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Íslands, Alaska, north-west coast of America. Copper Island of the orange brown with very white flanks, and marked generally with the
Aleutian group near to Kamschatka, Robben Island and Japan. blackest of stripes. The last are of a noble appearance and exceed-
Other kinds are taken from the South Pacific and South Atlantic ingly scarce. They all make handsome floor rugs.
Occans, around Cape Horn, the Falkland Islands up to Lobos

Value of the Indian

from 13 to 415. Islands at the entrance of the La Plata river, off the Cape of Good


(10 to 265. Hope and Crozet (sles. With, however, the exception of the pick Vicuna is a species of long-necked sheep native to South America, of the Lobos Island seals the fur of the southern sea seals very bearing some resemblance to the guanaco, but the fur is shorter, poor and only suitable for the cheapest market. Formerly many closer and much finer. The colour is a pale golden-brown and the skins were obtained from New Zealand and Australia, but the fur is held in great repute in South America for carriage rugs. The importation is now small and the quality not good. The preparation supply is evidently small as the prices are high. There is scarcely of seal skin occupies a longer time than any other fur skin, but its a commercial quotation in London, few coming in except from fine rich effect when finished and its many properties of warmth private sources. 28. 6d. to Ss. 6d. may be considered as the average and durability well repay it. Value ros. to 2325.

value. SEAL, HAIR.—There are several varieties of these scals in the seas WALLABY.-See Kangaroo, above. stretching north from Scotland, around Newfoundland, Greenland WALLAROO.-See Kangaroo, above. and the north-west coast of America, and they are far more numerous

WOLF.-Size 50 X 25 in. Is closely allied to the dog tribe and, than fur seals. Generally they have coarse rigid hair and none like the jackals, is found through a wide range of the world,- North possess any underwool. They are taken principally for the oil and and South America, Europe and Asia. Good supplies are available leather they yield. Some of the better haired sorts are dyed black !rom North America and Siberia and a very few from China. The and brown and used for men's motor coats when quite a waterproof best are the full furred ones of a very pale bluish-grey with fine garment is wanted, and they are used also for this quality in China. flowing black top hair, which are obtained from the Hudson Bay

The young of the Greenland seals are called whitecoats on account district. Those from the United States and Asia are harsher in of the early growth being of a yellowish white colour; the hair is quality and browner. A few black American specimens come into to i in. long, and at this early stage of their life is soft compared to the market, but usually the quality is poor compared to the lighter that of the older seals. These fur skins are dyed black or dark brown surred animal. The Siberian is smaller than the North American and are used for military caps and hearth-rugs. Value 28. to 155. and the Russian still smaller. Besides the wolf proper a large number There are fewer hair seals in the southern than in the northern seas. of prairie or dog wolves from America and Asia are used for cheaper

SHEEP::--Vary much in size and in quality of wool. Many of the rugs. In size they are less than hall that of a large woll and are of domestic kind in central and northern Europe and Canada are used a motley sandy colour. Numbers of the Russian are retained for for drivers and peasants' coat linings, &c. ln Great Britain many

home use. The finest wolves are very light weighted and most coats of the home-reared sheep, having wools two and a half to five suitable for carriage aprons, in fact, ideal for the purpose, thoughi inches long, are dyed various colours and used as Hoor rugs. Skins lacking the strength of some other furs. with very short wool are dyed black and used for military saddle


value 28. 6d. to 64s. cloths, 'The bulk, however, is used in the wool trade. The Hun.

Dog wolves :

to 2s. 6d. garian peasants are very fond of their natural brown sheep coats,

WOLVERINE. ---Size 16X18 in. is native to America, Siberia, the leather side of which is not lined, but embellished by a very close Russia and Scandinavia and generally partakes of the nature of a fancy embroidery, worked upon the leather itsell; these garments

bear. The underwool is full and thick with strong and bright top are reversible, the fur being worn inside when the weather is cold. hair about 2} in. long. The colour is of two or three shades of brown Chinese sheep are largely used for cheap rugs. Value of English in one skin, the centre being an oval dark saddle, edged as it were sheep from 3s. to Tos.

