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the Duddon and Morecambe Bay lies Walney Island, 8 m. in parents. He was educated in Dublin, and in his schooldays length, and in the shallow strait between it and the mainland edited a Schoolboy's Punch in close imitation of the original. are several smaller islands. That part of Furness which forms a He came to London when he was nineteen, and began to draw peninsula between the Leven estuary and Morecambe Bay, and for the illustrated papers, being for some years a regular contributhe Duddon estuary, is rich in hematite iron ore, which has been tor to the Illustrated London News. His first drawing in Punch worked from very early times. It was known and smelted by appeared in 1880, and he joined its staff in 1884. He illustrated British and Romans, and by the monks of Furness Abbey and Lucy's “ Diary of Toby, M.P.,” in Punch, where his political Conishead Priory, both in the district. It was owing to the caricatures became a popular feature. Among his other successes existence of this ore that the town of Barrow grew up in the 19th were a series of " Puzzle Heads," and his annual “Royal century; at first as a port from which the ore was exported to Academy guy'd." In Royal Academy Antics (1890) he published South Wales, while later furnaces were established on the spot, a volume of caricatures of the work of leading artists. He and acquired additional importance on the introduction of the resigned from the staff of Punch in 1894, produced for a short Bessemer process, which requires a non-phosphoric ore such as time a weekly comic paper Lika Joko, and in 1898 began a is found here. The hematite is also worked at Ulverston, Askam, humorous monthly, Fair Game; but these were short-lived. Dalton and elsewhere, but the furnaces now depend in part Among the numerous books he illustrated were James Payn's upon ore imported from Spain. The supposed extension of the Talk of the Town, Lewis Carroll's Sylvie and Bruno, Gilbert à ore under the sands of the Duddon estuary led to the construction Beckett's Comic Blackstone, G. E. Farrow's Wallypug Book, of a sea wall to facilitate the working. The district is served and his own novel, Poverty Bay (1905). Our Joe, his great Fight by the main line of the Furness railway, from Carpforth (junction (1903), was a collection of original cartoons. His volume of with the London & North-Western railway), passing the pleasant reminiscences, Confessions of a Caricaturist (1901), was followed watering-place of Grange, and approximately following the by Harry Furniss at Home (1904). In 1905 he published How to coast by Ulverston, Dalton and Barrow, with branches to Lake draw in Pen and Ink, and produced the first number of Harry Side, Windermere, and to Coniston.
Furniss's Christmas Annual. Apart from its industrial importance and scenic attractions, FURNITURE (from “ furnish," Fr. fournir), a general term Furness has an especial interest on account of its famous abbey of obscure origin, used to describe the chattels and fittings re
The ruins of this, beautifully situated in a wooded quired to adapt houses and other buildings for use. Wood, valley, are extensive, and mainly of fine transitional ivory, precious stones, bronze, silver and gold have been used
Norman and Early English date, acquiring additional from the most ancient times in the construction or for the picturesqueness from the warm colour of the red sandstone decoration of furniture. The kinds of objects required for of which they are built. The abbey of Furness, otherwise furniture have varied according to the changes of manners and Furdenesia or the further nese (promontory), which was dedicated customs, as well as with reference to the materials at the comto St Mary, was founded in 1127 by a small body of monks mand of the workman, in different climates and countries. belonging to the Benedictine order of Savigny. In 1124 they Of really ancient furniture there are very few surviving examples, had settled at Tulketh, near Preston, but migrated in 1127 to partly by reason of the perishable materials of which it was usually Furness under the auspices of Stephen, count of Boulogne, constructed, and partly because, however