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See the edition of the four works by R. Helm (1893, Teubner | Putney Bridge over the Thames; North End Road between series); also M. Zink, Der Mytholog Fulgentius (1867): E., Jung- Hammersmith and Fulham Roads; Lillie Road between South

“De Fulgentii actate et scriptis," in Acta Societalis Philologac Lipsiensis, i. (187!); A. Ebert, Allgemeine Geschichte der Liit. des Kensington and Fulham Palace Road; and Wandsworth Bridge Mittelalters, i.; article " Fulgentius" by C. F. Böhr in Ersch and Road leading S. from New King's Road to Wandsworth Bridge. Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopadie; Teuffel-Schwabe, History of In the north Fulham includes the residential district known as Roman Literature (Eng. trans.).

West Kensington, and farther south that of Walham Green. FULGINIAE (mod. Foligno), an ancient town of Umbria, The manor house or palace of the bishops of London stands in Italy, on the later line of the Via Flaminia, 15 m. S. of Nuceria. grounds, beautifully planted and surrounded by a moat, believed It appears to have been of comparatively late origin, inasmuch to be a Danish work, near the river west of Putney Bridge. Its as it had no city walls, but, in imperial times especially, owing oldest portion is the picturesque western quadrangle, built by to its position on the new line of the Via Flaminia, it must have Bishop Fitzjames (1506-1522). The parish church of All increased in importance as being the point of departure of roads Saints, between the bridge and the grounds, was erected in to Perusia and to Picenum over the pass of Plestia. It appears 1881 from designs by Sir Arthur Blomfield. The fine old monuto have had an amphitheatre, and three bridges over the Topinoments from the former building, dating from the 16th to the are attributed to the Roman period. Three miles to the N. lies 18th centuries, are mostly preserved, and in the churchyard are the independent community of Forum Flaminii, the site of the memorials of several bishops of London and of Theodore Hook which is marked by the church of S. Giovanni Profiamma, at (1841). The public recreation grounds include the embankment or near which the newer line of the Via Flaminia rejoined the and gardens between the river and the palace grounds, and older. It was no doubt founded by the builder of the road, there are also two well-known enclosures used for sports within C. Flaminius, consul in 220 B.C. (See FOLIGNO and FLAMINIA, the borough. Of these Hurlingham Park is the headquarters VIA.)

(T. As.)

of the Hurlingham Polo Club and a fashionable resort; and FULGURITE (from Lat. fulgur, lightning), in petrology, the Queen's Club, West Kensington, has tennis and other courts name given to rocks which have been fused on the surface by for the use of members, and is also the scene of important lightning, and to the characteristic holes in rocks formed by the football matches, and of the athletic meetings between Oxford same agency. When lightning strikes the naked surfaces of and Cambridge Universities, and those between the English rocks, the sudden rise of temperature may produce a certain and American Universities held in England. In Seagrave Road amount of fusion, especially when the rocks are dry and the is the Western fever hospital. The parliamentary borough of electricity is not readily conducted away. Instances of this Fulham returns one member. The borough council consists of have been observed on Ararat and on several mountains in the a mayor, 6 aldermen and 36 councillors. Arca, 1703.5 acres. Alps, Pyrenees, &c. A thin glassy crust, rescmbling a coat of Fulham, or in its earliest form Fullanham, is uncertainly varnish, is formed; its thickness is usually not more than one stated to signify “the place either of fowls or “ of dirt." eighth of an inch, and it may be colourless, white or yellow. When The manor is said to have been given to Bishop Erkenwald examined under the microscope, it usually shows no crystalliza- about the year 691 for himself and his successors in the see of tion, and contains minute bubbles due to the expansion of air London, and Holinshed relates that the Bishop of London was or other gases in the fused pellicle. Occasionally small microliths lodging in his manor place in 1141 when Geoffrey de Mandeville, may appear, but this is uncommon becausc so thin a film would riding out from the Tower of London, took him prisoner. At cool with extreme rapidity. The minerals of the rock beneath the Commonwealth the manor was temporarily out of the are in some cases partly fused, but the more refractory often bishops' hands, being sold to Colonel Edmund Harvey. There appear quite unaffected. The glass has arisen from the melting is no record of the first erection of a parish church, but the first of the most fusible ingredients alone.