with quite a pale tone and merging to a darker one towards the SKUNK or BLACK MARTÉN. -Size 15 X8 in. The underwool is flanks. This peculiar character alone stamps it as a distinguished full and fairly close with glossy, flowing top, hair about 24 in. long. fur, in addition to which it has the excellent advantage of being the The majority have two stripes of white hair, extending the whole most durable sur sor carriage aprons, as well as the richest in colour. length of the skin, but these are cut out by the manufacturing It is not prolific, added to which it is very difficult to match a number furrier and sold to the dealers in pieces for exportation. The animals of skins in quality as well as colour. Hence it is an expensive fur, are found widely spread throughout North and South America. but its excellent qualitics make it valuable. The darkest of the The skins which are of the greatest interest to the European trade least coarse skins are worth the most. Prices from 6s. to 375. are those from North America, the South American species being WOMBAT, KOALA or AUSTRALIAN BEAR.-Size 20 X 12 in. Has small, coarse and generally brown. The best skins come from Ohio light grey or brown close thick wool half an inch deep without any top and New York. If it were not for its disagreeable odour, skunk hair, with a rather thick spongy pelt. It is quite inexpensive and would be worth much more than the usual market value, as it is only suitable for cheap rough coats, carriage rugs, perambulator naturally the blackest fur, silky in appearance and most durable. aprons and linings for footbags. The coats are largely used in The improved dressing processes have to a large extent removed the western America and Canada. Value 3d. to 18. 8fd. naturally pungent scent. The fur is excellent for stoles, boas, Preparing and Dressing.-A furrier or skin merchant must collars, cuffs, muffs and trimmings. Value is. 6d. to us.

possess a good eye for colour to be successful, the difference in Souslik.-Size 7 in. Xat. Is a small rodent found in the south

value on this subtle matter solely (in the rarer precious sorts, of Russia and also in parts of America. It has very short hair and is a poor fur even for the cheapest linings, which is the only use to especially sables, natural black, silver and blue fox, sea otters, which the skin could be put. It is known as kaluga when imported chinchillas, fine mink, &c.) being so considerable that not only a in ready-made linings from Russia where the skins are dressed and practised but an intuitive sense of colour is necessary to accurworked in an inferior way. Value id. to 3d.

In addition to SQUIRREL.-Size 10x5 in. This measurement refers to the ately determine the exact merits of every skin. Russian and Siberian sorts, which are the only kind imported for this a knowledge is required of what the condition of a pelt the fur. The numerous other species are too poor in their coats should be; a good judge knows by experience whether a skin to attract notice from fur dealers. The back of the Russian squirrel will turn out soft and strong, after dressing, and whether the has an even close fur varying from a clear bluish-grey to a reddish hair is in the best condition of strength and beauty. The dressing brown, the bellies in the former being of a flat quality and white, in the latter yellowish. The backs are worked into linings separately, of the pelt or skin that is to be preserved for fur is totally different as are the bellies or " locks.". The pelts, although very light, are to the making of leather; in ihe latter tannic acid is used, but tough and durable, hence their good reputation for linings for ladies' walking or driving coats. The best skins also provide excellent districts where a regular fur trade is not carried on. The results

never should be with a fur skin, as is so often done by natives of material for coats, capes, stoles, ties, collars, cuffs, gloves, muffs, hoods and light weight carriage aprons. The tails are dark and very

of applying tannic acid are to harden the pelt and discolour small, and when required for ends of boas three or four are made as

and weaken the fur. The best methods for dressing fur skins one. Value per skin from 2 d. to is. Id,

are those of a lawer or currier, the aim being to retain all the TIBET LAMB._Size 27 X 13 in. These pretty animals have a long. natural oil in the pell, in order to preserve the natural colour very fine, silky and curly fleece of a creamy white. The majority of the fur, and to render the pelt as supple as possible. Generally and worked into cross-shaped coats, and the remainder, a fourth of the skins are placed in an alkali bath, then by hand with a blunt the total, come as dressed skins. They are excellent for trimmings wooden instrument the moisture of the pelt is worked out and of evening mantles and for children's ties, muffs and perambulator it is drawn carefully to and fro over a straight, dull-edged knife aprons. The sur is too long and bulky for linings. Value per skin from 4s. 6d. to 8s: 6d.