great may have been afterwards king, at that time lord of the liberty of Furness. the splendour of Egypt, however consummate the taste of Greece, In 1148 the brotherhood joined the Cistercian order. Stephen however luxurious the life of Rome, the number of household granted to the monks the lordship of Furness, and his charter appliances was very limited. The chair, the couch, the table, was confirmed by Henry I., Henry II. and subsequent kings. the bed, were virtually the entire furniture of early peoples, The abbot's power throughout the lordship was almost absolute; whatever the degree of their civilization, and so they remained he had a market and fair at Dalton, was free from service to the until the close of what are known in Eruopean history as the county and wapentake, and held a sheriff's tourn. By a succes- middle ages. During the long empire-strewn centuries which sion of gifts the abbey became one of the richest in England intervened between the lapse of Egypt and the obliteration of and was the largest Cistercian foundation in the kingdom. At Babylon, the extinction of Greece and the dismemberment of the Dissolution its revenues amounted to between £750 and Rome and the great awakening of the Renaissance, household £800 a year, exclusive of meadows, pastures, fisheries, mines, comfort developed but little. The Ptolemies were as well lodged mills and salt works, and the wealth of the monks enabled them as the Plantagenets, and peoples who spent their lives in the to practise a regal hospitality. The abbot was one of the twenty open air, going to bed in the early hours of darkness, and rising Cistercian abbots summoned to the parliament of 1264, but was as soon as it was light, needed but little household furniture. not cited after 1330, as he did not hold of the king in capile per Indoor life and the growth of sedentary habits exercised a baroniam. The abbey founded several offshoot houses, one of powerful influence upon the development of furniture. From the most important being Rushen Abbey in the Isle of Man. In being splendid, or at least massive, and exceedingly sparse and 1535 the royal commissioners visited the abbey and reported costly, it gradually became light, plentiful and cheap. In the four of its inmates, including the abbot, for incontinence. In ancient civilizations, as in the periods when our own was slowly 1536 the abbot was charged with complicity in the Pilgrimage growing, household plenishings, save in the rudest and most of Grace, and on the 7th of April 1537, under compulsion, elementary forms, were the privilege of the great-no person surrendered the abbey to the king. A few monks were granted of mean degree could have obtained, or would have dared to pensions, and the abbot was endowed with the profits of the use if he could, what is now the commonest object in every rectory of Dalton, valued at £33, 6s. 8d. per annum. In 1540 house, the chair (9.0.). Sparse examples of the furniture of the estates and revenues were annexed by act of parliament to Egypt, Nineveh, Greece and Rome are to be found in museums; the Duchy of Lancaster. About James I.'s reign the site and but our chief sources of information are mural and sepulchral territories were alienated to the Prestons of Preston-Patrick, paintings and sculptures. The Egyptians used vooden furniture from whom they descended to the dukes of Devonshire.
carved and gilded, covered with splendid textiles, and supported Conishead Priory, near Ulverston, an Augustinian foundation upon the legs of wild animals; they employed chests and coffers of the reign of Henry II., has left no remains, but of the priory as receptacles for clothes, valuables and small objects generally. of Cartmel (1188) the fine church is still in use. It is a cruciform Wild animals and beasts of the chase were carved upon the structure of transitional Norman and later dates, its central furniture of Nineveh also; the lion, the bull and the ram were tower having the upper storey set diagonally upon the lower. especially characteristic. The Assyrians were magnificent in The chancel contains some superb Jacobean carved oak screens, their household appointments; their tables and couches were with stals of earlier date.
