so.
grace of Overbeck, he composed with great skill, especially in (iii.) Strcito, the overlapping of subject and answer, is a resource outline. His mastery of distribution, form, movement and the possibilities of which may be exemplified by the setting of expression was considerablc. In its peculiar way his drapery the words omnes generationes in Bach's Magnificat (see Bach). was perfectly cast. Essentially creative as a landscape
(iv.) The distinction between real and lonal fugue, which is draughtsman, he had still no secling for colour; and when still sometimes treated as a thing of great historical and technical he produced monumental pictures he was not nearly so importance, is rcally a mere detail resulting from the fact that successful as when designing subjects for woodcuts. Führich's a violent oscillation between the keys of tonic and dominant fame extended far beyond the walls of the Austrian capital, is no part of the function of a fugal exposition, so that the answer and his illustrations to Ticck's Genojeva, the Lord's Prayer, is (especially in its first notes and in points that tend to shist the the Triumph of Christ, the Road to Bcthlchem, the Succession key) not so much a transposition of the subject to the key of of Christ according to Thomas à Kempis, the Prodigal the dominant as an adaptation of it from the tonic part to the Son, and the verses of the Psalter, became well known. His dominant part of the scale, or vice versa; in short, the answer Prodigal Son, especially, is remarkable for the fancy with which is as far as possible on the dominant, not in the dominant. The the spirit of evil is embodied in a figure constantly recurring, modifications this principle produces in the answer (which have and like that of Mephistopheles exhibiting templation in a human been happily described as resembling “ sore-shortening ") are yet demoniacal shape. Führich became a pupil at the Academy the only distinctive marks of tonal fugue; and the text-books of Prague in 1816. His first inspiration was derived from the are half filled with the attempt to reduce them from matters prints of Dürer and the Faust of Cornelius, and the first fruit of of ear to rules of thumb, which rules, however, have the mcrit this turn of study was the Genoseva scries. In 1826 he went to (unusual in those of the academic fugue) of being founded on Rome, where he added three frescoes to those executed by observation of the practice of great masters. But the same Cornelius and Overbeck in the Palazzo Massimi. His subjects principle as often as not produces answers that are exact trans- were taken from the life of Tasso, and are almost solitary examples positions of the subject; and so the only kind of real sugue of his talent in this class of composition. In 1831 he finished (i.e. fugue with an exact answer) that could rightly be contrasted the Triumph of Christ now in the Raczynski palace at Berlin. with tonal fugue would be that in which the answer ought to In 1834 he was made custos and in 1841 professor of composition be tonal but is not. It must be admitted that tonal answers are in the Academy of Vienna. After this he completed the monu. rare in the modal music of the 16th century, though their melodic mental pictures of the church of St Nepomuk, and in 1854-1861 principles are of yet earlier date; still, though tonal fugue does the vast series of wall paintings which cover the inside of the not become usual until well on in the 17th century, the idea Lerchenfeld church at Vienna. In 1872 he was pensioned and that it is a separate species is manifestly absurd, unless the term made a knight of the order of Franz Joseph; 1875 is the datc of his simply mcans " fugue in modern tonality or key," whatever the illustrations to the Psalms. He died on the 13th of March 1876. answer may be.
His autobiography was published in 1875, and a memoir by his The term
is usually reserved for those cntries of the subject that are placed in what may be called the “ comple- FUJI (Fuji-san, Fujiyama, Fusiyama), a celebrated mountain mentary” position of the scale, whether they are
of Japan, standing W.S.W. of Tokyo, ils base being about 70 m. modified or not. Thus the order of entries in the exposition of by rail from that city. It rises to a height of 12,395 ft. and its the first fugue of the Wohllemp. Klav. is subject, answer, answer, southern slopes reach the shore of Suruga Bay. It is a cone of subject; a departure from the usual rule according to which beautifully simple form, the more striking to view because it subject and answer are strictly alternate in the exposition. stands isolated; but its summit is not conical, being broken by
In conclusion we may remind the reader of the most accurate a crater some 2000 ft. in diameter, for Fuji is a quicscent volcano. as well as the most vivid description ever given of the essentials Small outbursts of steam are still to be observed at some points. of a fugue, in the famous lines in Paradise Lost, book xi. An eruption is recorded so lately as the first decade of the 18th “ His volant touch,
century. The mountain is the resort of great numbers of pilgrims Instinct through all proportions, low and high,
(see also Japan). Fled and pursued transverse the resonant fugue."
