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puclei

teleutospores

(young)

are

lepto and micro-forms and Basidiomycetes

must

nopsis forms)

cetes
traces

brachy, and hems-forms

(abortive)

of Acciduna)

host on which the uredospores (if present) and the teleutospores from a teleutospore but is borne directly on the mycelium. Formerly, are developed. A few examples are appended:

before the relationship of promycelium and basidium were under

stood, the Uredineae were considered as quite independent of the Species. Teleutospores on Aecidiospores on Basidiomycetes. Later, however, these Uredineae were placed as a

mere subdivision of the Basidiomycetes. Although the Uredincae Coleosporium Senecionis Pinus

Senecio

clearly lead on to the Basidiomycetes, yet owing to their retaining Melampsora Rostrupi Populus

Mecurialis in many cases definite traces of sexual organs they are clearly a more Pucciniostrum Goeppertiano Vaccinium

Abies? primitive group. Their marked parasitic habit also separates them Gymnosporangium Sabinae Juniperus

Pyrus

off, so that they are best included with the Basidiomycetes in a larger Uromyces Pisi Pisum, &c. Euphorbia

cohort which may Puccinia graminis Triticum, &C. Berberis

be called Basidi

Sporophyta Gametophyte
P. dispersa
Secale, &c.

with conjugate
Anckusa
ales. Most of

with single auciel P. coronata

Agrostis

Rhamnus Basidiomycetes P. Ari-Phalaridis

Phalaris

Arum

are characterized P. Caricis

Carex

Urtica
by the large sporo-

teleutosport

mature) Cronartium Ribicola

Ribes

Pinus

phore on which the Chrysomyxa Rhododendri Rhododendron Picea

basidia with its mycellum
basidiospores

sporida Some of the Uredineae also exhibit the peculiarity of the develop

borne.

wados pores It

be ment of biologic forms within a single morphological species, sometimes termed specialization of parasitism; this will be dealt

with clearly, borne in later under the section Physiology.

mind that though bycellum

myceliano Cylology of Uredinese. The study of the nuclear behaviour of the Basidiomy

show the cells of the Uredineae has thrown great light on the question of

no tradospores of

differsexuality. This group like the rest of the Basidiales exhibits an association of nuclei at some

entiated sexual point in its life-history, but organs yet,, , like

taycellum unlike the case of the Basidio- the micro and leplo

spermatta mycetes the point of association forms of the Ure

decidebpores

fertile cells
in the Uredineae is very well dineae,,, they still
defined in all those forms which show (in the as-

fertilized cella
possess aecidiospores. We find sociation of nuclei

(of arcidium)
thus that in the cu and opsis and later fusion of From Annals of Bolony, by permission of the Clarendon Press.
forms the association of nuclei
nuclei in the bas-

FIG. 18.
takes place at the base of the idium), a reduced
aecidium which produces the fertilization

which denotes their derivation, through the Uredincae, aecidiospores. There we find from more typically sexual forms. No one has yet made out in any an

an association of nuclei either form the exact way in which the association of nuclei takes place in the by the fusion of two similar cells group. The mycelium is always found to contain conjugate nuclei as described by Christmann or

before the formation of basidia, but the point at which the conjugate by the migration of the nucleus condition arises seems very variable. Miss Nichols finds that it of a vegetative cell into a special occurs very soon after the germination of the spore in Coprinus, but cell of the accidium. After this no fusion of cells or migration of nuclei was to be observed. association the nuclei continue

Protobasidiomycetes. This, by far the smaller division of Basidio in the conjugate condition so

mycetes, includes those forms which have a septate basidium. There 347 that the aecidiospores, the uredo

are three families--Auriculariaceae, Pilacreaceae and Tremellinaceae. spore-bearing inycelium, the

B uredospores and

the

young teleutospores all contain two paired nuclei in their cells (fig. 17). Before the teleutospore reaches maturity the nuclei fuse, and the uninucleate condition then continues again until acci

dium formation. In the hemi, From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Bolanit, brachy, mucro and lepto forms, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

which possess no aecidium, we Fig. 17.-Phragmidium Vio. find that the association takes laceum. (After Blackman.) place at various points in the

ordinary mycelium but always A, Portion of a young aecidium. before the formation of the st, Sterile cell

uredospores in the hemi and Fertile cells; at 02 the brachy forms, and before the

passage of a nucleus from formation of teleutospores in

the adjoining cell is seen. micro and lepto form. Whether B, Formation of the first spore- the association of nuclei in the

mother-cell (sm), from the ordinary mycelium takes place basal cell (a) of one of the by the migration of a nucleus rows of spores.

from one cell to another or C. A further stage in which whether two daughter nuclei

FIG. 19.-Amanita muscaria. from sme the first aecidio become conjugate in one cell

, A, The young plant,

@, The annulus, or remnant of spore (a) and the intercalary is not yet clear. The most B The mature plant: {plant.

velum partiale. cell (2) have arisen. reasonable interpretation of the C. Longitudinal section of mature 1, Remains of volva or velum sma. The second spore-mother-cell. spermatia is that they are P The pileus.

universale. D. Ripe aecidiospore. abortive male cells. They have 8. The gills.