inlaid with ivory and precious metals Cedar and ebony were FURNISS. HARRY (1854- ), British caricaturist and much used by these great Eastern peoples, and it is probable that Illustrator, was born at Wexford, Ireland, of English and Scottish I they were familiar with rosewood, walnut and teak. Solomon's bed was of cedar of Lebanon. Greek furniture was essentially | is inseparably associated with his name. We owe it perhaps to Oriental in form; the more sumptuous varieties were of bronze, the fact that France, as the neighbour of Italy, was touched damascened with gold and silver. The Romans employed Greek more immediately by the Renaissance than England that the artists and workmen and absorbed or adapted many of their reign of heaviness came earlier to an end in that country than on mobiliary fashions, especially in chairs and couches. The Roman the other side of the Channel. But there is a heaviness which is tables were of splendid marbles or rare woods. In the later pleasing as well as one which is forbidding, and much of the ages of the empire, in Rome and afterwards in Constantinople, furniture made in England any time after the middle of the gold and silver were plentifully used in furniture; such indeed 17th century was highly attractive. If English furniture of was the abundance of these precious metals that even cooking the Stuart period be not sought after to the same extent as that utensils and common domestic vessels were made of them. of a hundred years later, it is yet highly prized and exceedingly
The architectural features so prominent in much of the decorative. Angularity it often still possessed, but generally medieval furniture begin in these Byzantine and late Roman speaking its elegance of form and richness of upholstering lent thrones and other seats. These features became paramount as it an attraction which not long before had been entirely lacking. Pointed architecturc became general in Europe, and scarcely Alike in France and in England, the most attractive achievements less so during the Renaissance. Most of the medieval furniture, of the cabinetmaker belong to the 18th century-English Queen chests, seats, trays, &c., of Italian make were richly gilt and Anne and early Georgian work is universally charming; the painted. In northern Europe carved oak was more generally regency and the reigns of Louis XV. and XVI formed a period used. State scats in feudal halls were benches with ends carved of the greatest artistic splendour. The inspiration of much of in tracery, backs panelled or hung with cloths (called cloths of the work of the great English school was derived from France, estate), and canopies projecting above. Bedsteads were square although the gropings after the Chinese taste and the earlier frames, the testers of panelled wood, resting on carved posts. Gothic manner were mainly indigenous. The French styles of the Chests of oak carved with panels of tracery, or of Italian cypress century, which began with excessive flamboyance, closed before (when they could be imported), ere used to hold and to carry the Revolution with a chaste perfection of detail which is perhaps clothes, tapestries, &c., io distant castles and manor houses; more delightful than anything that has ever been done in for house furniture, owing to its scarcity and cost, had to be furniture. In the achievements of Riesener, David Röntgen, moved from place to place. Copes and other ecclesiastical Goulhière, Ocben and Rousseau de la Rottière we have the highvestments were kept in chests with ornamental lock plates and water mark of craftsmanship. The marquetry of the period, iron hinges. The splendour of most scudal houses depended although not always beautiful in itself, was executed with on pictorial tapestries which could be packed and carried from extraordinary smoothness and finish; the mounts of gilded place to place. Wardrobes were rooms fitted for the reception bronze, which were the leading characteristic of most of the work of dresses, as well as for spices and other valuable stores. Ex- of the century, were finished with a minute delicacy of touch cellent carving in relief was executed on caskets, which were of which was until then unknown, and has never been rivalled since. wood or of ivory, with painting and gilding, and decorated with If the periods of Francis I. and Henry II., of Louis XIV. and delicate hinge and lock metal-work. The general subjects of the regency produced much that was sumptuous and even elegant, sculpture were taken from legends of the saints or from metrical that of Louis XVI., while men's minds were as yet undisturbed romances. Renaissance art made a great change in architecture, by violent political convulsions, stands out as, on the whole, and this change was exemplified in furniture. Cabinets (9.v.) and the one consummate era in the annals of furniture. Times of panelling took the outlines of palaces and temples. In Florence, great achievement are almost invariably followed