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galvanometer is meant the deflexion produced by a known electro- ance wire or strip of metal leaf mounted on glass, over which is motive force put upon its terminals or a known current sent through suspended a closed loop of bismuth and antimony,

forming a thermoit. It is usual to specify the sensitiveness of a mirror galvanometer electric couple. This loop is suspended by a quartz fibre in a strong by requiring a certain deflexion, measured in millimetres, of a spot magnetic field, and one junction of the couple is held just over the of light thrown on the scale placed at one metre from the mirror, resistance wire and as near it as possible without touching. When when an electromotive force of one-millionth of a volt (microvolt) | an alternating current passes through the resistance it creates heat is applied to the terminals of the galvanometer; it may be otherwise which in turn acts on the thermo-junction and generates a continuexpressed by stating the deflexion produced under the same con. ous current in the loop, thus deflecting it in the magnetic field. ditions when a current of one microampere is passed through the The sensitiveness of such a thermal ammeter can be made sufficiently coil. In modern mirror galvanometers a deflexion of 1 mm. of the great to detect a current of a few microamperes. spot of light upon a scale at I metre distance can be produced by a REFERENCES.-J. A. Fleming, A Handbook for the Electrical current as small as one hundred millionth (10-8) or even one ten Laboratory and Testing Room, vol. i. (London, 1901); W. E. Ayrton, thousand millionth (10-1) of an ampere. It is easy to produce T. Mather and W. E. Sumpner, ".On G anometers,"

roc. Phys: considerable sensitiveness in the galvanometer, but for practical Soc. London (1890), 10, 393; H. R.'Kempe, A Handbook of Electrical purposes it must always be controlled by the condition that the Testing (London, 1906); A. Gray, Absolute Measurements in Elec. zero remains fixed, that is to say, the galvanometer needle or coil tricity and Magnetism, vol. ii

. part ii. (London, 1893). Usclu! must come back to exactly the same position when no current is information is also contained in the catalogues of all the principal passing through the instrument. Other important qualifications electrical instrument makers-Messrs. Elliott Bros., Nalder, The of a galvanometer are its time period and its dead-beatness. For Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, Pitkin, Hartmann and certain purposes the needle or coil should return as quickly as Braun, Queen and others.

(. A. F.) possible to the zero position and with either no, or very few, oscillations. If the latter condition is fulfilled the galvanometer is said

GALVESTON, a city and port of entry and the county-seat of to be "dead-beat." On the other hand, for some purposes the Galveston county, Texas, U.S.A., on the Gulf of Mexico, near the galvanometer is required with the opposite quality, that is to say, N.E. extremity of Galveston Island and at the entrance to there must be as little retardation as possible to the needle or coil Galveston Bay. It is about 48 m. S.E. of Houston and 310 m. when set in motion under an impulsive blow. Such a galvanometer w. of New Orleans. Pop. (1890) 29,084; (1900) 37,789, is best estimated by taking the logarithmic decrement of the oscilla (6339 were foreign-born and 8291 negroes); (1910) 36.981; land tions when the movable system is set swinging. This last term is area (1906) 7.8 sq. m. It is served by the Galveston, Houston defined as the logarithm of the ratio of one swing

to the nexe succeed. & Henderson, the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, the ing swing, and á galvanometer of which the logarithmic decrement Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fé, the Trinity & Brazos Valley, for resistance measurement, it is desirable to have a galvanometer the

International & Great Northern, and the Missouri

, Kansas which is highly damped; this result can be obtained by, affixing & Texas railways, and by numerous steamship lines to Gulf to the needles either light pieces of mica, when it is a movable needlc ports in the United States and Mexico, and to Cuba, South a movable coil galvanometer. On the other hand, for the comparison America, Europe and the Atlantic ports of the United States. of capacities of condensers and for other purposes, a.galvanometer Galveston Island is a low; sandy strip of land about 28 m. long is required which is as little damped as possible, and for this purpose and it to 3) m, wide, lying from 2 to 3 m. off the mainland. the coil must have the smallest possible frictional resistance to its | The city, which extends across the island from Gulf to Bay, motion through the air. In this case the moment of inertia

of the faces and has its harbour on the latter. The island was connected The Einthoven string galvanometer is another form of sensitive with the mainland before the 1900 storm by a road bridge and instrument for the measurement of small direct currents. It consists several railway bridges, which, a short distance W. of the city, of a fine wire or silvered quartz fibre stretched in a strong magnetic crossed the narrow strip of water separating the West Bay from field. When a current passes through the wire it is displaced across Galveston Bay proper; the bridge least harmed (a single-track the field and the displacement is observed with a microscope.