S, The stalk, never been found to cause in. fection, and they have not the characters of conidia; the large The first named contains a small number of forms with the basidium size of their nuclei, the reduction of their cytoplasm and the divided like the promycelium of the Uredineae. They are characabsence of reserve material and their thin cell wall all point to their terized by their gelatinous consistence and large size of their sporobeing male gametes. Although in the forms without aecidia the phore. Hirncola (Auricularia) Auricula-Judae is the well-known two generations are not sharply marked off from one another, we lew's Ear, so named from the resemblance of the sporophore to a may look up the generation with single nuclei in the cell as the human ear. gametophyte and that with conjugate nuclei as the sporophyte. The Pilacreaceae are a family found by Brefeld to contain the genus The subjoined diagram will indicate the relationship of the forms. Pilacre. P: Petersii has a transversely divided basidium as in

Basidiomycetes. This group is characterized by its greatly reduced Auriculariaceae, but the basidia are surrounded with a peridium-like life-history as compared with that of the eu forms among the Ure sheath. The Tremellinacere are characterized by the possession of dineae. All the forms have the same life-history as the lepto forms basidia which are divided by two vertical walls at right angles to of that group, so that there is no longer any trace of sexual organs. one another, From each of the four segments in the case of Tremella There is also a further reduction in that the basidium is not derived | a long outgrowth arises which reaches to the surface of the hymenium

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P

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are

are

and bears the basidiospores. In Docryomyces only two outgrowths facultative parasites. The occasion may be a wound (e.g. Nectria, and two spores are produced.

Dasyscypha, &c.), or the enseeblement of the tissues of the host, or Aulobasidiomycetes - In this by far the larger division of the invigoration of the fungus, the mycelium of which then becomes Basidiomycetes the basidia are undivided and the four basidiospores strong enough to overcome the host's resistance (Botrytis), Many are borne on short sterigmata nearly always at the apex of the fungi, however, cannot complete their life-history apart from the basidium. The group may be divided into two main divisions, host-plant. Such obligale parasites may be epiphytic (Erysiphece), Hymenomycetes and Gasteromyceles.

the mycelium remaining on the outside and at most merely sending Hymenomycetes are a very large group containing over 11,000 haustoria into the epidermal cells, or endophytic, (Uredineae, species, most of which live in soil rich in humus or on fallen wood | Ustilagineae, &c.), when the mycelium is entirely inside the organs or stems, a few only being parasites. In the simplest forms (e.g. of the host. An epiphytic fungus is not necessarily a parasite, Exobasidium) the basidia are borne directly on the ordinary however, as many saprophytes (moulds, &c.) germinate and develop mycelium, but in the majority of cases the basidia are found de. a loose mycelium on living Icaves, but only enter and destroy the

ped in layers (hym enium) on special sporophores of char- tissues after the leaf has fallen; in some cases, however, these acteristic form in the various groups. In these sporophores (such saprophytic epiphytes can do harm by intercepting light and air as the well-known toadstools and mushrooms where the ordinary from the leaf (Fumago, &c.), and such cases make it difficult to vegetative mycelium is underground) we have structures specially draw the line between saprophytism and parasitism. Endophytic developed for bearing the basidiospores and protecting them from parasites may be intracellular, when the lungus or its mycelium rain, &c., and for the distribution of the spores-see earlier part of plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium article on distribution of spores (figs. 19 and 20). The underground Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently

mycelium in many cases intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the spreads wider and wider lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredincae) into which it each year, often in a may send short (Cyslopus), or long and branched (Peronospora circular manner, and the Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), sporophores springing or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis). No sharp from it appear in the lines can be drawn, however, since many mycclia are intercellular at form of a ring--the so- first and subsequently become intracellular (Ustilagineae), and the called fairy rings. Ar- various stages doubtless depend on the degrees of resistance which millaria melleus and the host tissues are able to offer. Similar gradations are observed Polyporus annosus in the direct effect of the parasite on the host, which may be local examples of parasitic (IIemileia) when the mycelium never extends far from the point of forms which attack and infection, or general (Phytophthora) when it runs throughout the destroy living trees, plant. Destructive parasites rapidly ruin the whole plant-body while Merulius lacry- (Pythium), whereas restrained parasites only tax the host slightly.

mans is the well-known and ill effects may not be visible for a long time, or only when the W.G.S.

dry rot" fungus. fungus is epidemic (Rhytisma). A parasite may be restricted during FIG. 20.-Agaricas mucidus. Portion Gásteromyceles a long, incubation-period, however, and rampant and destructive of hymenium. s, Sporidia;, si, characterized by having later (Ustilago). The latter fact, as well as the extraordinary sterigmata;, 8, sterile cells; c, cystidium, closed sporophores or fastidiousness, so to speak, of parasites in their choice of hosts or of with operculum o.