directly by Rome, Venice, Milan and other capitals of Italy, sumptuous those in which no tall thislles grow and in which every little cabinets, tables, chairs, chests, &c., were made to the orders shrub is magnified to the dimensions of a forest tree; and the of the native princes. Vasari (Lives of Painters) speaks of so-called “ empire style” which had begun even while the last scientific diagrams and mathematical problems illustrated in monarch of the ancien régime still reigned, lacked alike the gracecostly materials, by the best artists of the day, on furniture made ful conception and the superb execution of the preceding style. for the Medici family. The great extent of the rule of Charles V. Heavy and usually uninspired, it was nurtured in tragedy and helped to give a uniform training to artists from various countries perished amid disaster. Yet it is a profoundly interesting style, resorting to Italy, so that cabinets, &c., which were made in both by reason of the classical roots from which it sprang and vast numbers in Spain, Flanders and Germany, can hardly be the attempt, which it finally reflected, to establish new ideas in distinguished from those executed in Italy. Francis I. and every department of life. Founded upon the wreck of a lingering Henry VIII. encouraged the revived arts in their respective feudalism it reached back to Rome and Greece, and even to dominions. Pietra dura, or inlay of hard pebbles, agate, lapis Egypt. If it is rarely charming, it is often impressive by its lazuli, and other stones, ivory carved and inlaid, carved and gilt severity. Mahogany, satinwood and other rich timbers were wood, marquetry or vencering with thin woods, tortoiseshell, characteristic of the stylo of the end of the 18th century; brass, &c., were used in making sumptuous furniture during the rosewood was most commonly employed for the choicer work first period of the Renaissance. Subjects of carving or relief of the beginning of the 19th. Bronze mounts were in high were generally drawn from the theological and cardinal virtues, favour, although their artistic character varied materially. from classical mythology, from the seasons, months, &c. Carved Previously to the middle of the 18th century the only cabinet. altarpieces and woodwork in churches partook of the change in maker who gained sufficient personal distinction to have had siyle.
his name preserved was André Charles Boulle; beginning with The great period of furniture in almost every country was, that period France and England produced many men whose however, unquestionably the 18th century. That century saw renown is hardly less than that of artists in other media. With many extravagances in this, as in other forins of art, but on the Chippendale there arose a marvellously brilliant school of English whole it saw the richest floraison of taste, and the widest sense cabinetmakers, in which the most outstanding names are those of invention. This is the more remarkable since the furniture of Sheraton, Heppelwhite, Shcarer and the Adams. But if the of the 17th century has often been criticized as heavy and coarse. school was splendid it was lamentably short-lived, and the 19th The criticism is only partly justified. Throughout the first three century produced no single name in the least worthy to be quarters of the period between the accession of James I. and placed beside these giants. Whether, in an age of machinery, that of Queen Anne, massiveness and solidity were the dis-much room is left for fine individual execution may be doubted, tinguishing characteristics of all work. Towards the reign of and the manufacture of furniture now, to a great extent, takes James II., however, there came in one of the most pleasing and place in large factories both in England and on the conelegant styles ever known in England. Nearly a generation tinent. Owing to the necessary subdivision of labour in these before then Boulle was developing in France the splendid and establishments, each piece of furniture passes through numerous palatial method of inlay which, although he did not invent it, I distinct workshops. The master and a few artificers formerly
Fig. 5.- Painted and carved High-
Fig. 7.-Walnut Chair; about 1710.
The arm chair is inlaid.
(3 and 7), and Earl Brownlow (4).
Fig. 12.- Painted and Gilt Arm-chair with Fig. 13.-Arm-chair of carved and gilt Fig. 14.–Mahogany Arm-chair. Empire Fig. 15.- Painted and gilt Beech Chair,
English, about 1800.
belonged to the Bonaparte family.
were lent to the Bethnal Green Exhibition, 1892. Fig. 12 is the property of Sir Spencer Ponsonby-Fane, G.C.B.
Fig. 1.-Front of Oak Coffer with wrought iron bands.
French, 2nd half of 13th century.
Fig. 2.-English Oak Chest, dated 1637.
Fig. 3.-Italian (Florentine) Coffer of Wood with gilt arabesque
Fig. 4.-Italian “Cassone" or Marriage Coffer, 15th century. stucco ornament, about 1480.
Carved and gilt wood with painted front and ends. The above are in the l'ictoria and Albert Museum.