For the measurement of large currents a "tangent galvanometer railway bridge) was repaired immediately and was for a time the is employed (fig. 3). Two fixed circular coils are placed apart at a city's only connexion with the mainland, but in 1908 bonds were

distance equal to the radius of either coil, so that a issued for building a concrete causeway, accommodating lour Tangent

current passing through them creates in the central railway tracks, one interurban car track, and a roadway for galvano

At the centre of the coils is suspended a small magnetic vehicles and pedestrians. An enormous sea-wall (completed in needle the length of which should not be greater than the radius 1904 at a cost of $2,091,000) was constructed on the eastern and of either coil. The normal position of the needle is at right angles Gull sides of the city, about 5 m. long, 17 ft. above mean low tide

to the line joining the centre of the (1.5 ft. above the high-water mark of the storm of 1900 and 7.5 ft.
the coils, the needle will be deflected, above the previous high-water mark, that of September 1875),
and the tangent of the angle of its 16 st. wide at the base and sft. at the top, weighing 20 tons to the
deflexion will be nearly proportional to lineal foot, and with a granite rip-rap apron extending out 27 ft.
the current passing through the coil, on the Gulf side. The entire grade of the city was raised from 1 to
uniform in strength and direction, and :5 ft. above the old level. Between the sea-wall and the sea there
that the length of the magnetic needle is a splendid beach, the entire length of which is nearly 30 m.
is so short that the space in which it Among the principal buildings are the city hall, the court-house,
rotates is a practically uniform magnetic the masonic temple, the Federal custom-house and post-office,

Alternating Curren! Galvanometers. the Y.M.C.A. building and the publiclibrary, The United States
For the detection of small alternating government maintains a marine hospital, a live-saving station,

currents a magnetic necdle or movable an immigrant landing station, and the state and the Federal FIG. 3.--Helmholtz Tan- can, however, construct an instrument

coil galvanometer is of no utility. We government separate quarantine stations. In addition to the gent Galvanometer. suitable for the purpose by suspending Ball public high school, Galveston is the seat of St Mary's

within a coil of insulated wire a small University (1854), the Sacred Heart and Ursuline academies, and needle of soft iron placed with its axis at an angle of 45° to the Cathedral school, all under Roman Catholic control. the axis of the coil. 'When an alternating current passes through the coil the soft iron needle tends to set itself in the direction of the council of ward aldermen, controlled by a "machine," which was

The government of the municipality was long vested in a axis of the coil, and if it is suspended by a quartz fibre or metallic wire so as to afford a control, it can become a metrical instrument proved corrupt in 1894 by an investigation undertaken at the Another arrangement, devised by 1. A. Fleming in 1887, consists personal expense of the mayor; it gave place in 1895 to a city of a silver or copper disk suspended within a coil, the plane of the council of aldermen at large, which by 1901 had proved its disk being held at 45° to that of the coil. When an alternating inefficiency especially in the crisis following the storm of the disk and the mutual action causes the disk to endeavour to set preceding ycar. Government then seemed a business question itself so that these currents are a minimum. This metal disk galvano and was practically undertaken by the city's commercial experts, oscillatory electric currents set up in the receiving wire of a wireless harbour improvement, and who now drew up a charter providing meter has been made sufficiently sensitive to detect the feeble the Deepwater commission, whose previous aim had been telegraph apparatus. very sensitive form of alternating current galvanometer. In it the for government by a board of five appointed by the governor of the current to be detected or measured is passed through a high resist state. A compromise measure making three members appointees


of the governor and two elected by the voters of the city was GALWAY, a county in the west of Ireland, in the province of in force for a time but was declared unconstitutional. A third Connaught, bounded N. by Mayo and Roscommon; E. by charter was adopted providing for five commissioners, chosen by Roscommon, King's County and Tipperary; S. by Clare and the people, dividing among themselves the posts of mayor. Galway Bay; and w. by the Atlantic Ocean. The area is president and commissioners of finance and revenue, of water- 1,519,699 acres or about 2375 sq. m., the county being second in works and sewerage, of streets and public property, and of police size to Cork among the Irish counties. and fire protection, each commissioner being held individually The county is naturally divided by Lough Corrib into two responsible for the management of his department. These are great divisions. The eastern, which comprehends all the county business departments carefully systematized by their heads. except the four western baronies, rests on a limestone base, and The legislative power is vested in the commission as a whole, is, genera speaking, a level champaign country, but contains over whose meetings the mayor-president presides; he has a vote large quantities of wet bog. Its southern portion is partly a like every other commissioner, and has no veto power. The continuation of the Golden Vale of Limerick, celebrated for its success of this commission government has been remarkable: fertility, and partly occupied by the Slievebaughty Mountains. in 1901-1908 the city, without issuing bonds except for grade The northern portion of the division contains rich pasture and raising, paid off a large debt, raised the salaries of city employees, tillage ground, beautifully diversified with hill and dale. Some paid its running expenses in cash, planned and began public of the intermediate country is comparatively uncultivated, but improvements and sanitary reforms, and did much for the forms excellent pasturage for sheep. The western division of the abolition of gambling and the regulation of other vice. The county has a substratum of granite, and is barren, rugged and Galveston Plan and similar schemes of government have been mountainous. It is divided into the three districts of Connemara, adopted in many other American cities.