to remove any superfluous flesh and unevenness. Special grease Ticer.-Size varies considerably, largest about 10 ft. from nose is then rubbed in and the skin placed in a machine which softly to root of tail. Tigers are found throughout India, Turkestan, and continuously beats in the softening mixture, after which it China, Mongolia and the East Indies. The coats of the Bengal kind is put into a slowly revolving drum, fitted with wooden paddles, from east or further India are similar in colour, but longer in the haire partly filled with various kinds of fine hard sawdust according while those from north of the Himalayas and the mountains of China

to the nature of the surs dealt with. This process with a moderate are not only huge in size, but have a very long soft hair of delicate' degree of heat thoroughly cleans it of external greasy matter, and all that is necessary before manufacturing is to gently tap the Skinners' Company of the city of London was an association the fur upon a leather cushion stuffed with horsehair with smooth of furriers and skin dressers established under royal charter canes of a flexibility suited to the strength of the fur. After granted by Edward III At that period the chief concern of dressing most skins alter in shape and decrease in size.

tbe body was to prevent buyers from being imposed upon by With regard to the merits of European dressing, it may be sellers who were much given lo offering old furs as new; a century fairly taken that English, German and French dressers have later the Skinners' Company received other charters empowering specialities of excellence. In England, for instance, the dressing them to inspect not only warehouses and open markets, but of sables, martens, foxes, otters, seals, bears, lions, tigers and workrooms. In 1667 they were given power to scrutinize the leopards is first rate; while with skunk, mink, musquash, preparing of rabbit or cony wool for the wool trade and the chinchillas, beavers, lambs and squirrels, the Germans show registration of the then customary seven years' apprenticesbip. better results, particularly in the last. The pelt after the German To-day all these privileges and powers are in abeyance, and the dressing is dry, soft and white, which is due to a finishing process interest that they took in the fur trade has been gradually where meal is used, thus they compare favourably with the transferred to the leather-dressing craft. moister and consequently heavier English finish. In France they The work done by English furriers was generally good, but do well with cheaper skins, such as musquash, rabbit and bare, since about 1865 has considerably improved on account of the which they dye in addition to dressing. Russian dressing is influx of German workmen, who have long been celebrated seldom reliable; not only is there an unpleasant odour, but in for excellent fur work, being in their own country obliged to damp weather the pelts often become clammy, which is due to satisfy officially appointed experts and to obtain a certificate the saline matter in the dressing mixture. Chinese dressing is of capacity before they can be there employed. The French white and supple, but contains much powder, which is disagrec- influence upon the trade has been, and still is, primarily one of able and difficult to get rid of, and in many instances the skin style and combination of colour, bad judgment in which will mar is rendered so thin that the roots of the fur are weakened, which the beauty of the most valuable furs. It is a recognized law means that it is liable to shed itself freely, when subject to among high-class furriers that furs should be simply arranged, ordinary friction in handling or wearing. American and Canadian thai is, that an article should consist of one fur or of two furs dressing is gradually improving, but hitherto their results have of a suitable contrast, to which lace may be in some cases added been inferior to the older European methods.

with advantage. As illustrative of this, it may be explained that In the case of seal and beaver skins the process is a much more any brown tone of fur such as sable, marien, mink, black marten, difficult one, as the water or hard top hairs have to be removed beaver, nutria, &c., will go well upon black or very dark-brown by hand after the pelt has been carefully rendered moist and furs, while those of a whitė or grey nature, such as ermine, white warm. With seal skins the process is longer than with any other lamb, chinchilla, blue fox, silver lox, opossum, grey squirrel, grey fur preparation and the series of processes engage many lamb, will set well upon seal or black furs, as Persian lamb, specialists, each man being constantly kept upon one section of broadtail, astrachan, caracul lamb, &c. White is also permissible the work. The skins arrive simply salted. After being purchased upon some light browns and greys, but brown motley colours at the auction sales they are washed, then stretched upon a and greys should never be in contrast. One neutralizes the other hoop, when all blubber and unnecessary flesh is removed, and and the effect is bad. The qualities, too have to be considered the pelt is reduced to an equal thickness, but not so thin as it is the fulness of one, the flatness of the other, or the coarseness or finally rendered. Subsequently the hard top hairs are taken out fineness of the furs. The introduction of a third fur in the same as in the case of otters and beavers and the whole thoroughly garment or indiscriminate selection of colours of silk linings, cleaned in tbe revolving drums. The close underwool, which is braids, buttons, &c., often spoils an otherwise good article. of a slightly wavy nature and mostly of a pale drab colour, is With regard to the natural colours of furs, the browns that then dyed by repeated applications of a rich dark brown colour, command the highest prices are those that are of a bluish rather one coat after another, each being allowed to thoroughly dry than a reddish tendency. With greys it is those that are bluish, before the next is put on, till the effect is almost a lustrous black not yellow, and with white those that are purest, and with black on the top. The whole is again put through the cleaning process the most dense, that are most esteemed and that are the rarest, and evenly reduced in thickness by revolving emery wheels, Perhaps for ingenuity and the latest methods of manipulating and eventually finished off in the palest buff colour.