fruit-bodies which only organs for attack, point to reactions on the part of the host-plant,

open after the spores are as well as capacities on that of the parasite, which may be partly ripe and then often merely by a small pore. The fruit-bodies are of explained in the light of what we now know regarding enzymes and very various shapes, showing a differentiation into an outer peridium chemotropism. Some parasites attack many hosts and almost any and an inner spore-bearing mass, the gleba. The gleba is usually tissue or organ (Botrytis cinerea), others are restricted to one family differentiated into a number of chambers which are lined directly (Cystopus candidus) or genus (Phytophthora infestans) or by the hymenium (basidial layer), or else the chambers contain an specics (Pucciniastrum Padi), and it is customary to speak of root. interwoven mass of hyphae, the branches of which bear the basidia. parasites, leaf-parasites, &c., in expression of the fact that a given By the breaking down of the inner tissues the spores often come parasite occurs only on such organs—c.g. Demetophora necatrix on to lie as a loose powdery mass in the interior of the hollow fruit- roots, Calyplospora Goepperliana on stems, Ustilago Scabiosce in body, mixed sometimes with a capillitium. The best-known general anthers, Claviceps purpurea in ovaries, &c. Associated with these Are Bovista, Lycoperdon (puff-ball) Scleroderma, Geoster (earth-star, relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to 9.v.). In the last-named genus the peridium is double and the outer the age of the host. Many parasites can enter a seedling, but are layer becomes ruptured and spreads out in the form of star-shaped unable to attack the same host when older-me.g. Pythium, Phylo. pieces; - the inner layer, however, merely opens at the apex by a phthora omnivora.

Chemotropism.---Taken in conjunction with Pfeffer's beautiful disThe most complex members of the Gasteromycetes belong to the covery that certain chemicals exert a distinct attractive influence Phalloideae, which is sometimes placed as a distinct division of the on fungus hyphae (chemotropism), and the results of Miyoshi's Autobasidiomycetes. Phallus impudicus, the stink-horn, is occasion experimental application of it, the phenomena of enzyme-secretion ally found growing in woods in Britain. The fruit-body, before it throw considerable light on the processes of infection and parasitisen ruptures may reach the size of a hen's egg and is white in colour; of sungi. Pleffer showed that certain substances in definite concen. from this there grows out hollow cylindrical structure which can trations cause the tips of hyphae to turn towards them; other be distinguished at the distance of several yards by its disgusting substances, though not innutritious, repel them, as also do nutritious odour. It is highly poisonous.

bodies is too highly concentrated. Marshall Ward showed that the

hyphae of Botrytis pierce the cell-walls of a lily by secreting a cytase Physiology.-- The physiology of the fungi comes under the and dissolving a hole through the membrane. Miyoshi then demen. head of that of plants generally, and the works of Pfefier, Sachs, strated that if Botrytis is sown in a lamella of sclatine, and this Vines, Darwin and Klebs may be consulted for details. But lamella is superposed on another similar one to which a chemotropic we may refer generally here to certain phenomena peculiar to

substance is added, the tips of the hyphac at once turn from the

former and enter the latter. If a thin cellulose membrane is interthese plants, the lifc-actions of which are restricted and specialized posed between the lamellae, the hyphae nevertheless turn chemoby their peculiar dependence on organic supplies of carbon and tropically from the one lamella to the other and pierce the cellulose nitrogen, so that most fungi resemble the colourless cells of higher membrane in the process. The hyphae will also dissolve their way plants in their nutrition. Like these they require water, small through a lamella of collodion, paraffin, parchment paper, elder-pith,

or even cork or the wing of a fly, to do which it must excrete very but indispensable quantities of salts of potassium, magnesium, different enzymes. If the membrane is of some impermeable sulphur and phosphorus, and supplies of carbonaceous and substance, like gold leaf, the hyphae cannot dissolve its way through, nitrogenous materials in different stages of complexity in the but the tip, finds the most minute pore and traverses the barrier different cases. Like these, also, they respire oxygen, and are

by means of it, as it does a stoma on å Icaf. We may hence conclude independent of light; and their various powers of growth, refuses to enter others, because in the former case there are chemo

that a parasitic hyphae pierces some plants or their stomata and secretion, and general metabolism, irritability, and response to tropically attractive substances present which are absent from the external factors show similar specific variations in both cases. latier, or are there replaced by repellent poisonous or protective It is quite a mistake to suppose that, apart from the chlorophyll substances such as enzymes or antitoxins. function, the physiology of the fungus-cell is fundamentally years have shown that in several groups of fungi we cannot be

Specialization of Parasitism.---The careful investigations of recent different from that of ordinary plant-cells. Nevertheless, content to distinguish as units morphologically different species, certain biological phenomena in fungi are especially pronounced, but we are compelled to go deeper and analyse further the species. and of tbese the following require particular notice.

It has been shown especially in the Uredincaé and Erysiphaceae that

many forms which can hardly be distinguished morphologically, Parasahsm.--Some fungi, though able to live as saprophytes, or which cannot be differentiated at all by structural characters, are occasionally enter the body of living plants, and are thus termed not really homogeneous but consist of a number of forms which are

even

small pore.

* Ta

sharply distinguishable by their infecting power. Eriksson found, 1 zur Biol. d. Pflanzen, ix. (1904). Spores and Sporophores : Zopf, for example, that the well-known species Puccinia graminis could be Die Pilze; also the works of von Tafel and Brefeld. Classification: split up into a number of forms which though morphologically van Tieghem, Journ. de bot. p. 77 (1893), and the works of Brefeld, similar were physiologically distinct. He found that the species Engler and Prantl, von Tasel, Saccardo and Lotsy already cited. really consisted of six distinct races, each having a more or less Oomycetes: Wager, “On the Fertilization of Peronospora para. narrow range of grasses on which it can live. The six races he named sitica," Ann. Bot. vol. xiv. (1900); Stevens, " The Compound P. graminis Secalis, Tritici, Avenge, Airpe, Agrostis, Poae. The Oosphere of Albugo Bliti," Bol. Gas. vol. 28 (1899);

“Gametofirst named will grow on rye and barley but not on wheat or oat. genesis and Fertilization in Albugo," ibid. vol. 32 (1901); The form Tritici is the least sharply marked and will grow on wheat, Miyake, The Fertilization of Pythium de Baryanum," Ann. of Bol. barley, rye and oat but not on the other grasses. The form Avenge vol. xv. (1901); Trow, "On Fertilization in the Saprolegnicae, will grow on oat and many grasses but not on the other three cereals Ann. of Bol. vol. xviii. (1904); Thaxter, “ New and Peculiar Aquatic mentioned.