Jar-Connaught and Joyce's Country; the name of Connemara Galveston's manufactories, the products of which in 1900 is, however, often applied to the whole district. Its highest were valued at $5,016,360, a decrease of 12.4% from 1890 mountains are the grand and picturesquc group of Bunnabeola, (value of products under“ factory system,” $3,675,323 in 1900; or the Twelve Bens or Pins, which occupy a space of about 25 sq. $2,996,654 in 1905, a decrease of 18.5%), include cotton-seed m., the highest elevation being 2695 ft. Much of this district is a oil refineries, flour and feed mills, lumber mills, wooden-ware gently sloping plain, from 100 to 300 ft. above sea-level. Joyce's factories, breweries, cement works, creosoting works, ship-yards Country, farther north, is an elevated tract, with flat-topped and ice factories. There are extensive cotton warehouses, coal hills 1300 to 2000 ft. high, and deep narrow valleys lying between and grain elevators, and large wholesale supply depots. The them. Gulf Fisheries Company has its fleet's headquarters and large Galway possesses the advantage of a very extended line of packing-houses at Galveston. It is as a commercial port that sea-coast, indented by numerous harbours, which, however, are Galveston is chiefly important. In 1907 it was the second port rarely used except by a few coasting and fishing vessels. At the in the United States in the value of its exports (domestic and boundary with the county Mayo in the north is Killary Harbour foreign, $196,627,382, or 10.22% of the total), being surpassed which separates the two counties. The first bay on the western only by New York City; and was the first of the Gulf ports coast capable of accommodating large ships is Ballynakill, (having 45.43% of the total value), New Orleans being second sheltered by Freaghillaun or Heath Island. Next in succession with $164,998,540. Galveston's imports in 1907 were valued at is Cleggan Bay. Of these inlets lie the islands of Inishbofin and $7,669,458. Galveston is the greatest cotton-exporting port Inishark, with others. Streamstown is a narrow inlet, within in the Union, its exports of cotton in 1907 being valued at which are the inhabited islands of Omey, Inishturk and Turbot. $163,564,445. Other exports of great value are cotton seed pro- Ardbear harbour is divided into two inlets, the northern terminatducts (oil and cake, $10,188,594 in 1907), Indian corn (33;457,279 ing at the town of Clifden, with excellent anchorage; the in 1907), wheat ($9,443,901 in 1906), lumber and flour. The southern inlet has also good anchorage within the bar, and has electric lighting and water-supply systems are owned and a good salmon fishery. Mannin Bay, though large, is much operated by the municipality.

exposed and little frequented by shipping. From Slyne Head the The harbour of Galveston seems to have been named about coast turns eastward to Roundstone Bay, which has its entrance 1782 by Spanish explorers in honour either of José de Galvez, protected by the islands of Inishnee and Inishlacken. Next in Marquis of Sonora, or his nephew Bernardo, governor of order is Bertraghboy Bay, studded with islets and rocks, but Louisiana; and in the early days of the 19th century was the deep and sheltered. Kilkieran Bay, the largest on this coast, has principal rendezvous of a powerful band of buccaneers and pirates, a most productive kelp shore of nearly 100 m.; its mouth is of whom, for many years, the notorious Jean Lafitte vas chief.but 3 m. broad. Between Gorumna Island and the mainland is After much difficulty these were finally dispersed about 1820 by Greatman's Bay and close to it Costello Bay, the most eastern of the United States authorities, and in 1837 the first settlement those in Connemara. The whole of the coast from Greatman's from the United States was made on the site of the present city. Bay eastward is comprehended in the Bay of Galway, the entrance The town was incorporated by the legislature of the Republic of which is protected by the three limestone islands of Aran, of Texas in 1839. On the 8th of October 1862 the city was taken | Inishmore (or Aranmore), Inishmann and Inisheer. by a Federal naval force under Commander William B. Renshaw The rivers are few, and, except the Shannon, of small size. (1816-1863). After a sharp engagement a Confederate force The Suck, which forms the eastern boundary of the county, under General John B. Magruder (1810-1871) retook the city on rises in Roscommon, and passing by Ballinasloe, unites with the the rst of January 1863, one of the Federal ships, the “ Harriet Shannon at Shannonbridge. The Shannon forms the south-eastern Lane," falling into Confederate hands, and another, the “West- boundary of the county, and passing Shannon Harbour, Banagher, field,” being blown up with Commander Renshaw on board. Mcelick and Portumna, swells into the great expanse of water Thereafter Galveston remained in Confederate hands, although called Lough Derg, which skirts the county as far as the village of rigidly blockaded by the Federal navy, until the close of the war. Mount Shannon. The Claregalway flows southward through the On the 8th of September 1900 the city was seriously damaged by centre of the county, and enters Lough Corrib some 4 m. above a West Indian hurricane, which, blowing steadily for eighteen the town of Galway. The Ballynahinch, considered one of the hours, reached a velocity of 135 m. an hour. The waters of the best salmon-fishing rivers in Connaught, rises in the Twelve Pins, Gulf were piled up in enormous waves that swept across a large passes through Ballynahinch Lake, and after a short but rapid part of the city, destroying or badly damaging more than 8000 course falls into Bertraghboy Bay. Lakes are numerous. Lough buildings, entailing a loss of about 5000 lives, and a property Cortib extends from Galway town northwards over 30,000 acres, loss estimated at about $17,000,000. Liberal contributions with a shore of so m. in extent. The lake is studded with many came from all over the country, and the state partially remitted islands, some of them thickly inhabited. The district west of the city's taxes for 17 years. The city was rapidly rebuilt on a Lough Corrib contains a vast number of lakes, about twenty-five of more substantial plan.