skins in the manufacturing of furs the Americans lead the way, The English dye for seals is to-day undoubtedly the best; its but as fur cutters are more or less of a roving and cosmopolitan constituents are more or less of a trade secret, but the principal in character the larger fur businesses in London, Berlin, Vienna, gredients comprise gall nuts, copper dust, camphor and antimony, St Petersburg, Paris and New York are guided by the same and it would appear after years of careful watching that the thorough and comparatively advanced principles. atmosphere and particularly the water of London are partly During the period just mentioned the tailors' methods of responsible for good and lasting results. The Paris dyers do scientific pattern cutting have been adopted by the leading excellent work in this direction, but the colour is not so durable, furriers in place of the old chance methods of fur cutters, so that probably owing to a less pure water. In Amcrica of late, strides to-day a fur garment may be as accurately and gracefully fired have been made in seal dyeing, but preference is still given to as plush or velvet, and with all good houses a material pattern London work. In Paris, too, they obtain beautiful results in the is fitted and approved before the skins are cut. "topping" or colouring Russian sables and the Germans are Through the advent of German and American fur sewingparticularly successful in dyeing Persian lambs black and foxes machines since about 1890 fur work has been done better and in all blue, grey, black and smoke colours and in the insertion of cheaper. There are, however, certain parts of a garment, such as white hairs in imitation of the real silver fox, Small quantities the putting in of sleeves and placing on of collars, &c., that can of good beaver are dyed in Russia occasionally, and white hairs only be sewn by hand. For straight seams the machines are put in so well that an effect similar to sea otter is obtained. excellent, making as neat a seam as is found in glove work, unless,

The process of inserting white hairs is called in the trade of course, the pelts are especially heavy, such as bears and sheep pointing,"

."and is either done by stitching them in with a needle rugs. or by adhesive caoutchouc.

A very great feature of German and Russian work is the fur The Viennese are successful in dyeing marmot well, and their linings called rotondes, sacques or plates, which are made for cleverness in colouring it with a series of stripes to represent the their home use and exportation chiefly to Great Britain, America natural markings of sable which has been done after the garments and France. have been made, so as to obtain symmetry of lines, bas secured In Weissenfels, near Leipzig, the dressing of Russian grey for them a large trade among the dealers of cheap furs in England squirrel and the making it into linings is a gigantic industry, and and the continent.

is the principal support of the place. After the dressing process Manufacturing Methods and Specialilies. In the olden times the backs of the squirrels are made up separately from the under and thinner white and grey parts, the first being known as squirrel- Frauds and Imitations. The opportunities for cheating in back and the other as squirrel-lock linings. A few linings are the fur trade are very considerable, and most serious frauds made from entire skins and others are made from the quite white have been perpetrated in the selling of sables that have been pieces, wbich in some instances are spotted with the black ear coloured or "topped "; that is, just the tips of the hairs stained tips of the animals to resemble ermine. The smaller and uneven dark to represent more expensive skins. It is only by years of pieces of beads and legs are made up into linings, so there is experience that some of these colourings can be detected. Where absolutely no waste. Similar work is done in Russia on almost the skins are heavily dyed it is comparatively easy to see the as extensive a scale, but neither the dressing nor the work is difference between a natural and a dyed colour, as the underwool so good as the German.

and top hair become almost alike and the leather is also dark, The majority of heads, gills or throats, sides or flanks, paws whereas in natural skins the base of the underwool is much and pieces of skins cut up in the fur workshops of Great Britain, paler than the top, or of a different colour, and the leather is America and France, weighing many tons, are chiefly exported white unless finished in a pale reddish tone as is sometimes to Leipzig, and made up in neighbouring countries and Greece, the case when mahogany sawdust is used in the final cleaning. where labour can be obtained at an alarmingly low rate. Al- As has been explained, sable is a term applied for centuries past though the sewing, which is necessarily done by hand, the sections to the darker sorts of the Russian Siberian martens, and for years being of so unequal and tortuous a character, is rather roughly past the same term has been bestowed by the retail trade upon executed, the matching of colours and qualities is excellent. The American and Canadian martens. The baum and stone The enormous quantities of pieces admit of good selection and martens caught in France, the north of Turkey and Norway where odd colours prevail in a lining it is dyed. Many squirrel- are of the same family, but coarser in underwool and the top lock linings are dyed blue and brown and used for the outside hair is less in quantity and not so silky. The kolinski, or as it of cheap garments. They are of little weight, warm and effective, is sometimes styled Tatar sable, is the animal, the tail of which but not of great durability.