FU-KIEN (formerly Min), a south-eastern province of China, It is hard to realize that this description of organ-music was bounded N. by the province of Cheh-kiang, S. by that of Kwangwritten in no classical period of instrumental polyphony, but tung, W. by that of Kiang-si and E. by the sea. It occupies an just half-way between ihe death of Frescobaldi and the birth area of 53,480 sq. m. and its population is estimated at 20,000,000.
An episode occurring during the exposition is sometimes called The provincial capital is Fuchow Fu, and it is divided into eleven
son Lucas in 1886.
The principal river is the Min, which is formed by the junction, in Bornu, Bagirmi, Wadai and the upper Nile Valley,' but have in the neighbourhood of the city of Yen-p'ing Fu, of three rivers, no political power in those countries. Their most southerly namely, the Nui-si, which takes its rise in the mountains on the emirate is Adamawa, the country on both sides of the upper western frontier in the prefecture of Kien-ning Fu, the Fuh-tun Benue. In this vast region of distribution the Fula populations Ki, the source of which is found in the district of Kwang-isih in are most dense towards the west and north, most scattered the north-west of the province, and the Ta-shi-ki (Shao Ki), which towards the east and south. Originally herdsmen in the western rises in the mountains in the western district of Ning-hwa. From and central Sudan, they extended their sway east of the Niger, Yen-p'ing Fu the river takes a south-easterly course, and after under the leadership of Othman Dan Fodio, during the early passing along the south face of the city of Fuchow Fu, empties years of the 19th century, and having subdued the Hausa states, itself into the sea about 30 m. below that lown. Its upper course founded the empire of Sokoto with the vassal emirates of Kano, is narrow and rocky and abounds in rapids, but as it approaches Gando, Nupe, Adamawa, &c. Fuchow Fu the channel widens and the current becomes slow The question of the ethnic affinities of the Fula has given rise and even. Its depth is very irregular, and it is navigable only by to an enormous amount of speculation, but the most reasonable native boats of a small class. Two other rivers flow into the sea theory is that they are a mixture of Berber and Negro. This is near Amoy, neither of which, however, is navigable for any now the most generally accepted theory. . Certainly there is no distance from its mouth owing to the shallows and rapids with reason to connect them with the ancient Egyptians. In the which they abound. Thirty-five miles inland from Amoy stands district of Senegal known as Fuladugu or “Fula Land,” where the city of Chang Chow, famous for the bridge which there spans the purest types of the race are sound, the people are of a reddish the Kin-lung river. This bridge is 800 ft. long, and consists of brown or light chestnut colour, with oval faces, ringlety or even granite monoliths stretching from one abutment to another. The smooth hair, never woolly, straight and even aquiline noses, soil of the province is, as its name, “ Happy Establishment,". delicately shaped lips and regular features quite differentiating indicates, very productive, and the scenery is of a rich and varied them from the Negro type. Like most conquering races the character. Most of the hills are covered with verdure, and the Fula are, however, not of uniform physique, in many districts less rugged are laid out in terraces. The principal products of approximating to the local type. They nevertheless maintain the province are tea, of which the best kind is that known as throughout their widespread territory a certain national solidBohea, which takes its name, by a mispronunciation, from the arity, thanks to common speech, traditions and usages. The Wu-e Mountains, in the prefecture of Kien-ning Fu, where it is ruling caste of the Fula differs widely in character from the grown; grains of various kinds, oranges, plantins, lichis, bamboo, herdsmen of the western Sudan. The latter are peaceable, ginger, gold, silver, lead, tin, iron, salt (both marine and rock), inoffensive and abstemious. They are mainly monogamous, deers' horns, beeswax, sugar, fish, birds' nests, medicine, paper, and by rigidly abstaining from foreign marriages have preserved cloth, timber, &c. Fu-kien has three open ports, Fuchow Furacial purity. The ruling caste in Nigeria, on the other hand, opened in 1842, Amoy opened to trade in the same year and despise their pastoral brethren, and through generations of Funing. The latter port was only opened to foreign trade in polygamy with the conquered tribes have become more Negroid 1898, but in 1904 it imported and exported goods to the value of in type, black, burly and coarse featured. Love of luxury, £7668 and £278,160 respectively.