known rector was appointed in 1242, and a church probably Another type of fulgurite is commonest in dry sands and existed a century before this. The carliest part of the church takes the shape of vertical tubes which may be nearly half an demolished in 1881, however, did not date farther back than inch in diameter. Generally they are elliptical in cross section, the 15th century. In 879 Danish invaders, sailing up the or flattened by the pressure exerted by the surrounding sand on Thames, wintered at Fulham and Hammersmith. Near the the fulgurite at a time when it was still very hot and plastic. former wooden Putney Bridge, built in 1729 and replaced in These tubes are often vertical and may run downwards for 1886, the earl of Essex threw a bridge of boats across the river several feet through the sand, branching and lessening as they in 1642 in order to march his army in pursuit of Charles I., who descend. Tubular perforations in liard rocks have been noted thereupon fell back on Oxford. Margravine Road recalls the also, but these are short and probably follow original cracks. existence of Bradenburg House, a riverside mansion built by The glassy material contains grains of sand and many small Sir Nicholas Crispe in the time of Charles I., used as the headround or elliptical cavities, the long axes of which are radial. quarters of General Fairsax in 1647 during the civil wars, and Minerals like felspar and mica are fused more readily than occupied in 1792 by the margrave of Bradenburg-Anspach quartz, but analysis shows that some fulgurite glasses are very and Bayreuth and his wife, and in 1820 by Caroline, consort of rich in silica, which perhaps was dissolved in the glass rather George IV. than simply fused. The central cavity of the tube and the FULK, king of Jerusalem (b. 1092), was the son of Fulk IV., bubbles in its walls point to the expansion of the gases count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted (air, water, &c.) in the sand by sudden and extreme heating. her husband and became the mistress of Philip I. of France). Very fine threads of glass project from the surface of the tube He became count of Anjou in 1109, and considerably added to as if fused droplets had been projected out wards with con- the prestige of his house. In particular he showed himself a siderable force. Where the quartz grains have been greatly doughty opponent to Henry I. of England, against whom he heated but not melted they become white and semi-opaque, continually supported Louis VI. of France, until in 1127 Henry but where they are in contact with the glass they usually show won him over by betrothing his daughter Matilda to Fulk's son partial solution. Occasionally crystallization has begun before Geoffrey Plantagenet. Already in 1120 Fulk had visited the ihe glass solidified, and small microliths, the nature of which is Holy Land, and become a close friend of the Templars. On his undeterminable, occur in streams and wisps in the clear hyaline return he assigned to the order of the Templars an annual submatrix.

(J. S. F.) sidy, while he also maintained two knights in the Holy Land FULHAM, a western metropolitan borough of London, for a year. In 1128 he was preparing to return to the East, England, bounded N.W. by Hammersmith, N.E. by Kensington, when he received an embassy from Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, E. by Chelsea, and S.E., S. and S.W. by the river Thames. who had no male heir to succeed him, offering his daughter Pop. (1901) 137,289. The principal thoroughfares are Fulham Melisinda in marriage, with the right of eventual succession to Palace Road running S. from Hammersmith, Fulham Road the kingdom. Fulk readily accepted the offer; and in 1129 and King's Road, W. from Chelsca, coverging and leading to lhe came and was married to Melisinda, receiving the towns of

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Acre and Tyre as her dower. In 1131, at the age of thirty-nine, he was expelled from St. John's for a time, but in 1567 he became he became king of Jerusalem. His reign is not marked by any Hebrew lecturer and preacher there. After standing unsuccessconsiderable events: the kingdom which had reached its zenith fully for the headship of the college in 1569, he became chaplain under Baldwin II., and did not begin to decline till the capture to the earl of Lcicester, and received from him the livings of of Edessa in the reign of Baldwin III., was quietly prosperous Warley, in Essex, and Dennington in Suffolk. In 1578 he was under his rule. In the beginning of his reign he had to act as clected master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. As a Puritan regent of Antioch, and to provide a husband, Raymund of controversialist he was remarkably active; in 1580 the bishop Poitou, for the infant heiress Constance.

But the great problem of Ely appointed him to defend puritanism against the Roman with which he had to deal was the progress of the atabeg Zengi Catholics, Thomas Watson, ex-bishop of Lincoln (1513-1584), of Mosul. In 1137 he was beaten near Barin, and escaping into and John Feckenham, formerly abbot of Westminster, and in the fort was surrounded and forced to capitulate. A little 1581 he was one of the disputants with the Jesuit, Edmund later, however, he greatly improved his position by strengthening Campion, while in 1582 he was among the clergy selecied his alliance with the vizier of Damascus, who also had to fear by the privy council to argue against any papist. the progress of Zengi (1140); and in this way he was able to numerous polemical writings include A Defense of the sincere capture the fort of Banias, to the N. of Lake Tiberias. Fulk true Translations of the holie Scriptures into the English also strengthened the kingdom on the south; while his butler, long (London, 1583), and confutations of Thomas StaplePaganus, planted the fortress of Krak to the south of the Dead ton (1535-1598), Cardinal Allen and other Roman Catholic Sea, and helped to give the kingdom an access towards the controversialists. Red Sea, he himself constructed Blanche Garde and other forts FULK NERRA (c. 970-1040), count of Anjou, eldest son of on the S.W. to overawe the garrison of Ascalon, which was still Count Geoffrey I., “Grisegonelle" (Grey Tunic) and Adela of held by the Mahommedans, and to clear the road towards Egypt. Vermandois, was born about 970 and succeeded his father in Twice in Fulk's reign the eastern emperor, John Comnenus, the countship of Anjou on the 21st of July 987. He was successappeared in northern Syria (1137 and 1142); but his coming ful in repelling the attacks of the count of Rennes and laying the did not affect the king, who was able to decline politely a visit foundations of the conquest of Touraine (sce ANJOU). In this which the emperor proposed to make to Jerusalem. In 1143 he connexion he built a great number of strong castles, which bas died, leaving two sons, who both became kings, as Baldwin III. led in modern times to his being called "the great builder." and Amalric I.