supplies hair for artists' brushes. This is also of the marten The principal linings are as follows: Sable sides, sable heads species and has been frequently offered, when dyed dark, as have and paws, sable gills, mink sides, heads and gills, marten sides, baum and stone martens, as Russian sables. Hares, too, are heads and gills, Persian lamb pieces and paws, caracul lamb dyed a sable colour and advertised as sable. The fur, apart pieces or paws, musquash sides and heads, nutria sides, gepet from a clumsy appearance, is so brittle, however, as to be of pieces, raccoon sides or flanks, fox sides, kolinski whole skins, and scarcely any service whatever. small rodents as kaluga and bamster. The white stripes cut out Among the principal imitations of other furs is musquash, of skunks are made into rugs.

out of which the top bair has been pulled and the undergrowth Another great source of inexpensive furs is China, and for of wool clipped and dyed exactly the same colour as is used for many years past enormous quantities of dressed furs, many of seal, which is then offered as seal or red river seal. Its durability, which are made up in the form of linings and Chinese loose- however, is far less than that of seal. Rabbit is prepared and shaped garments, have been imported by England, Germany dyed and frequently offered as “electric sealskin." Nutria also and France for the lower class of business; the garments are only is prepared to represent sealskin, and in its natural colour, after regarded as so much fur and are reworked. With, however, the the long bairs are plucked out, it is sold as otter or beaver. The exception of the best white Tibet lambs, the majority of Chinese wool is, however, poor compared to the otter and beaver, and the furs can only be regarded as inferior material. While the work pelt thin and in no way comparable to them in strength. White is often cleverly done as to matching and manipulation of the hares are frequently sold as white fox, but the fur is weak, brittle pelt which is very soft, there are great objections in the odour and exceedingly poor compared to fox and possesses no thick and the brittleness or weakness of the fur. One of the most underwool. Foxes, too, and badger are dyed a brownish black, remarkable results of the European intervention in the Boxer and white hairs inserted to imitate silver fox, but the white hairs rising in China (1900) was the absurd price paid for so-called are too coarse and the colour too dense to mislead any one who " loot " of furs, particularly in mandarins' coats of dyed and knows the real article. But if sold upon its own merits, pointed natural fox skins and pieces, and natural ermine, poor in quality fox is a durable fur. and yellowish in colour; from three to ten times their value Garments made of sealskin pieces and Persian lamb pieces was paid for them when at the same time huge parcels of similar are frequently sold as if they were made of solid skins, the term quality were warehoused in the London docks, because purchasers "pieces " being simply suppressed. The London Chamber of could not be found for them.

Commerce have issued to the British trade a notice that any With regard to Japanese furs, there is little to commend them. misleading term in advertising and all attempts at deception are The best are a species of raccoon usually sold as fox, and, being illegal and offenders are liable under the Merchandise Marks of close long quality of fur, they are serviceable for boas, collars, Act 1887. muffs and carriage aprons. The sables, martens, minks and The most usual misnaming of manufactured furs is as follow:otters are poor in quality, and all of a very yellow colour and

Musquash, pulled and dyed Sold as seal. they are generally dyed for the cheap trade. A small number Nutria, pulled and dyed Sold as scal. of very pretty guanaco and vicuna carriage rugs are imported Nutria, pulled and natural Sold as beaver. into Europe, and many come through travellers and private

Rabbit, shcared and dyed Sold as seal or electric seal.

Otter, pulled and dyed. Sold as seal. sources, but generally they are so badly dressed that they are

Marmot, dyed

Sold as mink or sable, quite brittle upon the leather side. Similar remarks are ap- Fitch, dyed

Sold as sable. plicable to opossum rugs made in Australia. From South

Rabbit, dyed

Sold as sable or French sable.

Hare, dyed Africa a quantity of jackal, hyena, fox, leopard and sheep

Sold as sable, or fox, or lynx. Musquash, dyed

Sold as mink or sable. karosses, i.e. a peculiarly shaped rug or covering used by native

Wallaby, dyed

Sold as skunk. chiefs, is privately brought over. The skins are invariably tanned White Rabbit

Sold as ermine. and beautifully sewn, the furs are generally flat in quality and

White Rabbit, dyed

Sold as chinchilla.