pomp and finery is their chief characteristic. Taken as a whole, FUKUI, a town of Japan in the province of Echizen, Nippon, the Fula race is distinguished by great intelligence, frankness of near the west coast, 20 m. N. by E. of Wakasa Bay. It lies in disposition and strength of character. As soldiers they are a volcanic district much exposed to earthqua and suffered renowned almost exclusively as cavalry; and the race has severely during the disturbances of 1891-1892, when a chasm over produced several leaders possessed of much strategical skill. 40 m. long was opened across the Neo valley from Fukui 10 Besides the ordinary Negro weapons, they use iron spears with Katabira. But Fukui subsequently revived, and is now in a leatherbound handles and swords. They are generally excellent flourishing condition, with several local industries, especially the rulers, stern but patient and just. The Nigerian emirs acquired, manufacture of paper, and an increasing population exceeding however, an evil reputation during the 19th century as slave 50,000. Fukui has railway communication. There are ruins of raiders. They have long been devout Mahommedans, and a castle of the Daimios of Echizen.
mosques and schools exist in almost all their towns. Tradition FUKUOKA, a town on the north-west coast of the island of says that of old every Fula boy and girl was a scholar; but Kiushiu, Japan, in the province of Chikuzen, 90 m. N.N.E. of during the decadence of their power towards the close of the 19th Nagasaki by rail. Pop. about 72,000. With Hakata, on the century education was not highly valued. Power seems to have opposite side of a small coast stream, it forms a large centre of somewhat spoilt this virile race, but such authorities as Sir population, with an increasing export trade and several local Frederick Lugard believe them still capable of a great future. industries. Of these the most important is silk-weaving, and The Fula language has as yet found no place in any African Hakata especially is noted for its durable silk fabrics. Fukuoka linguistic family. In its rudiments it is akin to the Hamitowas formerly the residence of the powerful daimio of Chikuzen, Semitic group. It possesses two grammatical genders, not and played a conspicuous part in the medieval history of Japan, masculine and feminine, but the human and the non-human; the renowned temple of Yeiyas in the district was destroyed by the adjective agrees in assonance with its noun, and euphony fire during the revolution of 1868. There are several other places plays a great part in verbal and nominal infections,
In some of this name in Japan, the most important being Fukuoka in the ways resembling the Negro dialects, it betrays non-Negroid province of Mutsu, North Nippon, a railway station on the main influences in the use of suffixes. The name of the people has many line from Tokyo to Aimori Ura Bay. Pop. about 5000.
Fulbe or Fula (sing. Pullo, Peul) is the Mandingan PULA (FULBE, FELLATAH or Peuls), a numerous and powerful name, Follani the Hausa, Fellatah the Kanuri, Fullan the African people, spread over an immense region from Senegal Arab, and Fulde on the Benue. Like the name Abate," white," nearly to Darfur. Strictly they have no country of their own, and given them in Kororofa, all these seem to refer to their light nowhere form the whole of the population, though nearly always reddish hue. the dominant native race. They are most numerous in Upper
See F. Ratzel, History of Mankird (English ed., London, 1896Senegal and in the countries under French sway immediately 1898); Sir F Lugard, " Northern Nigeria," in Geographical Journal south of Senegambia, notably Futa Jallon. Farther east they (July 1904): Grimal de Guirodon, Les Pils (1887); E. A. Brackenrule, subject to the control of the French, Segu and Massena, bury, A Short Vocabulary of the Fulani Language (Zungeru, 1907):
the articles NIGERIA and SOKOTO and authorities there cited. countries on both banks of the upper Niger, to the south-west of Timbuktu. The districts within the great bend of the Niger Sir Wm. Wallace in a report on Northern Nigeria (" Colonial have a large Fula population. East of that river Sokoto and its
series, No. 551. 1907) calls attention to the exodus "of
thousands of Fulani of all sorts, but mostly Mellawa, from the tributary emirates are ruled by Fula princes. subject to the
rrench Middle Niger," and states that the majority of the emigrants control of the British Nigerian administration. Fula are settled I are settling in the Nile valley.