The last three forms grow only on the genera Aira, Fungi;". Bot. Gaz. vol. 20 (1895); Lagerheim, " Unters. über die Agrostis and Poa respectively. All these forms have of course their Monoblepharideae," Bih. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handlingar, 25. aecidium-stage on the barberry. The terms biologic forms, biological Afd. iii. (1900); Woronin, “ Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Monoblespecies, physiological species, physiological races, specialized forms pharideen," Mém, de l'Acad. Imp. d. Sc. de St-Pétersbourg, 8 sér. have all been applied to these; perhaps the term biologic forms is vol. 16 (1902). Zygomyceles: Harper, Cell-division in Sporangia the most satisfactory. A similar specialization has been observed and Asci," Ann. Bol. vol. xiii. (1899); Klebs, Die Bedingungen der by Marshall Ward in the Puccinia parasitic on species of Bromus, Fortpflanzung, &c. (Jena, 1896), and " Zur Physiologie der Fortand by Neger, Marchal and especially Salmon in the Erysiphaceae. pflanzung" Prings. Jehr. (1898 and 1899)," Über Sporodinia In the last-named family the single morphological species Erysiphe grandis, " Bol

. Zcii, (1902); Falck, Die Bedingungen der Zygoten. graminis is found growing on the cereals, barley, oat, wheat, sye bildung bei Sporodinia grandis," Cohn's Beitr. 2. Biol. d. Pflansen, and a number of wild grasses (such as Poa, Bromus, Dactylis). On Bd. 8 (1902); Gruber " Verhalten der Zellkerne in den Zygosporen each of these host-plants the fungus has become specialized so that von Sporodinia grandis," Ber. d. deutschen boi. Ges. Bd. 19 (1901); the form on barley cannot infect the other three cereals or the wild | Blakeslee, “Sexual Reproduction in the Mucorineae," Proc. Am. grasses and so on. Just as the uredospores and aecidiospores both Acad. (1904);“ Zygospore germination in the Mucorineae," Annales show these specialized characters in the case of Puccinia graminis mycologići (1906). Ustilagineae: Plowright, British Uredinese and so we find that both the conidia and ascospores of E. graminis show Ustilagineae London, 1889); Massee, British Fungi (Phycomycetes this phenomenon. Salmon has further shown in investigating the and Uetiiagineae), (London, 1891); Brefeld, Uniers. aus dem relation of E. graminis to various species of the genus, Bromus, that Gesamtgeb. der Alykol. Hefte xi. and xii.; and Falck, “ Die Blutencertain spccics may act as "bridging species," enabling the transfer infektion bei den Brandpilzen," ibid. Heft xiii. 1905; Dangeard, " La of a biologic form to a host-plant which it cannot normally insect. Reproduction sexuelle des Ustilaginées," C.R., Oct. 9, 1893; Thus the biologic form on B. rccemosus cannot insect B. commutatus. Maire, Recherches cytologiques et taxonomiques sur les BasidioIf, however, conidia from B. racemosus are sown on B. hordaceus, myceten," Annexé au Bull. de la Soc. Mycol. de France (1902). the conidia which develop, on that plant are now able to insect Saccharomycetacege: Jorgensen, The Micro-organisms of FermentaB.commutatus; thus B. hordaceus acts as a bridging species. Salmon tion (1899); Barker, Ann. of Bot. vol. xiv.° (1901);

On Sporealso found that injury of a leaf by mechanical means, by heat, by formation among the Saccharomycetes," Journ of the Fed. Institute anaesthetics, &c., would affect the immunity of the plant and allow of Brewing, vol. 8. (1902); Guillermond, Recherches cylologiques infection by conidia which was not able to enter a normal leaf. The sur les levures (Paris, 1902); Hansen, Centralbl. f. Bakl. 1. Para. effect of the abnormal conditions is probably to stop the production sitenp. Abt. ii. Bd. 12 (1904)., Exoascaucae: Giesenhagen, of, or weaken or destroy the protective enzymes or antitoxins, the phrina, Exoascus, Magnusiella" (complete literature given), Bot. presence of which normally consers inmunity on the leaf.