them more than a mile in length. Lough Rea, by the town of the same name, is more remarkable for scenic beauty than for extent. 1 Western line from Sligo to Limerick traverses the county from Besides these perennial lakes, there are several low tracts, called N. to S., by way of Tuam, Athenry and Gort. turloughs, which are covered with water during a great part of the Population and Administration.—The population of county year. Loughs Mask and Corrib are connected by a salmon ladder, Galway (211,227 in 1891; 192,549 in 1901) decreased by more and contain large trout. Galway, with the Screab Waters, drain-than half in the last seventy years of the 19th century, and the ing into Camus Bay, a branch of Kilkieran Bay, with Recess decrease continues, as emigration is heavy. About 97% of the and the Ballynahinch waters, are the best fishing centres. On population are Roman Catholics, and a somewhat less percentage account of its scenic beauty, both coastal and inland, together are rural. The Erse tongue is maintained by many in this with its facilities for sport, county Galway is frequented by remote county. The chief towns are Galway (pop. 13,426), summer visitors. Though for long the remoter parts were difficult Tuam (3012), Ballinasloe (4904) and Loughrea (2815), with the of access, as in the case of Donegal, Mayo, Clare and the western smaller towns of Portumna, Gort, Clifden, Athenry, Headford, counties generally, the Galwayand Clifden railway assisted private Oughterard and Eyrecourt. The county is divided into four enterprise to open up the country. The western mountains, parliamentary divisions (returning one member each); north, broken by deep landlocked and island-sheltered bays, as well as south, east and Connemara, while the town of Galway returns by the innumerable small loughs of the Connemara districts, one member. There are eighteen baronies. Assizes are held at afford scenes varying from gentle slopes occasionally well wooded Galway, quarter-sessions at Galway, Ballinasloe, Clifden, Gort, along the water's edge to wild, bare moorlands among the Loughrea, Oughterard, Portumna and Tuam. The county heights, while the summits are usually bold and rocky cones. comprises parts of the Protestant dioceses of Tuam and of Several small fishing villages have acquired the dignity of water. Killaloe; and of the Roman Catholic dioceses of Elphin, Galway, ing-places from the erection of hotels, which have also been Clonfert and Killaloe. planted in previously untenanted situations of high scenic History.---The history of county Galway is exceedingly obscure, attractions; among these may be mentioned Leenane at the and nearly every one of its striking physical features carries its head of Killary harbour, Renvyle House at its entrance, Letter- legend with it. For centuries local septs struggled together for frack on Ballynakill Bay, Streamstown and Clifden, and Cashel mastery undeterred by outside influence. The wreck of part of on Bertraghboy Bay. Inland are Recess, near Lough Derryclare, the Spanish Armada on this coast in 1588 left survivors whose and Ballynahinch, on the lough of that name, both on the influence is still to be traced. The formation of Galway into a railway, at the foot of the Twelve Pins.

county was effected about 1579 by Sir Henry Sydney, lord deputy Geology:-The cast of this county lies in the Carboniferous Limes of Ireland. In the county at Aughrim (9.0.) the decisive battle stone plain, with domes of Old Red Sandstone rising near Dunmore of the English Revolution was fought in 1691. Among the and Mount Bellew. As Galway town is neared, the grey, rock antiquities are several round towers. The only perfect one is at almost level land. Its west branches, however, run up into “ Dal Kilmacduagh, a very fine example 112 ft. high, leaning conradian" hills, which rise abruptly on the threshold of Connemara. siderably out of the perpendicular. Raths or encampments are A broad mass of ice-worn gneiss and granite lies between Lough numerous and several cromlechs are to be seen in good preservaCorrib and Galway Bay, cut off so sharply at the sea as to suggest tion. The ruins of monastic buildings are also numerous. That the presence of an east-and-west line of fracture. The Twelve Bens owe their supremacy to the quartzites, which are here well of Knockmoy, about 6 m. from Tuam, said to have been founded bedded and associated with limestone and mica-schist. Silurian in 1180 by Cathal O'Connor, was adorned with rude fresco conglomerates and sandstones, with andesitic lavas, overlie the paintings, still discernible, which were considered valuable as round Lough Nafooey: The surfaces of the hard rocks admirably being the best authentic representations existing of ancient record the action of ice throughout the county. There is black Irish costumes. Ancient castles and square towers of the AngloCarboniferous marble at Menlough near Galway; and the well-known Norman settlers are frequently met with; some have been kept in "Connemara Marble" is a banded serpentinous crystalline limestone repair, but the greater number are in ruins. The castle of Tuam, in the Dalradians at Recess, Ballynahinch and Streamstown. Compact red granite is worked at Shantallow, and the region west