Sold not very strong in the hair, and are retained more as curiosities

White Hare, dyed or natural as, fox, foxaline, and

other similar names. than for use as a warm covering.

Goat, dyed

Sold as bear, leopard, &c. Hallers' Furs and Cloths and Shawls.-The hat trade is largely Dyed manufactured articles of interested in the fur piece trade, the best felt hats being made

all kinds.

natural." from beaver and musquash wool and the cheaper sorts from nutria,

White hairs inserted in foxes
and sables

Soid as real or natural furs! hare and rabbit wools. For weaving, the most valuable pieces Kids

. Sold as lamb or broadtails. are mohair taken from the angora and vicuna. They are limited American sable

Sold as real Russian sable. in quantity and costly, and the trade depends upon various Mink

Sold as sable. sorts of other sheep and goat wools for the bulk of its productions. The Preservation of Furs.--For many years raw sealskins


Sold as


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bave been preserved in cold storage, but it is only within a

Quantities of Fur needed, in Square Feel. recent period owing to the difficulty there was in obtaining The “ Paris Model " figure is the basis of these estimates for the necessary perfecily dry atmosphere, that dressed and made. ladies' garments..the standard measurements being height's ft. up furs have been preserved by freezing. Furs kept in such a con

6 in., waist 23 in., bust 38 in. dition are not only immune from the ravages of the larvae of

Sq. Ft. moth, but all the natural oils in the pelt and fur are conserved,


Straight stole length (just below the waist line) so that its colour and life are prolonged, and the natural deteriora

Straight stole } length Gust below the knee) tion is arrested. Sunlight has a tendency to bleach furs and to Stole, broad enough at the neck to cover the top of encourage the development of moth eggs, therefore continued arm length

& exposure is to be avoided. When furs are welted by rain they

The same, full length (to hem of skirt).
Eton jacket, without collar

13 should be well shaken and allowed to dry in a current of air Plain cape, 15 in. long

64 without exposure to sun or open fire.

Deep cape, 30 in. long

15 Where a freezing store for furs is not accessible, furs should be Full cape with broad stole front, i lengih

15 well shaken and afterwards packed in linen and kept in a per

Inverness cape (to knee)


Double-breasted, straight, semi-fitting coat, covering féctly cool dry place, and examined in the summer at periods of

16 not less than five weeks. Naphthalene and the usual malodorous Double-breasted sacque jacket, 36 in. Jong, Iull slecves 20 powders are not only very disagreeable, but quite useless. Any

Same, 30 in. long

18 chemical that is strong enough to destroy the life in a moth egg

Same, 22 in. long


Long. full, shawi cape with points at back and front, would also be sufficiently potent to injure the fur itself. In well below knee.

15 England moth life is practically continuous all the year round, Shorter shawl cape that is, as regards those moths that atlack furs, though the Motoring or driving coat, I length. destructive element exists to a far greater extent during spring

Motoring or driving coat, full length

27 and summer.

Weight and Durabilily of Furs for Men's Cool Linings. Comparative Durability of Various Furs and Weight of Unlined Otter with the water hairs removed, the strongest fur suited for Skins per Square Foot.

linings, is here taken as the standard. The following estimates of durability refer to the use of fur when made up " hair outside" in garments or stoles, not as a lining.

Weight The durability of fur used as linings, which is affected by other

Points of conditions, is set forth separately. Otter, with its water hairs

removed, the strongest of furs for external use, is, in this table, taken
as the standard at 100 and other furs marked accordingly:-

Otter (the water hairs removed)
The Precious Furs.


· Weight

Points of

Persian lamb or astrachan


65 Sable.

21 Musquash

55 Seal



40 Fox, Silver or Black

Grey Opossum White



30 Chinchilla


15 Sea-otter (for stoles or collars)

The Less Valuable Furs.

Durability and Weight of Linings for Ladies' Coats or Wraps.
Weight Sable gills, the strongest fur suited for ladies' linings, is taken as
Points of

the standard. Durability.

Weight Points of

in oz. per Sable" topped," i.e. top hairs coloured 55

Durability. tinted, i.e. fur all coloured

50 Baum Marten, natural


Sable gills tinted

21 45 Stone Marten

Sable 40

85 Nutria

64 27

Ermine Musquash, natural 37

57 water hairs removed, sheared

Squirrel back and seal finished.