He also founded several religious houses, among them the abbeys Fulk continued the tradition of good statesmanship and of Bcaulieu, near Loches (c 1007), of Saint-Nicholas at Angers sound churchmanship which Baldwin I. and Baldwin II. had (1020) and of Ronceray at Angers (1028), and, in order to expiate begun. William of Tyre speaks of him as a fine soldier, an able his crimes of violence, made three pilgrimages to the Holy Land politician, and a good son of the church, and only blames him (in 1002-1003, C. 1008 and in 1039). On his return from the for partiality to his friends, and a forgetfulness of names and third of these journeys he died at Metz in Lorraine on the 21st of faces, which placed him at a disadvantage and made him too June 1040. By his first marriage, with Elizabeth, daughter of dependent on his immediate intimates. Little, perhaps, need Bouchard le Vénérable, count of Vendôme, he had a daughter, be made of these censures: the real fault of Fulk was his neglect Adela, who married Boon of Nevers and transmitted to her to envisage the needs of the northern principalities, and to children the countship of Vendôme. Elizabeth having died in head a combined resistance to the rising power of Zengi of 1000, Fulk married Hildegarde of Lorraine, by whom he had a Mosul.

son, Geoffrey Martel (9.v.), and a daughter Ermengarde, who His reign in Jerusalem is narrated by R. Röhricht (Geschichte des married Geoffrey, count of Gatinais, and was the mother of Königreichs Jerusalem, Innsbruck, 1898), and has been made the Geoffrey “le Barbu ” (the Bearded) and of Pulk “le Réchin" subject of a monograph by G. Dodu (De Fulconis Hierosolymitani regno, Paris, 1894).

(E. BR.)

(sce ANJOU). FULK (d. 900), archbishop of Reims, and partisan of Charles See Louis Halphen, Le Comté d'Anjou au XIsiècle (Paris, 1906). the Simple in his struggle with Odo, count of Paris, was elected

The biography of Fulk Nerra by Alexandre de Salies, Histoire de to the see as archbishop in 883 upon the death of Hincmar. summary biography is given by Célestin Port, Dictionnaire historique,

Foulques Nerra (Angers, 1874) is confused and uncritical. A very In 889 he was engaged in a struggle with the Normans who géographique et biographique de Maine-et-Loire (3 vols., Paris-Angers, invaded his territories. Upon the deposition of Charles the Fat 1874-1878), vol. ji. pp. 189-192, and there is also a sketch in Rate he sided with Charles the simple in his contest for the West Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887),

vol. i. ch. iii.

(L. H.) Frankish dominions against Count Odo of Paris, and crowned him king in his own metropolitan church at Reims aítcr most

PÜLLEBORN, GEORG GUSTAV (1769-1803), German philoof the nobles had gone over to Odo (893). Upon the death of sopher, philologist and miscellancous writer, was born at Glogau, Odo he succceded in having Charles recognized as king by a Silesia, on the end of March 1769, and died at Breslau on the majority of the West Frankish nobility. In 892 he obtained 6th of February 1803. He was educated at the University of special privileges for his province from Pope Formosus, who Halle, and was made doctor of philosophy in recognition of his promised that thercaster, when the archbishopric became thesis De Xenophane, Zenone el Gorgia. He took diaconal orders vacant, the revenues should not be enjoyed by anyone while in 1791, but almost immediately became professor of classics at the vacancy existed, but should be reserved for the new incum- Breslau. His philosophical works include annotations to Garve's bent, provided the clection took place within the canonical translation of the Politics of Aristotle (1799–1800), and a large limit of three months. From 898 until his death he held the share in the Beilräge zur Geschichte der Philosophie (published in ofice of chancellor, which for some time afterwards was regularly twelve parts between 1791 and 1799), in which he collaborated filled by the archbishop of Reims. In his efforts to keep the with Forberg, Reinhold and Niethammer. In philology hè wealthy abbeys and bencfices of the church out of the hands wrote Encyclopaedia philologica sive primae lineae Isagoges in of the nobles, he incurred the hatred of Baldwin, count antiquorum studia (1798; 2nd ed., 1805); Kurze Theorie des of Flanders, who secured his assassination on the 17th of lateinischen Stils (1793); Leitfaden der Rhetorik (1802); and an June 900, a crime which the weak Carolingian monarch left annotated edition of the Satires of Persius. Under the pseudonym unpunished.