Zeil. Bd. 7 (1901). Erysiphaceae: Harper, “ Die Entwicklung des Symbiosis.- The remarkable case of life in common first observed Perithecium bei Sphaeroiheca castagnei," Ber. d. deut. bot. Ges. (1896): in lichens, where a fungus and an alga unite to form a compound “Sexual Reproduction and the Organization of the Nucleus in certain organism—the lichen--totally different from cither, has now been Mildews," Publ. Carnegie Insiitution (Washington, 1906); Blackman proved to be universal in these plants, and lichens are in all cases & Fraser, " Fertilization in Sphacrotheca," Ann. of Bot. (1905), merely algae enmeshed in the interwoven hyphae of fungi (sce Perisporiaceae: Brefeld, Untersuchungen aus dem Gesamtgeb. der LICHENS). dualism, where the one constituent (alga) furnishes Mykol. Heit 10 (1891); Fraser and Chamber, Annales mycologici carbohydrates, and the other (fungus) ensures a supply of mineral (1907). Discomycetes: Harper, " Uber das Verhalten der Kerne bei malters, shade and moisture, has been termed symbiosis. Since Ascomyceten," Jalır. f. wiss. Bot. Bd. 29 (1890);

“Sexual Reprothen numerous other cases of symbiosis have been demonstrated. duction in Pyronema confluens, Ann. of Bot. 14 (1900); Claussen, Many trees are found to have their smaller roots invaded by fungi ** Zur Entw. der Ascomyceten," Boudiera, Bot. Zeit. Bd. 63 (1905); and deformed by their action, but so far from these being injurious, Dangeard, “Sur le Pyronema confluens," Le Botaniste, 9 série (1903) experiments go to show that this mycorhiza (fungus-root), is (and numerous papers in same journal earlier and later); Ramlow, necessary for the well-being of the tree. This is also the case with Zur Entwick. von Thelebolus stercoren," Bot. Zeil. (1906); Woronin, numerous other plants of moors and woodlands-e.g. Ericaceae, Über die Scleroticnkrankheit der Vaccineen Beeren," Mem. de Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, &c. Recent l'Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St-Pétersbourg, 7 série, 36 (1888); experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid Dittrich, “Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Helvellincen," Cohn's seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus, Beitr. 2. Biol. d. Pflanzen (1892). Pyrenomyceles: Fisch, “ Beitr. which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately 2. Entwickelungsgeschichte einiger Ascomyceten, Bot. Zeit. it emerges from the sced. The well-known säilures with rhododen- (1882); Frank, Uber einige neue u. weniger bekannte Pflanzdrons, heaths, &c., in ordinary garden soils are also explained by krankh.," Landw. Jahrb. °Bd. 12 (1883); Ward, Onygena the need of the sungus-infected peat for their roots. The role of the cquina, a horn-destroying fungus,". Phil. Trans. vol. 191 fungus appears to be to supply materials from the leaf-mould around, (1899); Dawson, On the Biology of Poronia punctata," Ann. of in forms which ordinary root-hairs are incapable of providing for Bot. 14 (1900). Tuberineae: Buchholtz, “Zur Morphologie u. the plant; in return the latter supports the fungus at slight expense Systematik der Fungi hypogaei,". Ann. Mycol. Bd. 1 (1903): from its abundant stores of reserve materials. Numerous other Fischer in Engler and Prantl, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien cases of symbiosis have been discovered among the fungi of ler: (1896). Laboulbeniineae: Thaxter, Monograph of the Laboulmentation, of which those between Aspergillus and yeast in saké beniaceae," Men. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sciences, vol. 12 (1895). manufacture, and between yeasts and bacteria in kephir and in the Urcdincae: Eriksson and Henning, Die Getreidcroste (Stockholm, ginger-beer plant are best worked out. For cases of symbiosis see 1890); Eriksson, Bolan. Gaz. vol. 25 (1896); "On the Vegetative BACTERIOLOGY.

Life of some Uredineae," Ann. of Bol. (1905); Klebahn, Die wirtAUTHORITIES.-General: Engler and Prantl, Die natürlichen wechselnden Rostpilze (Berlin, 1904); Sapin-Trouffy, " Recherches Pfanzenfamilien, i. Teil (1892 onwards): Zopf, Die Pilse (Breslau, histologiques sur la famille des Urédinées," Le Botaniste (1896-1897); 1890); De Bary; Comparalive Morphology of Fungi, &c. (Oxford, Blackınan, "On the Fertilization, Alternation of Generations and 1887); von Talel, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze (Jena, 1892); General Cytology of the Uredincae," Ann. of Bot. vol. 18 (1901): Brefeld, Unters. aus dem Gesamtgebiele der Mykologie, Heft i. 13 Blackman and Fraser, "Further Studies on the Sexuality of Ure(1872-1905)Lotsy, Vortrage über botanische Stammesgeschichte dineae," Ann. of Bot. vol. 20 (1906); Christman, Sexual Repro(Jena, 1907). Distribution, &c.: Cooke, Introduction to the Study duction of Rusts,” Ann. of Bol. vol. 20 (1906); Ward,