Squirrel heads

36 33 Skunk

Squirrel lock. Mink

Hamster 70

Rabbit Lynx, naturai

25 tinted black Märmot, tinted

Durability and weight of Motoring Furs made up with Fur outside. Fox, tinted black

Otter with the water hairs, the strongest fur suited for motoring blue.

garments, is taken as the standard. Opossum

37 Oirer (with water hairs)

Weight (water hairs removed) 318

Points of 95 Beaver (water hairs cut level with fur)

Durability. (water hairs removed).

85 Moleskin


Otter (with water hairs)
Persian Lamb

Sealskin, marble.

80 Grey


" Hair Scalskin " (tinted) with water Broadtail

hairs (a special variety of seal).

75 Caracul Kid



Russian Pony

35 Squirrel

25 Hare Rabbit


thirds as much protection against cold as does fur. It weighs

4.273 oz. per sq. ft. more than the heaviest of coat-furs, and is so Stout, old-fashioned boxcloth is almost the only cloth that rigid as to be uncomfortable, while the subtileness of sur makes it (after a soft, heavy lining has been added to it) affords even two- " kind" to the body.


40 30


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Sable paws


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Durability and Weight of Furs for Rugs and Foot-sacks.'

everyday life of his times. There is no element of burlesque,

as in Scarron's Roman comique, but the author contents himself
Weight with stringing together a number of episodes and portraits,
Points of

obviously drawn from life, without much allempl at sequence.

The book was edited in 1854 by Edward Fournier and Charles Wolverine

Asselineau and by P. Jannet. Bear (black or brown natural)

The Fureleriana. which appeared in Paris eight years after Bear (tinted black)


Furetière's death, which took place on the 14th of May 1688, is a Beaver

collection of but little value. Raccoon


FURFOOZ, a village some 10 m. from Dinant in the Ardennes, Opossum Wolf

Belgium. Three caves containing prehistoric remains were here

50 Jackal


excavaled in 1872. Of these the Trou de Frontal is the most Australian Bear

famous. In it were found human skeletons with brachycephalic Goat

42 skulls, associated with animal bones, those of the reindeer being Wolverine, the strongest fur suited for rugs and foot-sacks, is particularly plentiful. Among the skeletons was discovered taken as the standard.

an oval vase of pottery. The Furfooz type of mankind is believed For a rug about 20 to 25 sq. ft. of fur are needed, for a fool-sack

to date from the close of the Quaternary age. G. de Mortillet 145.

(W. S. P.) dates the type in the Robenhausen epoch of the Neolithic FURAZANES (furoma.a'-diazoles), organic compounds ob- period. His theory is that the bones are those of men of that lained by heating the glyoximes (dioximes of ortho-diketones) period buried in what had been a cave-dwelling of the Madelenian with alkalis or ammonia. Dimethylfurazane is prepared by epoch. heating dimethylglyoxime with excess of ammonia for six hours FURFURANE, or FURANE, C,H,O, a colourless liquid boiling at 165° C. (L. Wolff, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 70). It is a liquid (at at 32° C., found in the distillation products of pine wood. It ordinary temperature) which boils at 156° C. (744 mm.). was first synthetically prepared by H. Limpricht (Ann., 1873, Potassium permanganate oxidizes it first to methylfurazané- 165, p. 281) by distilling barium mucate with soda lime, pyrocarboxylic acid and then to furazanedicarboxylic acid. Methyl- mucic acid C,H,O.CO2H being formed, which, on further loss ethylfurazane and diphenylfurazane are also known. By of carbon dioxide, yielded furfurane. A. Henniger (Ann. chim. warming oxyfurazane acetic acid with excess of potassium per- phys., 1886 (2), 7, p. 220), by distilling erthyrite with formic manganate to 100° C. oxysurazanecarboxylic acid is obtained acid, obtained a dihydrofurfurane (A. Hantzsch and J. Urbahn, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 764). It crys