FULCHER (or FOUCHER) OP CHARTRES (1058-c. 1130), | its abbot was primate of all the abbots in Germany and Gaul, French chronicler, was a priest who was present at the council and later he became a prince of the Empire. : Fulda was specially of Clermont in 1095, and accompanied Robert II., duke of famous for its school, which was the centre of the theological Normandy, on the first crusade in 1096. Having spent some learning of the early middle ages. Among the teachers here time in Italy and taken part in the fighting on the way to the were Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, who was abbot from 822 to 842, Holy Land, he became chaplain to Baldwin, who was chosen and Walafrid Strabo. Early in the roth century the monastery king of Jerusalem in 1100, and lived with Baldwin at Edessa was reformed by introducing monks from Scotland, who were and then at Jerusalem. He accompanied this king on several responsible for restoring in its old strictness the Benedictine rule. warlike expeditions, but won more lasting fame by writing his Later the abbey lost some of its lands and also its high position, Historia Hicrosolymilana or Gesla Francorum Jerusalem ex- and some time before the Reformation the days of its glory pugnantium, one of the most trustworthy sources for the history were over. Johann von Henneberg, who was abbot from 1529 of the first crusade. In its final form it is divided into three to 1541, showed some sympathy with the teaching of the rebooks, and covers the period between the council of Clermont formers, but the Counter-Reformation made great progress here and 1127, and the author only gives details of events which he under Abbot Balthasar von Dernbach. Gustavus Adolphus bimself had witnessed. It was used by William of Tyre. Fulcher gave the abbey as a principality to William, landgrave of Hesse, died after 1127, probably at Jerusalem. He has been consused but William's rule only lasted for ten years. In 1752 the abbot with Foucher of Mongervillier (d. 1171), abbot of St-Père-en-was raised to the rank of a bishop, and Fulda ranked as a princeVallée at Chartres, and also with another person of the same bishopric. This was secularized in 1802, and in quick succession name who distinguished himself at the siege of Antioch in it belonged to the prince of Orange, the king of France and the 1098.
grand-duchy of Frankfort. In 1816 the greater part of the The Historia, but in an incomplete form, was first published by principality was ceded by Prussia to Hesse-Casscl, a smaller J. Bongars in the Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611). The best portion being united with Bavaria. Sharing the fate of Hesseedition is in tome iii. of the Recueil des historicus des croisades, Cassel, this larger portion was annexed by Prussia in 1866. In Ilistoriens occidentaux (Paris, 1866); and there is a French translation in tome xxiv. of Guizot's Collection des mémoires relatifs à
1829 a new bishopric was founded at Fulda. l'histoire de France (Paris, 1823-1835).
For the town see A. Hartmann, Zeitgeschichte von Fulda (Fulda, Sec H. von Sybel, Geschichte des ersten Kreuzauges (Leipzig, 1881): 1895); J. Schneider, , Führer durch die Stadt Fulda (Fulda, 1899); and A. Molinier, Les Sources de l'histoire de France, tome ií. (Paris, I and Chronik von Fulda und dessen Umgebungen (1839). For the 1902).