built in 1161 by Roderick O'Connor, king of Ireland, at the period of Galway contains many handsome porphyritic red varictics.

of the English invasion, is said to have been the first building of Climate and Industries. --The climate is mild and healthy but this description of stone and mortar in Ireland. The remains of a variable, and violent winds from the west are not uncommon. round castle, a form of building very uncommon in the military Frost or snow seldom remains long on the western coast, and cattle architecture of the country, are to be seen between Gort and castern part of the county produces the best wheat. Oats are fre- Kilmacduagh. The extraordinary cyclopean and monastic quently sown after potatoes in moorish soils less adapted for wheat. ruins on the Aran Islands (9.0.) must be mentioned; and the The flat shores of the bays afford large supplies of seaweed for

town of Galway, Athenry, and the neighbourhood of Ballinasloe Limestone, gravel and marl are to be had in most other

all show interesting remains. The small church of Clonsert, in the parts.

When a sufficient quantity of manure for potatoes cannot be had, the usual practice is to pare and burn the surface. In many

south of the county, with a fine Romanesque doorway, is a places on the seashore fine early potatoes are raised in deep sea-sand cathedral, the diocese of which was united with Kilsenora, manured with seaweed, and the crop is succeeded by barley. Those Kilmacduagh and Killaloe in 1833. parts of the eastern district less fitted for grain are employed in pasturage. Heathy sheep-walks occupy a very large tract between

GALWAY, a seaport, parliamentary borough and the county Monivea and Galway. An extensive range from Athenry, stretching town of county Galway, Ireland, on the north shore of Galway to Galway Bay at Kinvarra, is also chiefly occupied by sheep. Over Bay, and on the main line of the Midland Great Western railway. half the total acreage of the county is pasture-land, and cattle, sheep, Pop. of urban district (1901) 13,426. Some of the streets are pigs and poultry are extensively reared. The proportion of tillage to pasturage is roughly as one to four; and owing to the nature of the very narrow, and contain curious specimens of old buildings, country fully onc-third of the total area is quite barren.

chiefly in antique Spanish style, being square, with a central Manufactures are not carried on beyond the demand caused by court, and a gateway opening into the street. The most notethe domestic consumption of the people. Coarse friezes, Aannels worthy of these is the pile known as Lynch's Castle. This and blankets are made in all parts and sold largely in Galway and residence takes its name from the family of whom James Lynch woollen stockings. Coarse linen, of a narrow breadth, called bandle Fitzstephen, mayor of Galway in 1493, was a member; whose lincn, is also made for home consumption. There is a linen-weaving severity as a magistrate is exemplified in the story that he factory at Oughterard. The manufacture of kelp, formerly a great executed his own son, and thus gave origin (according to one of source of profit on the western shores, is still carried on to some several theories) to the familiar term of Lynch law. The principal from the islands of Aran, the produce of the puffins and other sea- streets are broad and contain good shops. St Nicholas church is a fowl that frequent the cliffs. 'Fishing affords occupation to many fine cruciform building founded in 1320, and containing monuof the inhabitants, the industry having as its centres the ports of ments, and a bell, one of a peal, which appears to have been Galway and Clifden.

The Midland Great Western main line enters the county at brought from Cavron in France, but how this happened is not Ballinasloe, and runs by Athenry to Galway, with an extension known. The church was made collegiate in 1484, and Edward to Oughterard (Lough Corrib) and Clifden. The Great Southern & I VI. created the Royal College of Galway in connexion with it;