C.He(OH).+2H.CO2 = C,H,O+CO+CO2+4H.0, tallizes in prisms, which melt at 175° C. Furazanecarboxylic which, on treatment with phosphorus pentachloride, yielded acid is prepared by the action of a large excess of potassium furfurane. Furfurane is insoluble in water and possesses a permanganate on a hot solution of surazanepropionic acid. characteristic smell. It does not react with sodium or with It melts at 107° C., and dissolves in caustic soda, with a deep phenylhydrazine, but yields dye-stuffs with isatin and phenanyellow colour and formation of nitrosocyanacetic acid (L. Wolff threnequinone. It reacts violently with hydrochloric acid, and P. F. Ganz, Ber., 1891, 24, P. 1167). Furoxane is an oxide producing a brown amorphous substance. Methyl and phenyi of furazanc, considered by H. Wicland to be identical with derivatives have been prepared by C. Paal (Bcr., 1884, 17, p. glyoxime peroxide; Kekulé's dibromnitroacetonitrile is dibrom- 915). Paal prepared acetonyl acetophenone by condensing furoxane.

sodium acetoacetate with phenacylbromide, and this substance The formulae of the compounds above mentioned are: on dehydration yields aa'-phenylmethylsurfurane, the acetony! HC:N CH3.C:N


acetophenone probably reacting in the tautomeric“ enolic” form, HCN CH3.C:N

Furazane. Dimethyl-


CH: CO-CH(CH COC.Hz).COOR. furazane. carboxylic acid.


This ester readily hydrolyses, and the acid formed yields acetonyl FURETIÈRE, ANTOINE (1619-1688), French scholar and acetophenone (by loss of carbon dioxide), which then on demiscellaneous writer, was born in Paris on the 28th of December hydration yields the furfurane derivative, thus 1619. He first studied law, and practised for a time as an

CH-CH advocate, but eventually took orders and after various prefer

>C.C.HS. ments became abbé of Chalivoy in the diocese of Bourges in L. Knorr (Ber., 1889, 22, P. 158) obtained diacetosuccinic ester 1662. In his leisure moments he devoted himself to letters, and by condensing sodium acetoacetate with iodine, and by dein virtue of his satires-Nouvelle Allégorique, ou histoire des hydrating the ester he prepared aa'-dimethylsurfurane Bré. derniers troubles arrivés au royaume d'éloquence (1658); Voyage de dicarboxylic acid (carbopyrotritaric acid), which on distillation Mercure (1653)-he was admitted a member of the French yields aa'-dimethylsurfurane as a liquid boiling at 94° C. Paal Academy in 1662. That learned body had long promised a also obtained this compound by using monochloracetone in the complete dictionary of the French tongue; and when they place of phenacylbromide. By the distillation of mucic acid heard that Furetière was on the point of issuing a work of a or isosaccharic acid, furfurane-a-carboxylic acid (pyromucic similar nature, they interfered, alleging that he had purloined acid), C,H,O.CO,H, is obtained; it crystallizes in needles or from their stores, and that they possessed the exclusive privilege leaflets, and melts at 134° C. of publishing such a book. After much bitter recrimination Furfurol (surol), C,H,O-CHO, is the aldehyde of pyromucic on both sides the offender was expelled in 1685; but for this acid, and is formed on distilling bran, sugar, wood and most act of injustice he took a severe revenge in his satire, Couches carbohydrates with dilute sulphuric acid, or by distilling de l'académie (Amsterdam, 1687). His Dictionnaire universel the pentoses with hydrochloric acid. It is a colourless liquid was posthumously published in 1690 (Rotterdam, 2 vols.). which boils at 162° C., and is moderately soluble in water; It was afterwards revised and improved by the Protestant it turns brown on exposure to air and has a characteristic jurist, Henri Basnage de Beauval (1656-1710), who published his aromatic smell. It shows all the usual properties of an aldehyde, edition (3 vols.) in 1701; and it was only superseded by the forming a bisulphite compound, an oxime and a hydrazone; compilation known as the Dictionnaire de Trévoux (Paris, 3 vols., whilst it can be reduced to the corresponding furfuryl alcohol by 1704; 7th ed., 8 vols., 1771), which was in fact little more than a means of sodium amalgam, and oxidized to pyromucic acid by reimpression of Basnage's edition. Furetière is perhaps even means of silver oxide. It also shows all the condensation rebetter known as the author of Le Roman bourgeois (1666). It actions of benzaldehyde (9.0.); condensing with aldehydes cast ridicule on the fashionable romances of Mlle de Scudéry and ketones in the presence of caustic soda to form more and of La Calprenède, and is of interest as descriptive of the complex aldehydes and ketoncs with unsaturated side chains,

HO,C:C: No


>C.C.Hs = H,0+CH..ceCH-CH,

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