history of the abbey see Gegenbaur, Das Kloster Fulda im Karolinger
Zeitalier (Fulda, 1871-1874); Arndt, Geschichte des Hochstifts Fulda FULDA, a town and episcopal sce of Germany, in the Prussian (Fulda, 1860); and the Fuldaer Geschichtsblätter (1902 fol.). province of Hesse-Nassau, between the Rhön and the Vogel- FULGENTIUS, FABIUS PLANCIADES, Latin grammarian, Gebirge, 69 m. N.E. from Frankfort-on-Main on the railway a native of Africa, flourished in the first half of the 6th (or the to Bebra. Although irregularly built the town is. pleasantly last part of the 5th) century A.D. He is to be distinguished situated, and contains two fine squares, on one of which stands a from Fulgentius, bishop of Ruspe (468-533), to whom he was fine statue of St Boniface. The present cathedral was built probably related, and also from the bishop's pupil and biographer, at the beginning of the 18th century on the model of St Peter's Fulgentius Ferrandus. Four extant works are attributed to at Rome, but it has an ancient crypt, which contains the bones him. (1) Mythologiarum libri ii., dedicated to a certain of St Boniface and was restored in 1892. Opposite the cathedral Catus, a presbyter of Carthage, containing 75 myths briefly told, is the former monastery of St Michael, now the episcopal palacc. and then explained in the mystical and allegorical manner of The Michaelskirche, attached to it, is a small round church built, the Stoics and Neoplatonists. For this purpose the author in imitation of the Holy Sepulchre, in 822 and restored in 1853. generally invokes the aid of ctymologies which, borrowed from Of other buildings may be mentioned the Library, with upwards the philosophers, are highly absurd. As a Christian, Fulgentius of 80,000 printed books and many valuable MSS., the stately sometimes (but less frequently than might have been expected) palace with its gardens and orangery, the former Benedictine quotes the Bible by the side of the philosophers, to give a nunnery (sounded 1625, and now used as a scminary), and the Christian colouring to the moral lesson. (2) Expositio Vergilianae Minorite friary (1238) now used as a furniture warehouse. Among continentiae (continentia =contents), a sort of appendix 10 (1), the secular buildings are the fine Schloss, the Bibliothck, the dedicated to Catus. The poet himself appears to the author and town hall and the post office. There are several schools, a hospital explains the twelve books of the Acneid as a picture of human founded in the 13th century, and some new artillery barracks. life. The three words arma (= virtus), vir (= sapientia), primus Many industries are carried on in Fulda. These include weaving (=princeps) in the first line represent respectively substantia and dyeing, the manufacture of linen, plush and other textiles corporalis, scusaalis, ornans. Book i. symbolizes the birth and and brewing. There are also railway works in the town. Acarly childhood of man (the shipwreck of Acneas denotes the large trade is done in catile and grain, many markets being held peril of birth), book vi. the plunge into the depths of wisdom. here. Fine views are obtained from several hills in the neighbour-|(3) Exposilio scrmonum antiquorum, explanations of 63 rare and hood, among these being the Frauenberg, the Petersberg and obsolete words, supported by quotations (sometimes from authors thc Kalvarienberg.
and works that never existed). It is much inferior to the similar Fulda owes its existence to its famous abbey. It became a work of Nonius, with which it is often edited. (4) Liber absque town in 1208, and during the middle ages there were many litteris dc aclatibus mundi el hominis. In thc MS. heading of this struggles between the abbots and the townsfolk. During the work, the name of the author is given as Fabius Claudius Peasants' War it was captured by the rebels and during the Gordianus Fulgentius (Claudius is the name of the father, and Seven Years' War by the Hanoverians. It came finally into the Gordianus that of the grandfather of the bishop, to whom some possession of Prussia in 1866. From 1734 to 1804 Fulda was attribute the work) The title Absque littcris indicates that one the seat of a university, and latterly many assemblics of German letter of the alphabet is wholly omitted in cach successive book bishops have been held in the town.
(A in bk, i., B in bk. ii.). Only 14 books are preserved. The The great Benedictine abbey of Fulda occupies the place in matter is chiefly taken from sacred history. In addition to these, the ecclesiastical history of Germany which Monte Cassino holds Fulgentius speaks of carly poetical attempts after the manner of in Italy, St Gall in South Germany, Corvey in Saxony, Tours Anacreon, and of a work called Physiologus, dealing with medical in France and Iona in Scotland. Founded in 744 at the instiga-questions, and including a discussion of the mystical signification, tion of St Boniface by his pupil Sturm, who was the first abbot, of the numbers 7 and 9. Fulgentius is a representative of the it became the centre of a great missionary work. It was liberally so-called late African style, taking for his models Apuleius, endowed with land by the princes of the Carolingian house and Tertullian and Martianus Capella, His language is bombastic, others, and soon became one of the most famous and wealthy aficcted and incorrect, while the lengthy and elaborale periods establishments of its kind. About 968 the pope declared that I make it difficult to understand his mcaning.