but the old college buildings no longer serve this purpose, and the pectations, and the town, after undergoing another sicge, again church ceased to be collegiate in 1840. There are remains of capitulated to the force brought against it by General Ginkell. a Franciscan friary founded in 1296. St Augustine's church GAMA, VASCO DA (c. 1460-1524), Portuguese navigator and (Roman Catholic) is modern (1859). The town is the seat of discoverer of the sea-route to India, was born at Sines, a small a Roman Catholic diocese. There are grammar, model and seaport in the province of Alemtejo. Os da Gama's early history industrial schools, the first with exhibitions to Trinity College, little is known. His descent, according to the Nobiliario of Dublin; but the principal educational establishment is University | Antonio de Lima, was derived from a noble family which is College, a quadrangular building in Tudor Gothic style, of grey mentioned in the year 1166; but the line cannot be traced limestone. It was founded as Queen's College, with other without interruption farther back than the year 1280, to one colleges of the same name at Belfast and Cork, under an act of Alvaro da Gama, from whom was descended Estevão da Gama, 1845, and its name was changed when it was granted a new civil governor of Sines, whose third son Vasco was born probcharter pursuant to the Irish Universities Act 1908. The ably about the year 1460. In that year died Prince Henry the harbour comprises an extensive line of quays, and is connected Navigator, to whose intelligence and foresight must be traced for inland navigation with Lough Corrib. The shipping trade is back all the fame that Portugal gained on the seas in the 15th and considerable, but as a trans-Atlantic port Galway was exploited 16th centuries. Explorers sent out at his instigation discovered unjuccessfully. The fisheries, both sea and salmon, are im- the Azores and unknown regions on the African coast, whence portant. The chief exports are wool, agricultural produce and continually came reports of a great monarch,“ who lived east of black marble, which is polished in local mills. Other industrial Benin, 350 leagues in the interior, and who held both temporal establishments include corn-mills, iron-foundries, distilleries, and and spiritual dominion over all the neighbouring kings," a story brush and bag factories. The borough, which returned two which tallied so remarkably with the accounts of "Prester John" members to parliament until 1885, now returns one.

which had been brought to the Peninsula by Abyssinian priests, Galway is divided into the old and new towns, while a suburb that John II. of Portugal steadfastly resolved that both by sca known as the Claddagh is inhabited by fishermen. This is a and by land the attempt should be made to reach the country curious collection of small cottages, where communal govern- of this potentate. For this purpose Pedro de Covilham and ment by a locally elected mayor long prevailed, together with Alfonso de Payva were despatched eastward by land; while peculiar laws and customs, strictly exclusive inter-marriage, anda Bartholomeu Diaz (9.3.), in command of two vessels, was sent high moral and religious standard. Specimens of the distinc-westward by sea (see ABYSSINIA, 14). That there was in truth tive Claddagh ring, for example, were worn and treasured an ocean highway to the East was proved by Diaz, who returned as venerated heirlooms. These customs, with the distinctive in December 1488 with the report that when sailing southward dress of the women, died out but slowly, and even to-day their he was carried far to the east by a succession of fierce storms, vestiges remain.

past--as he discovered only on his return voyage-what he The environs of Galway are pleasant, with several handsome ascertained to be the southern extremity of the African continent. residences. The most interesting point in the vicinity is Roscam, The condition of John's health and concerns of state, however, with its round tower, ruined church and other remains. Salthill, prevented the fitting out of the intended expedition; and it was with golf links, is a waterside residential suburb.

not till nine years later, when Emanuel I. had succeeded to Little is known of the history of Galway until after the arrival the throne, that the preparations for this great voyage were of the English, at which time it was under the protection of completed-hastened, doubtless, by Columbus's discovery of O'Flaherty, who possessed the adjoining district to the west. America in the meanwhile. On the extinction of the native dynasty of the O'Connors, the For the supreme command of this expedition the king selected town fell into the hands of the De Burgos, the head of a branch of Vasco da Gama, who had in his youth fought in the wars against which, under the name of M-William Eighter, long governed it by Castile, and in his riper years gained distinction as an intrepid magistrates of his own appointment. After it had been secured mariner. The fleet, consisting of four vessels specially built for by walls, which began to be built about 1270 and are still in part this mission, sailed down the Tagus on the oth of July 1497, aster traceable, it became the residence of a number of enterprising prayers and confession made by the officers and crews in a small settlers, through whom it attained a position of much commercial chapel on the site where now stands the church of S. Maria de celebrity. Of these settlers the principal families, fourteen in Belem (see Lisbon), afterwards built to commemorate the event. number, were known as the tribes of Galway. They were of Four months later the flotilla cast anchor in St Helena Bay, Norman, Saxon or Welsh descent, and became so exclusive in South Africa, rounded the Cape in safety, and in the beginning their relationships that dispensations were frequently requisite of the next year reached Malindi, on the cast coast of Africa. for the canonical legality of marriages among them. The town Thence, steering eastward, under the direction of a pilot obtained rapidly increased from this period in wealth and commercial from Indian merchants met with at this port, da Gama arrived rank, far surpassing in this respect the rival city of Limerick. at Calicut, on the Malabar coast, on the 20th May 1498, and set Richard II. granted it a charter of incorporation with liberal | up, according to the custom of his country, a marble pillar as a privileges, which was confirmed by his successor. It had the mark of conquest and a proof of his discovery of India. His right of coinage by act of parliament, but there is no evidence to reception by the zamorin, or Hindu ruler of Calicut, would show that it exercised the privilege. Another charter, granted in have in all probability been favourable enough, had it not been 1545, extended the jurisdiction of the port to the islands of Aran, for the jealousy of the Mahommedan traders who, fearing for permitted the exportation of all kinds of goods except linens and their gains, so incited the Hindus against the new-comers that da woollens, and confirmed all the former privileges. Large numbers Gama was unable to establish a Portuguese factory. Having of Cromwell's soldiers are said to have settled in the town; and seen enough of India to assure him of its great resources, he there are many traces of Spanish blood among the population. returned to Portugal in September 1499. The king received him Its municipal privileges were extended by a charter from James I., with every mark of distinction, granted him the use of the prefix whereby the town, and a district of two miles round in every Dom, thus elevating him to the rank of an untitled noble, and direction, were formed into a distinct county, with exclusive conferred on him pensions and other property. In prosecution jurisdiction and a right of choosing its own magistrates. During of da Gama's discoveries another fleet of thirteen ships was the civil wars of 1641 the town took part with the Irish, and was immediately sent out to India under Pedro Alvares Cabral, who, surrendered to the Parliamentary forces under Sir Charles Coote; in sailing too far westward, by accident discovered Brazil, and on after which the ancient inhabitants were mostly driven out, and reaching his destination established a factory at Calicut. The their property was given to adventurers and soldiers, chiefly natives, again instigated by the Mahommedan merchants, rose from England. On the accession of James II, the old inhabitants up in arms and murdered all whom Cabral had left behind. To entertained sanguine hopes of recovering their former rights. avenge this outrage a powerful armament of ten ships was fitted But the successes of King William soon put an end to their ex- out at Lisbon, the command of which was at first given to