Fungi (London, 1895); Feiix in Zeitschr. d. deutsch. gcologisch. Brooms and their Rust Fungus,". Ann. of Bot. vol. 15 (1901). ungarischen naturwiss. Gesellsch. zu Budapest (1897). Anatomy, mycètes," Le Botaniste (1894 and 1900); Maire, Recherches &c.: Bommer, “Sclerotes et cordons mycéliens," Mém. de l'Acad. cytologiques et taxonomiques sur les Basidiomycètes," Annexe du Roy. de Belz. (1894): Mangin, "Observ. sur la membrane des Bull. de la Soc. Afycol. de France (1902); Möller, Protobasidiomucorinées, Journ. de Bol. (1899); Zimmermann, Die Morph. myceten," Schimper's Mill. aus den Tropen, Heft 8 (Jena, 1895); und Physiologie des Pflanzenzellkernes (Jena, 1896); Wisselingh, Nichols, “ Thc Nature and Origin of the Binucleated Cells in certain "Microchem. Unters über die Zellwände d. Fungi," Pringsh. Basidiomycetes," Trans. Wisconsin Acad. of Sciences, vol. 15 Jahrb. B. 31, P: 619 (1898); Istvanffvi, “ Unters. über die phys. (1905); Wager. "The Sexuality of the Fungi." Ann. of Bot. 13 Anat. der Pilze," Prings. Jahrb. (1896). Spore Distribution: Fulton, (1899): Woronin, “ Exobasidium Vaccinii," Verh. Naturf. Ges. su

Dispersal of the Spores of Fungi by Insects,". Ann. Bol. (1889); Freiburg, Bd. 4 (1867). Fermentation: Buchner," Gährung ohne HefeFalck, “ Die Sporenverbreitung bei den Basidiomyceten," Beitr. 'zellen,'' Bot. Zeil, Bd. 18 (1898); Albert, Cent. f. Bakt. Bd. 17 (1901);

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Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (Cambridge, 1899); the overhair. The fur differs from the overhair, in that it is
Parasitism: “On some Relations between Host and Parasite,
Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. 47 (1890): " A Lily Disease,” Ann. Of Botany: overhair is straight, smooth and comparatively rigid. These

soft, silky, curly, downy and barbed lengthwise, while the Vol. 2 (1888): Eriksson & Hennings, Die Getreiderostei epide papers. properties of fur

constitute its essential value for felting purposes, Ward, “On the Question of Predisposition and Immunity in Plants, Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. vol. 11 (1902); also Annals of Bol. and mark its difference from wool and silk; the first, after some vol. 16 (1902) and vol. 19 (1905); Neger, “. Beitr. 2.. Biol. d; slight preparation by the aid of hot water, readily unites ils Experiments with Biologic Forms of the Erysiphaceae," Phil. fibres into a strong and compact mass; the others can best be Trans. (1904);"On Erysiphe graminis and its adaptative parasitism managed by spinning and weaving. within the genus, Bromus," Ann. Mycol. vol. 11 (1904), also Ann. On the living animal the overhair keeps the fur filaments of Bol. vol. 19' (1905).' Symbiosis: Ward, “The Ginger - Beer apart, prevents their tendency to selt, and protects them from Plant," Phil

. Trans. Roy. Soc. (1893) - Symbiosis,". Ann. Of Bol. 13 injury-thus securing to the animal an immunity from cold and (1899): Shalk, wiss. Bol. Bd. 34 (1900); Bernard, " On some Different Cases of storm; while, as a matter of fact, this very overhair, though of Germination," Gardener's Chronicle (1900); Pierce, Publ. Univ. an humbler name, is most generally the beauty and pride of the California (1900).

(H. M. W.; V. H. B.)

pelt, and marks its chief value with the furrier. We arrive FUNJ (FUNNIYEH, FUNG, FUNGHA), a very mixed negroid ihus at two distinct and opposite uses and values of fur. Re. race, occupying parts of Sennar and the hilly country to the garded as useful for felt it is denominated staple fur, while with south between the White and Blue Niles. They traditionally respect to its use with and on the pelt it is called fancy fur. come from west of the White Nile and are affiliated by some to History.-The manufacture of furinto a felt is of comparatively the Kordofan Nubas, by others, more justifiably, to the negro modern origin, while the use of fur pells as a covering for the Shilluks. These Funj, who became the dominant race in Sennar body, for the couch, or for the tent is coeval with the earliest in the 15th century, almost everywhere assimilated the speech, history of all northern tribes and nations. Their use was not religion and babits of the Arabs settled in that region. Until simply a barbarous expedient to defend man from the rigours the 19th century they were one of the most powerful of African of an arctic winter; woven wool alone cannot, in its most perfect peoples in the eastern Sudan. About the end of the 15th century form, accomplish this. The pelt or skin is requisite to keep out they overthrew the kingdom of Aloa, between the two Niles, the piercing wind and driving storm, while the fur and overhair and conquered the neighbouring peoples of the Sudan, Nubia ward off the cold; and “furs" are as much a necessity to-day and even Kordofan. The Funj had mixed much with the Arabs among more northern peoples as they ever were in the days of before their conquests, and had been converted to Islam. But barbarism. With them the providing of this necessary covering they were still in many ways savages, for James Bruce (who became the first purpose of their toil; subsequently it grew traversed the district in 1772) says that their most famous into an object of barter and traffic, at first among themselves, king, Malek-el-Gahman, preferred human liver to any other and afterwards with their neighbours of more temperate climes; food, and the Belgian traveller E. Pruyssenaere (1826-1864) and with the latter it naturally became an article of fashion, found them still performing pagan rites on their sacred Mount of ornament and of luxury. This, in brief, has been the history Gula. Ernst Marno declared that as late as 1870 the most of its use in China, Tatary, Russia, Siberia and North America, southern branch of the race, the Boruns, a non-Arabic speaking and at present the employment of fancy furs among civilized tribe, were cannibals. The Funj kings were content with nations has grown to be more extensive than at any former period. levying tribute on their neighbours, and in this loose way Shendi, The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe Berber and Dongola were once tributary. The Arab viziers competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national gradually absorbed all power, the Funj sovereignty becoming wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures nominal; and in 1821 the Egyptians easily destroyed the Funi on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, domination. To-day the Funj are few, and represent no real told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance. Fuis type. They are a bright, hospitable folk. Many of them are have constituted the price of redemption for royal captives, skilful surgeons and go far afield in their work. The fellahin, the gifts of emperors and kings, and the peculiar. badge of state indeed, call surgeons “ Senaari” (men of Sennar). See further functionaries. At the present day they vie with precious gems SENNAR and SUDAN (Anglo-Egyptian).