“ Edelwald Justus ” he published several collections of popular Fulk left some letters, which are collected in Migne, Patrologia tales-Bunte Blätter (1795); Kleine Schriften zur Unterhaltung Lalina, vol. cxxxi. 11-14.

(1798); Nebenstunden (1799). After his death were published FULKE, WILLIAM (1538-1589), Puritan divine, was born Taschenbuch für Brunnengåste (1806) and Kanzelredon (1807). in London and educated at Cambridge. After studying law for He was a frequent contributor to the press, where his writings six years, he became a fellow at St John's College, Cambridge, were very popular. in 1564. He took a leading part in the “vestiarian" controversy, Sec Schummel, Cedächtnisrede (1803) and Garve und Fülleborn; and persuaded the college to discard the surplice. In consequence | Meusel, Gelehrtes Teutschland, vol. ü.

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FULLER, ANDREW (1754-1815), English Baptist divine, was a lawyer and politician of some eminence, was born at Cambridgeborn on the 6th of February 1754, at Wicken in Cambridgeshire. port, Massachusetts, on the 23rd of May 1810. Her education In his boyhood and youth he worked on his father's farm. In his was conducted by her father, who, she states, made the mistake seventeenth year he became a member of the Baptist church at of thinking to “gain time by bringing forward the intellect as Soham, and his gifts as an exhorter met with so much approval early as possible," the consequence being“ a premature developthat, in the spring of 1775, he was called and ordained as pastor ment of brain that made her a youthsul prodigy by day, and by of that congregation. In 1782 he removed to Kettering in night a victim of spectral illusions, nightmare and somnambul. Northamptonshire, where he became friendly with some of the ism.” At six years she began to read Latin, and at a very early most eminent ministers of the denomination. Before leaving age she had selected as her favourite authors Shakespeare, Soham he had written the substance of a treatise in which he had Cervantes and Molière. Soon the great amount of study sought to counteract the prevailing Baptist hyper-Calvinism exacted of her ceased to be a burden, and reading became which, "admitting nothing spiritually good to be the duty a habit and a passion. Having made herself familiar with the of the unregenerate, and nothing to be addressed to them masterpieces of French, Italian and Spanish literature, she in in a way of exhortation excepting what related to external 1833 began the study of German, and within the year had obedience," had long perplexed his own mind This work he read some of the masterpieces of Goethe, Körner, Novalis published, under the title The Gospel worthy of all Acceptation, and Schiller. soon after his settlement in Kettering; and although it immedi- After her father's death in 1835 she went to Boston to teach ately involved him in a somewhat bitter controversy which lasted languages, and in 1837 she was chosen principal teacher in the for nearly twenty years, it was ultimately successful in consider. Green Street school, Providence, Rhode Island, where she ably modifying the views prevalent among English dissenters. remained till 1839. From this year until 1844 she stayed at In 1793 he published a treatise, The Calvinistic and Socinian different places in the immediate neighbourhood of Boston, systems examined and compared as to their moral tendency, in which forming an intimate acquaintance with the colonists of Brook he rebutted the accusation of antinomianism levelled by the Farm, and numbering among her closest friends R. W. Emerson, Socinians against those who over-emphasized the doctrincs of Nathaniel Hawthorne and W. H. Channing. In 1839 she free grace. This work, along with another against Deism, published a translation of Eckermann's Conversations with entitled The Gospel ils own Wilness, is regarded as the production Goethe, which was followed in 1842 by a translation of the correon which his reputation as a theologian mainly rests. Fuller spondence between Karoline von Günderode and Bettina von also published an admirable Memoir of the Rev. Samuel Pearce, Arnim, entitled Günderode. Aided by R. W. Emerson and of Birmingham, and a volume of Expository Lectures in Genesis, George Ripley, she in 1840 started The Dial, a poetical and besides a considerable number of smaller pieces, chiefly sermons philosophical magazine representing the opinions and aims of and pamphlets, which were issued in a collected form after his ihe New England Transcendentalists. This journal she condeath. He was a man of forceful character, more prominent ontinued to edit for two years, and while in Boston she also conthe practical side of religion than on the devotional, and accord-ducted conversation classes for ladies in which philosophical and ingly not pre-eminently successful in his local ministry His social subjects were discussed with a somewhat over-accentuated great work was done in connexion with the Baptist Missionary carnestness. These meetings may be regarded as perhaps the Society, formed at Kettering in 1792, of which he was secretary beginning of the modern movement in behalf of women's rights. until his death on the 7th of May 1815 Both Princeton and R. W Emerson, who had met her as early as 1836, thus describes Yale, U.S.A., conferred on him the degree of D D., but he never her appearance:

" She was then twenty-six years old She had used it.

a face and frame that would indicate fulness and tenacity of life. Several editions of his collected works have appeared, and a She was rather under the middle height, her complexion was Memoir, principally compiled from his own papers, was published fair, with strong fair hair. She was then, as always; carefully and about a year after his decease by Dr. Ryland, his most intimate becomingly dressed, and of ladylike self-possession. For the friend and coadjutor in the affairs of the Baptist mission. There is also a biography by the Rev J W Morris (1816): and his son rest her appearance had nothing prepossessing. Her extreme prefixed a memoir to an edition of his chicf works in Bohn's Standard plainncss, a trick of incessantly opening and shutting her eyelids, Library (1852).

ihe nasal tone of her voice, all repclled; and I said to myself we FULLER, GEORGE (1822-1884), American figure and portrait shall never get far.” On better acquaintance this unprepossessing painter, was born at Deerficld, Massachusetts, in 1822. At the exterior seemed, however, to melt away, and her inordinate selfage of twenty he entered the studio of the sculptor II. K. Brown, cstcem to be lost in the depth and universality of her sympathy. at Albany, New York, where he drew from the cast and modelled She possessed an almost irresistible power of winning the intelheads. Having attained some proficiency he went about the lectual and moral confidence of those with whom she came in country painting portraits, settling at length in Boston, where he contact, and “ applied herself to her companion as the sponge studied the works of the earlier Americans, Stuan, Copley and applies itself to water.” She obtained from each the best they Allston. After three years in that city, and twelve in New York, had to give. It was indeed more as a conversationalist than as a where in 1857 he was elected a member of the National Academy writer that she carned the title of the Priestess of Transcendof Design, he went to Europe for a brief visit and for study cntalism. It was her intimate friends who admired her most. During all this time his work had received little recognition and Smart and pungent though she is as a writer, the apparent practically no financial encouragement, and on his return he originality of her views depends more on cccentricity than either settled on the family farm at Deerfield, where he continued to intellectual depth or imaginative vigour. In 1844 she removed work in his own way with no thought of the outside world. In to New York at the desire of Horace Greeley to write literary 1876, however, he was forced by pressing needs to dispose of criticism for The Tribune, and in 1846 she published a selection his work, and he sent some pictures to a dealer in Boston, where from her articles on contemporary authors in Europe and he met with immediate success, financial and artistic, and for the America, under the title Papers on Literature and Art. The same remaining eight years of his life he never lacked patrons. He year she paid a visit to Europe, passing some time in England died in Boston on the 21st of March 1884. He was a poetic and France, and finally taking up her residence in Italy. There painter, and a dreamer of delicate fancics and quaint, intangible she was married in December 1847 to the marquis Giovanni phases of nature, his canvases being usually enveloped in a brown Angelo Ossoli, a friend of Mazzini. During 1848-1849 she was mist that renders the outlines vague. Among his noteworthy present with her husband in Rome, and when the city was canvases are: “ The Turkey Pasture," " Romany Girl,” “ And besieged she, at the request of Mazzini, took charge of one she was a Witch," Nydia,"

," “ Winifred Dysart” and “The of the two hospitals while her husband fought on the walls. Ouadroon."

In May 1850, along with her husband and infant son, she FULLER, MARGARET, MARCHIONESS Ossoli (1810-1850), embarked at Leghorn for America, but when they had all American authoress, eldest child of Timothy Fuller (1778-1835), but reached their destination the vessel was wrecked on Fire Island beach on the 16th of June, and the Ossolis were among generation, disappeared for the most part in his subsequent the passengers who perished.

discourses. Life Without and Life Within (Boston, 1860) is a collection of

About 1640 he had married Eleanor, daughter of Hugb essays, poems, &c., supplementary to her Collected Works, printed Grove of Chisenbury, Wiltshire. She died in 1641. Their eldest in 1855. See the Autobiography of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, with child, John, baptized at Broadwindsor by his father, 6th additional memoirs by J. F. Clarke, R. W Emerson, and W. H. June 1641, was afterwards of Sidney Sussex College, edited Channing (2 vols., Boston, 1852); also Margaret Fuller (Merchesa the Worthics of England, 1662, and became rector of Great Ossoli), by Julia Ward Howe (1883), in the " Eminent Women" series; Margarel Fuller Ossoli (Boston, 1884), by Thomas Went- Wakering, Essex, where he died in 1687. worth Higginson in the “ American Men of Letters " series, which is At Broadwindsor, early in the year 1641, Thomas Fuller, his based largely on unedited material; and The Love Letters of Margaret curate Henry Sanders, the church wardens, and others, nine Fuller, 1845-1846 (London and New York, 1903), with an introduction by Julia Ward Howe.