XI. 8


Cabral, but was afterwards transferred to da Gama, who received position in the Sanhedrin, and enjoyed the highest repute as an the title admiral of India (January 1502). A few weeks later the authority on the subject of knowledge of the Law and in the fleet sailed, and on reaching Calicut da Gama immediately interpretation of the Scriptures. He was the first to whose name bombarded the town, treating its inhabitants with a savagery was prefixed the title Rabban (Master, Teacher). It is related in too horrible to describe. From Calicut he proceeded in November the Acts of the Apostles (v. 34 et seq.) that his voice was uplifted to Cochin,“ doing all the harm he could on the way to all that he in the Sanhedrin in favour of the disciples of Jesus who were found at sea," and having made favourable trading terms with it threatened with death, and on this occasion he is designated and with other towns on the coast, he returned to Lisbon in as a Pharisee and as being “had in reputation among all the September 1503, with richly laden ships. He and his captains people ” (vouodioko ka dos ti ulos tauti to law). In the Mishna were welcomed with great rejoicings and he received additional (Gillin iv. 1-3) he is spoken of as the author of certain legal privileges and revenues.

ordinances affecting the welfare of the community (the expression Soon after his return da Gama retired to his residence in Evora, in the original is “ liqqun ha-'ölam," i.e. improvement of the possibly from pique at not obtaining so high rewards as he world) and regulating certain questions as to conjugal rights. expected, but more probably in order to enjoy the wealth and In the tradition was also preserved the text of the epistles position which he had acquired; for he was now one of the regarding the insertion of the intercalary month, which he sent richest men in the kingdom. He had married, probably in 1500, to the inhabitants of Galilce and the Darom (i.e, southern a lady of good family, named Catherina de Ataide, by whom he Palestine) and to the Jews of the Dispersion (Sanhedrin ub and had six sons. According to Correa, he continued to advise King elsewhere). He figures in two anecdotes as the religious adviser Emanuel I. on matters connected with India and maritime policy of the king and queen, i.c. Agrippa I. and his wife Cypris up to 1505, and there are extant twelve documents dated 1507- (Pesahim 88b). His function as a teacher is proved by the fact 1522 which prove that he continued to enjoy the royal favour. that the Apostle Paul boasts of having sat at the feet of Gamaliel The most important of these is a grant dated December 1519 (Acts. xxii. 3). Of his teaching, beyond the saying preserved in by which Vasco da Gama was created count of Vidigueira, with Aboth i. 16, which enjoins the duty of study and of scrupulousthe extraordinary privileges of civil and criminal jurisdiction ness in the observance of religious ordinances, only a very and ecclesiastical patronage. During this time the Portuguese remarkable characterization of the different natures of the conquests increased in the East, and were presided over by scholars remains (Aboth di R. Nathan, ch. xl.). His renown in successive viceroys. The fifth of these was so unfortunate that later days is summed up in the words (Mishna, end of Sotah): da Gama was recalled from his seclusion by Emanuel's successor, “When Rabban Gamaliel the Elder died, regard for the Torah John III., and nominated viceroy of India, an honour which in the study of the Law) ceased, and purity and piety died.” As April 1524 he left Lisbon to assume. Arriving at Goa during Gamaliel I. is the only Jewish scribe whose name is mentioned September of the same year, he immediately set himself to correct in the New Testament he became a subject of Christian legend, with vigour the many abuses which had crept in under the rule and a monk of the 12th century (Hermann the Premonstraof his predecessors. He was not destined, however, to prosecute tensian) relates how he met Jews in Worms studying Gamaliel's far the reforms he had inaugurated, for, on the Christmas-eve commentary on the Old Testament, thereby most probably following his arrival, he died at Cochin after a short illness, and was meaning the Talmud. buried in the Franciscan monastery there. In 1538 his body was 2. GAMALIEL II., the son of Simon ben Gamaliel, one of conveyed to Portugal and entombed in the town of Vidigueira. Jerusalem's foremost men in the war against the Romans (vide In 1880 what were supposed on insufficient evidence to have been Josephus, Bellum Juul. iv. 3, 9, Vita 38), and grandson of Gamaliel his remains were transferred to the church of Santa Maria de 1. To distinguish him from the latter he is also called Gamaliel Belem. His voyage had the immediate result of enriching of Jabneh. In Jabneh (Jamnia), where during the siege of Portugal, and raising her to one of the foremost places among the Jerusalem the scribes of the school of Hillel had taken reluge by nations of Europe, and eventually the far greater one of bringing permission of Vespasian, a new centre of Judaism arose under the to pass the colonization of the East by opening its commerce leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a school whose to the Western world.