and gold as ornaments and garniture for wealth and fashion; PUNKIA, in botany, a genus of rather handsome, hardy, but by their abundance, and the cheapness of some varieties, herbaceous plants belonging to the natural order Liliaceae, they have recently come within the reach of men of moderate and natives of China and Japan. They are tuberous, with incomes. The history of furs can be read in Marco Polo, as broadly ovate or heart-shaped leaves and racemes of white or he grows eloquent with the description of the rich skins of the pale lilac, drooping, funnel-shaped flowers. They are useful khan of Tatary; in the early fathers of the church, who lament for the borders of a shrubbery, the lawn or rock-work, or may their introduction into Rome and Byzantium as an evidence of be grown in pots for the greenhouse. The plants are propagated barbaric and debasing luxury; in the political history of Russia, by dividing the crowns in autumn or when growth begins in stretching out a powerful arm over Siberia to secure her rich spring.

treasures; in the story of the French occupation of Canada, FUNNEL (through an 0. Fr. founil, found in Breton, from and the ascent of the St Lawrence to Lake Superior, and the Lat. infundibulum, that through which anything is poured, subsequent contest to retain possession against England; in from fundere, to pour), a vessel shaped like a cone having a small the history of early settlements of New England, New York tube at the apex through which powder, liquid, &c., may be and Virginia; in Irving's Astoria; in the records of the Hudson's easily passed into another vessel with a small opening.. The Bay Company; and in the annals of the fairs held at Nizhniy term is used in metal-casting of the hole through which the Novgorod and Leipzig. Here it may suffice to give some account metal is poured into a mould, and in anatomy and zoology of an of the present condition of the trade in fancy furs. The collection infundibulum or funnel-shaped organ. The word is thus used of skins is now chiefly a matter of private enterprise. Few, if generally of any shaft or passage to convey light, air or smoke, any, monopolies exist. as of the chimney of an engine or a steam-boat, or the fluc of an Natural Supplies.-We are dependent upon the Carnivora, ordinary chimney. It is also used of a shaft or channel in rocks, Rodentia, Ungulata and Marsupialia for our supplies of surs, and in the decoying of wild-fowl is applied to the cone-shaped the first two classes being by far of the greatest importance. The passage leading from a pond and covered with a net, a funnelCarnivora include bears, wolverines, wolves, raccoons, foxes, net," into which the birds are decoyed.

sables, martens, skunks, kolinskis, fitch, fishers, ermines, cats, PUR (connected with 0. Fr. forre, a sheath or case; so "an sea otters, fur seals, hair seals, lions, tigers, leopards, lynxes, outer covering "), the name specially given to the covering of jackals, &c. The Rodentia include beavers, nutrias, musk-rats the skin in certain animals which are natives of the colder or musquash, marmots, hamsters, chinchillas, hares, rabbits, climates, lying alongside of another and longer covering, called I squirrels, &c. The Ungulata include Persian, Astrachan, Crimean, Chinese and Tibet lambs, mouflon, guanaco, goats, ponies, &c. sex and age, in the killing for the purpose of equalizing the The Marsupialia include opossums, wallabies and kangaroos. numbers of the catches. As evidence of indiscriminate slaughter These, of course, could be subdivided, but for general purposes the case of the American buffaloes may be cited. At one time of the fur trade the above is deemed sufficient.

thousands of buffalo skins were obtainable and provided material The question frequently arises, not only for those interested for most useful coats and rugs for rough wear in cold regions, in the production of fur apparel, but for those who derive so but to-day only a herd or so of the animals remain, and in much comfort and pleasure from its use, whether the supply of captivity. fur-bearing animals is likely to be exhausted. Although it is The majority of animals taken for their fur are trapped or a fact that the demand is ever increasing, and that some of the snared, the gun being avoided as much as possible in order that rarer animals are decreasing in numbers, yet on the other hand the coat may be quite undamaged. Many weary hours are some kinds of furs are occasionally neglected through vagaries of spent in setting baits, traps and wires, and, frequently, when fashion, which give nature an opportunity to replenish their the hunter retraces his steps to collect the quarry it is only to source. These respites are, however, becoming fewer every day, find it gone, devoured by some large animal that has visited and what were formerly the most neglected kinds of furs are his traps before him. After the skins have been carefully becoming more and more sought after. The supply of some of removed--the sooner after death the better for the subsequent the most valuable, such as sable, silver and natural black fox, condition of the fur--they are lightly tacked out, pelt out wards, sea otter and ermine, which are all taken from animals of a more and, without being exposed to the sun or close contact with a or less shy nature, does very gradually decrease with persistent fire, allowed to dry in a hut or shady place where there is some hunting and the encroachment of man upon the districts where warmth or movement of air. With the exception of sealskins, they live, but the climate of these vast regions is so cold and which are pickled in brine, all raw skins come to the various in hospitable that the probabilities of man ever permanently trade markets simply dried like this. inhabiting them in numbers sufficient to scare away or exter- Quality and Colour.- The best fur is obtained by killing minate the sur-bearing wild animals is unlikely. Besides these animals when the winter is at its height and the colder the season There are many useful, ihough commonplace, fur-bearing animals the better its quality and colour. Fur skins taken out of season like mink, musquash, skunk, raccoon, opossum, hamster, rabbit, are indifferent, and the hair is liable to shed itself freely; a hares and moles, that thrive by depredations upon cultivated good furrier will, however, reject such faulty specimens in the land. Some of these are reared upon extensive wild farms. manufacturing. The finest furs are obtained from the Arctic In addition there are domestic fur-bearing animals, such as and northern regions, and the lower the latitude the less full and Persian, Astrachan and Chinese lambs, and goats, easily bred silky the fur, till, at the torrid zone, fur gives place to harsh hair and available.