persons altogether, certified that their parish, represented by

242 grown-up male persons, had taken the Protestation ordered PULLER, MELVILLE WESTON (1833-1910), American jurist, by the speaker of the Long Parliament. Fuller was not formally chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, was born dispossessed of his living and prebend on the triumph of the at Augusta, Maine, on the 11th of February 1833. After graduat- Presbyterian party, but he relinquished both preferments about ing at Bowdoin College in 1853 he spent a year at the Harvard this time. For a short time he preached with success at the Inns Law School, and in 1855 began the practice of law at Augusta, of Court, and thence removed, at the invitation of the master where he was an associate-editor of a Democratic paper, The of the Savoy (Dr Balcanqual) and the brotherhood of that Age, and served in the city council and as city attorney. In foundation, to be lecturer at their chapel of St Mary Savoy. 1856 he removed to Chicago, Illinois, where he continued to Some of the best discourses of the witty preacher were delivered practise until 1888, rising to a high position at the bar of the

at the Savoy to audiences which extended into the chapel-yard. Northwest. For some years he was active in Democratic politics, In one he set forth with searching and truthful minuteness the being a member of the Illinois Constitutional Convention in hindrances to peace, and urged the signing of petitions to the 1862 and of the State House of Representatives from 1863 to king at Oxford, and to the parliament, to continue their care in 1865. He was a delegate to various National conventions of advancing an accommodation. In his Appeal of Injured Innocence his party, and in that of 1876 placed Thomas A. Hendricks in Fuller says that he was once deputed to carry a petition to the nomination for the presidency. In 1888, by President Cleveland's king at Oxford. This has been identified with a petition entrusted appointment, he succeeded Morrison R. Waite as chief-justice to Sir Edward Wardour, clerk of the pells, Dr Dukeson, “De of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1899 he was Fuller," and four or five others from the city of Westminster appointed by President McKinley a member of the arbitration and the parishes contiguous to the Savoy. A pass was granted commission at Paris to settle the Venczuela-British Guiana by the House of Lords, on the end of January 1643, for an boundary dispute.

equipage of two coaches, four or six horses and eight or ten FULLER, THOMAS (1608-1661), English divine and historian, attendants. On the arrival of the deputation at Uxbridge, on eldest son of Thomas Fuller, rector of Aldwincle St Peter's, the 4th of January, officers of the Parliamentary army stopped Northamptonshire, was born at his father's rectory and was the coaches and searched the gentlemen; and they found upon baptized on the 19th of June 1608. Dr John Davenant, bishop the latter “two scandalous books arraigning the proceedings of Salisbury, was his uncle and godfather. According to Aubrey, of the House," and letters with ciphers to Lord Viscount Falkland Fuller was a boy of pregnant wit.' At thirteen he was admitted and the Lord Spencer. Ultimately a joint order of both Houses to Queens' College, Cambridge, then presided over by Dr John remanded the party; and Fuller and his friends suffered a

His cousin, Edward Davenant, was a tutor in the brief imprisonment. The Westminster Petition, not withstanding, same college. He was apt and quick in study; and in Lent reached the king's hands; and it was published with the royal 1624–1625 he became B.A. and in July 1628 M.A. Being over: reply (see J. E. Bailey, Life of Thomas Fuller, pp. 245 el seq.). looked in an election of fellows of his college, he was removed when it was expected, three months later, that a favourable by Bishop Davenant to Sidney Sussex College, November 1628. result would attend the negotiations at Oxford, Fuller preached In 1630 he received from Corpus Christi College the curacy of a sermon at Westminster Abbey, on the 27th of March 1643, on St Benet's, Cambridge.