members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem. BIBLIOGRAPHY.- Vasco da Gama's First Voyage, by Dr E. Raven. Gamaliel II. became Johanan ben Zakkai's successor, and stein (London, Hakluyt Society, 1898), is a translation with notes, rendered immense service in the strengthening and reintegration &c., of the anonymous Roteiro (Journal or Itinerary), written by of Judaism, which had been deprived of its former basis by the one of Vasco da Gama's subordinates who sailed on board the destruction of the Temple and by the entire loss of its political "S. Raphael," which was commanded by the admiral's brother Paulo da Gama. This is the most important of the original authorities; autonomy. He put an end to the division which had arisen five accounts of the voyage in letters contemporary with it are

between the spiritual leaders of Palestinian Judaism by the appended to the Hakluyt Society's translation. See also J. de separation of the scribes into the two schools called respectively Barros, Decadas da India (Lisbon, 1778-1788, written c. 1540); after Hillel and Shammai, and took care to enforce his own F. L. de Castanheda, Historia do descobrimento da India (Coimbra, 1551, largely based on the Roleiro); The Three Voyages of Vasco da authority as the president of the chief legal assembly of Judaism · Gama and his Viceroyalty, by Gaspar Correa (Hakluyt Society, with energy and often with severity. He did this, as he himself 1869), chiefly valuable for the events of 1524: The Lusiads of said, not for his own honour nor for that of his family, but in order Camoens, the central incident in which is Vasco da Gama's first

that disunion should not prevail in Israel. Gamaliel's position voyage; Calcoen (i.e. Calicut), a Dulch Narrative of the Second Voyage of Vasco da Gama, written by some unknown seaman of

was recognized by the Roman government also. Towards the the expedition, printed at Antwerp about 1504, reprinted in fac-end of Domitian's reign (C A. D.05) he went to Rome in company simile, with introduction and translation, by J. Ph. Berjeau (London, with the most prominent members of the school of Jabneh, in 1874); Thomé Lopes, narrative (1502) in vol. i. of Ramusio.

order to avert a danger threatening the Jews from the action of GAMALIEL (5 oz). This name, which in Old Testament the terrible emperor. Many interesting particulars have been times figures only as that of a prince of the tribe of Manasseh given regarding the journey of these learned men to Rome and (vide Num. i. 10, &c.), was hereditary among the descendants of their sojourn there. The impression made by the capital of the Hillel. Six persons bearing the name are known.

world upon Gamaliel and his companions was an overpowering 1. GAMALIEL I., a grandson of Hillel, and like him designated one, and they wept when they thought of Jerusalem in ruins. Ha-Záqên (the Elder), by which is apparently indicated that In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend he was numbered among the Sanhedrin, the high council of Judaism in polemical discussions with pagans, and also with Jerusalem. According to the tradition of the schools of Palestine professed Christians. In an anecdote regarding a suit which Gamaliel succeeded his grandfather and his father (of the latter Gamaliel was prosecuting before a Christian judge, a converted nothing is known but his name, Simeon) as Nasi, or president of Jew, he appeals to the Gospel and to the words of Jesus in the Sanhedrin. Even if this tradition does not correspond with Matt. v. 17 (Shabbath 116 a, b). Gamaliel devoted special historic fact, it is at any rate certain that Gamaliel took a leading attention to the regulation of the rite of prayer, which after the

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