without any underwool. The finest and closest wools are With regard to the rearing of the Persian lamb, there is a possessed by the amphibious Carnivora and Rodentia, viz. seals, prevalent idea that the skins of the unborn lamb are frequently Otters, beavers, nutrias and musquash, the beauty of which is used; this, however, is a mistake. A few such skins have been not seen until after the stiff water or top hairs are pulled out taken, but they are too delicate to be of any service. The youngest, or otherwise removed. In this class of animal the underneath known as “ broadtails," are killed when a few days old, but for wool of the belly is thicker than that of the back, while the the weil-developed curly fur, the lambs must be six or seven weeks opposite is true of those found on the land. The.sea otter, one old. During these weeks their bodies are covered with leather of the richest and rarest of furs, especially for men's wear, is an so that the fur may deve in close, light and clean curls. The exception to this unhairing process, which it does not quire, experiment has been tried of rearing rare, wild, fur-bearing the hair being of the same length as the wool, silky and bright, animals in captivity, and although climatic conditions and food quite the reverse of the case of other aquatic animals. have been precisely as in their natural environment, the fur has Of sealskins there are two distinct classes, the fur seals and the been poor in quality and bad in colour, totally unlike that taken hair seals. The latter have no growth of fur under the stiff top from animals in the wild state. The sensation of fear or the re- hair and arc killed, with few exceptions (generally of the marbled striction of movement and the obtaining of food without exertion scals), on account of the oil and leather they yield. The best evidently prevent the normal development of the creature. fur seals are found off the Alaska coast and down as far south

In mountainous districts in the more temperate zones some as San Francisco. good supplies are found. Chinchillas and nutrias are obtained It is found that in densely wooded districts furs are darker in from South America, whence come also civet cats, jaguars, colour than in exposed regions, and that the quality of wool and ocelots and pumas. Opossums and wallabies, good useful furs, hair is soíter and more silky than those from bare tracts of country, come from Australia and New Zealand. The martens, foxes where nature exacts from its creatures greater efforts to secure and otters imported from southern Europe and southern Asia, food, thereby developing stronger limbs and a consequently are very mixed in quality, and the majority are poor compared coarser body covering. with those of Canada and the north.

As regards density of colour the skunk or black marten has Certain characteristics the skin reveal to the expert from the blackest fur, and some cats of the domestic kind, specially what section of territory they come, but in classifying them it reared for their sur, are nearly black. Black bears have occasionis considered sufficient to mention territories only.

ally very black coats, but the majority have a brownish underSome of the poorer sorts of furs, such as hamster, marmot, wool. The natural black fox is a member of the silver fox Chinese goats and lambs, Tatar ponies, weasels, kaluga, various family and is very rare, the skins bringing a high price. Most monkeys, antelopes, foxes, otters, jackals and others from the silver foxes have dark necks and in some the dark shade runs a warmer zones, which until recently were neglected on account quarter, hali-way, or three-quarters, or even the whole length of their inferior quality of colour, by the better class of the trade, of the skin, but it is rather of a brownish hue. Some Russian are now being destly dressed or dyed in Europe and America, sables are of a very dense bluish brown almost a black, which is and good effects are produced, although the lack of quality when the origin undoubtedly of the term “ sables," while some, from compared with the better surs from colder climates which possess one district in particular, have a quantity of silver hairs, evenly full top hair, close underwool and supple leathers, is readily interspersed in the fur, a peculiarity which has nothing to do manifest. It is only the pressure of increasing demand that makes with age. The best sea otters have very dark coats which are marketable hard pelts with harsh brittle hair of nondescript highly esteemed, a few with silver hairs in parts; where these hue, and these would, naturally, be the last to attract the notice are equally and evenly spread the skins are very valuable. Otters of dealers.

and beavers that run dark in the hair or wool are more valuable As it is impossible that we shall ever discover any new fur-than the paler ones, the wools of which are frequently touched bearing animals other than those we know, it behoves responsible with a chemical to produce a golden shade. This is also done authorities to enforce close seasons and restrictions, as to the I with nutrias after unhairing. The darker sorts of mink,

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