the anniversary of Charles I's accession, on the text, “ Yea, let Fuller's quaint and humorous oratory soon attracted attention. him take all, so my Lord the King return in peace. On He published in 1631 a poem on the subject of David and Wednesday, the 26th of July, he preached on church reformation, Bathsheba, entitled David's Hainous Sinne, Hearlie Repenlarce, satirizing the religious reformers, and maintaining that only the Heavie Punishment. In June of the same year his uncle gave him Supreme Power could initiate reforms. a prebend in Salisbury, where his father, who died in the following He was now obliged to leave London, and in August 1643 he year, held a canonry. The rectory of Broadwindsor, Dorset- joined the king at Oxford. He lived in a hired chamber at shire, then in the diocese of Bristol, was his next preferment Lincoln College for 17 weeks. Thence he put forth a witty and (1634), and on the irth of June 1635 he proceeded B.D. At elective reply to John Saltmarsh, who had attacked his views Broadwindsor he compiled The Historie of the Holy Warre (1639), on ecclesiastical reform. Fuller subsequently published by a history of the crusades, and The Holy Slale and the Prophane royal request a sermon preached on the 10th of May 1644, at Stalc (1642). This work describes the holy state as existing in St Mary's, Oxford, before the king and Prince Charles, called the family and in public life, gives rules of conduct, model Jacob's Vow. "characters ” for the various professions and profane bio- The spirit of Fuller's preaching, always characterized by calmgraphies. It was perhaps the most popular of all his writings. ness and moderation, gave offence to the high royalists, who He was in 1640 elected proctor for Bristol in the memorable charged him with lukewarmness in their cause. To silence convocation of Canterbury, which assembled with the Short unjust censures he became chaplain to the regiment of Sir Parliament. On the sudden dissolution of the latter he joined Ralph Hopton. For the first five years of the war, as he said, those who urged that convocation should likewise dissolve as when excusing the non-appearance of his Church History, “I usual. That opinion was overruled; and the assembly continued had little list or leisure to write, fearing to be made a history, and to sit by virtue of a royal writ. Fuller has left in his Church shifting daily for my safety. All that time I could not live to History a valuable account of the proceedings of this synod, study, who did only study to live.” After the defeat of Hopton for sitting in which he was fined £200, which, however, was never at Cheriton Down, Fuller retreated to Basing House. He took exacted. His first published volume of sermons appeared in an active part in its defence, and his life with the troops caused 1640 under the title of Joseph's party-coloured Coat, which contains him to be afterwards regarded as one of “the great cavalier many of his quaint utterances and odd conceits. His grosser parsons.” In his marches with his regiment round about Oxford mannerisms of style, derived from the divines of the former land in the west, he devoted much time to the collection of details,


from churches, old buildings, and the conversation of ancient be little of stature) on the other, he ran up and down the streets gossips, for his Church-History and Worthies of England. He of London, seeking at the houses of his patrons invitations to compiled in 1645 a small volume of prayers and meditations, dinner, to be repaid by his dull jests at table. the Good Thoughts in Bad Times,—which, set up and printed in His last and best patron was George Berkeley, ist Earl Berkeley the besieged city of Exeter, whither he had retired, was called (1628-1698), of Cranford House, Middlesex, whose chaplain he by himself" the first fruits of Exeter press.” It was inscribed to was, and who gave him Cranford rectory (1658). To this nobleLady Dalkeith, governess to the infant princess, Henrietta Anne man Fuller's reply to Heylyn's Examen Historicum, called The (b. 1644), to whose household he was attached as chaplain. The Appeal of Injured Innocence (1659), was inscribed. At the end corporation gave him the Bodleian lectureship on the 21st of of the Appeal is an epistle“ to my loving friend Dr Peter Heylyn," March 1645/6, and he held it until the 17th of June following, conceived in the admirable Christian spirit which characierized soon after the surrender of the city to the parliament. The Fear all Fuller's dealings with controversialists. “Why should of losing the Old Light (1646) was his farewell discourse to his Peler," he asked, “fall out with Thomas, both being disciples Exeter friends. Under the Articles of Surrender Fuller made his to the same Lord and Master? I assure you, sir, whatever you composition with the government at London, his “delinquency" conceive to the contrary, I am cordial to the cause of the English being that he had been present in the king's garrisons. In Church, and my hoary hairs will go down to the grave in sorrow Andronicus, or the Unfortunate Politician (1646), partly authentic for her sufferings." and partly fictitious, he satirized the leaders of the Revolution; In An Alarum lo lhe Counties of England and Wales (1660) and for the comfort of sufferers by the war he issued (1647) a Fuller argued for a free and full parliament--free from force, second devotional manual, entitled Good Thoughts in Worse as he expressed it, as well as from abjurations or previous Times, abounding in fervent aspirations, and drawing moral engagements. Mixi Contemplations in Beller Times (1660), lessons in beautiful language out of the events of his life or the dedicated to Lady Monk, tendered advice in the spirit of its circumstances of the time. In grief over his losses, which included motto, “Let your moderation be known to all men: the Lord his library and manuscripts (his“ upper and nether millstone "), is at hand.” There is good reason to suppose that Fuller was at and over the calamities of the country, he wrote his work on the Hague immediately before the Restoration, in the retinue the Cause and Cure of a Wounded Conscience (1647). It was of Lord Berkeley, one of the commissioners of the House of prepared at Boughton House in his native county, where he and Lords, whose last service to his friend was to interest himself in his son were entertained by Edward Lord Montagu, who had obtaining him a bishopric. A Panegyrick to His Majesty on his been one of his contemporaries at the university and had laken Happy Return was the last of Fuller's verse-efforts. On the the side of the parliament.

2nd of August, by royal letters, he was admitted D.D. at CamFor the next few years of his life Fuller was mainly dependent bridge. He resumed his lectures at the Savoy, where Samuel upon his dealings with booksellers, of whom he asserted that Pepys heard him preach; but he preferred his conversation or none had ever lost by him. He made considerable progress in his books to his sermons. Fuller's last promotion was that of an English translation from the MS. of the Annales of his friend chaplain in extraordinary to Charles II. In the summer of 1661 Archbishop Ussher. Amongst his benefactors it is curious to he visited the west in connexion with the business of his prebend, find Sir John Danvers of Chelsea, the regicide. Fuller in 1647 which had been restored to him. On Sunday, the 12th of August, began to preach at St Clement's, Eastcheap, and elsewhere while preaching at the Savoy, he was seized with typhus fever, in the capacity of lecturer. While at St Clement's he was and died at his new lodgings in Covent Garden on the 16th of suspended; but specdily recovering his freedom, he preached | August. He was buried Cranford church, where a mural wherever he was invited. At Chelsea, where also he occasionally tablet was afterwards set up on the north side of the chancel, officiated, he covertly preached a sermon on the death of Charles with an epitaph which contains a conceit worthy of his own pen, I., but he did not break with his Roundhead patrons. James to the effect that while he was endeavouring (viz. in The Worlhies) Hay, 2nd earl of Carlisle, made him his chaplain, and presented to give immortality to others, he himself attained it. him in 1648 or 1649 to the curacy of Waltham Abbey. His Fuller's wit and vivacious good-humour made him a favourite possession of the living was in jeopardy on the appointment of with men of both sides, and his sense of humour kept him from Cromwell's “ Tryers "'; but he evaded their inquisitorial ques-extremes. Probably Heylyn and South had some excuse for tions by his ready wit. He was not disturbed at Waltham in their attitude towards his very moderate politics. “By his 1655, when the Protector's cdict prohibited the adherents of particular temper and management,” said Echard (Hist. of the late king from preaching. Lionel, 3rd earl of Middlesex, England, iii. 71), “ he weathered the late great storm with more who lived at Copt Hall, near Waltham, gave him what remained success than many other great men.” He was known as of the books of the lord treasurer his father; and through the perfect walking library.” The strength of his memory was good offices of the marchioness of Hertford, part of his own proverbial, and some amusing anecdotes are connected with it. pillaged library was restored to him. Fuller was thus able to His writings were the product of a highly original mind. He prosecute his literary labours, producing successively his descrip- had a fertile imagination and a happy faculty of illustration. tive geography of the Holy Land, called A Pisgah-Sight of Antithetic and axiomatic sentences abound in his pages, embodyPalestine (1650), and his Church-History of Brilain (1655), from ing literally the wisdom of the many in the wit of one.

He was the birth of Jesus Christ until the year 1648. With the Church- quaint," and something more. “Wit,” said Coleridge, in a History was printed The History of the University of Cambridge well-known eulogy, “ was the stuff and substance of Fuller's since the Conquest and The History of Waltham Abbey. These intellect. It was the element, the earthen base, the material works were furthered in no slight degree by his connexion with which he worked in; and this very circumstance has defrauded Sion College, London, where he had a chamber, as well for him of his due praise for the practical wisdom of the thoughts, the convenience of the press as of his city lectureships. The for the beauty and variety of the truths, into which he shaped Church-History was angrily attacked by Dr P. Heylyn, who, in the stuff. Fuller was incomparably the most sensible, the least the spirit of High-Churchmanship, wished, as he said, to vindicate prejudiced, great man of an age that boasted a galaxy of great the truth, the church and the injured clergy. About 1652 men(Litcrary Remains, vol. ii. (1836), pp. 389-390). This Fuller married his second wise, Mary Roper, youngest sister of opinion was formed after the perusal of the Church-History. Thomas, Viscount Baltinglass, by whom he had several children. That work and The History of the Worthics of England are At the Oxford Act of 1657, Robert South, who was Terrae filius, unquestionably Fuller's greatest efforts. They embody the lampooned Fuller, whom he described in this Oratio as living collections of an entire life; and since his day they have been in London, ever scribbling and each year bringing forth now the delight of many readers. The Holy State has taken rank folia like a tree. At length, continues South, the Church-History amongst the best books of " characters.” Charles Lamb made came forth with its 166 dedications to wealthy and noble friends; some selections from Fuller, and had a profound admiration for and with this huge volume under one arm, and his wife (said 10 the “ golden works” of the " dear, fine, silly old angel.” Since


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