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cessation of sacrificial worship had become all-important. He opposed to the war with Germany, but when satisfied that it had gave the principal prayer, consisting of eighteen benedictions, its been forced upon France he did not, like some of his colleagues, final revision, and declared it every Israelite's duty to recite it refuse to vote supplies, but took the patriotic line of supporting three times daily. He was on friendly terms with many who were the flag. When the news of the disaster at Sedan reached Paris, not Jews, and was so warmly devoted to his slave Tabi that when Gambetta called for strong measures. He himself proclaimed the the latter died he mourned for him as for a beloved member of his fall of the emperor at the corps législatif, and the establishment of own family. He loved discussing the sense of single portions of a republic at the hôtel de ville. He was one of the first members the Bible with other scholars, and made many fine expositions of of the new government of national defence, becoming minister the test. With the words of Deut. xiii. 18 he associated the of the interior. He advised his colleagues to leave Paris and lesson: “ So long as thou thyself art merciful, God will also be conduct the government from some provincial city. This advice merciful to thee." Gamaliel died before the insurrections under was rejected from dread of another revolution in Paris, and a Trajan had brought fresh unrest into Palestine. At his funeral delegation to organize resistance in the provinces was despatched obsequies the celebrated proselyte Aquila (Akylas Onkelos), to Tours, but when this was seen to be inefficient Gambetta reviving an ancient custom, burned costly materials to the value himself (7th October) quitted Paris in a balloon, and upon of seventy minae. Gamaliel himself had given directions that his arriving at Tours took the supreme direction of affairs as minister body was to be wrapped in the simplest possible shroud. By this of the interior and of war. Aided by M. de Freycinet, then a he wished to check the extravagance which had become associated young officer of engineers, as his assistant secretary of war, he with arrangements for the disposal of the dead, and his end was displayed prodigies of energy and intelligence. He speedily attained; for his example became the rule, and it also became the organized an army, which might possibly have effected the relief custom to commemorate him in the words of consolation of Paris if Dietz had held out, but the surrender of Bazaine addressed to the mourners (Kethub. 8 6). Gamaliel's son, brought the army of the crown prince into the field, and success Simon, long after his father's death, and after the persecutions was impossible. After the defeats of the French near Orleans under Hadrian, inherited his office, which thenceforward his early in December the seat of government had to be transferred descendants handed on from father to son.

to Bordeaux, and when Paris surrendered at the end of January, 3. GAMALIEL III., son of Jehuda I. the redactor of the Mishna, Gambetta, though resisting and protesting, was compelled to and his successor as Nasi (patriarch). The redaction of the submit to the capitulation concluded with Prince Bismarck. Mishna was completed under him, and some of his sayings are He immediately resigned his office. Elected by nine departments incorporated therein (Aboth i. 2-4). One of these runs as follows: to the National Assembly meeting at Bordeaux (on the ist of “ Beware of those in power, for they permit men to approach March 1871) he chose to sit for Strassburg, which by the terms of them only for their own uses; they behave as friends when it is the treaty about to be submitted to the Assembly for ratification for their advantage, but they do not stand by a man when he is in was to be ceded to Prussia, and when the treaty was adopted he need.” Evidently this was directed against the self-seeking of the resigned in protest and retired to Spain. Roman government. Gamaliel III. lived during the first half of He returned to France in June, was elected by three departthe 3rd century:

ments in July, and commenced an agitation for the definitive 4. GAMALIEL IV., grandson of the above, patriarch in the latter establishment of the Republic. On the 5th of November 1871 he half of the 3rd century: about him very little is known. established a journal, La République française, which soon

5. GAMALIEL V., son and successor of the patriarch Hillel II.: became the most influential in France. His orations at public beyond his name nothing is known of him. He lived in the meetings were more effective than those delivered in the latter half of the 4th century. He is the patriarch Gamaliel Assembly, especially that made at Bordeaux on his return, and whom Jerome mentions in his letter to Pamachius, written in 393. that at Grenoble on the 26th of November 1872, in which he

6. GAMALIEL VI., grandson of the above, the last of the spoke of political power having passed to les nouvelles couches patriarchs, died in 425. With him expired the office, which had sociales. When Thiers, however, fell from power in May 1873, already been robbed of its privileges by a decree of the emperors and a Royalist was placed at the head of the government in the Honorius and Theodosius II. (dated the 17th of October 415). person of Marshal MacMahon, Gambetta gave proof of his Gamaliel VI. was also a physician, and a celebrated remedy of his statesmanship by unceasingly urging his friends to a moderate is mentioned by his contemporary Marcellus (De Medicamentis, course, and by his tact and parliamentary dexterity, no less than liber 21).

(W. Ba.) by his eloquence, he was mainly instrumental in the voting of the GAMBETTA, LÉON (1838–1882), French statesman, was born constitution in February 1875. This policy he continued during at Cahors on the end of April 1838. His father, a Genocse, who the early days of the now consolidated Republic, and gave it had established himself as a grocer and had married a French- the appropriate name of “opportunism.” It was not until the woman named Massabie, is said to have been his son's prototype 4th of May 1877, when the peril from reactionary intrigues was in vigour and fluency of speech. In his sixteenth year young notorious, and the clerical party had begun a campaign for the Gambetta lost by an accident the sight of his left eye, which restoration of the temporal power of the pope, that he delivered eventually had to be removed. Notwithstanding this privation, his famous speech denouncing “clericalism" as “the enemy." he highly distinguished himself at the public school of Cahors, On the 16th of May Marshal MacMahon, in order to support the and in 1857 proceeded to Paris to study law. His southern clerical reactionaries, perpetrated his parliamentary coup d'étal, vehemence gave him great influence among the students of the and on the 15th of August Gambetta, in a speech at Lille, gave Quartier Latin, and he was soon known as an inveterate enemy him the alternative se soumettre ou se démettre. He then underof the imperial government. He was called to the bar in 1859, took a political campaign to rouse the republican party throughbut, although contributing to a Liberal review, edited by out France, which culminated in a speech at Romans (September Challemel Lacour, did not make much way until, on the 17th 18, 1878) formulating its programme. MacMahon, equally of November 1868, he was selected to defend the journalist unwilling to resign or to provoke civil war, had no choice but to Delescluze, prosecuted for having promoted the erection of a dismiss his advisers and form a moderate republican ministry monument to the representative Baudin, who was killed in under the premiership of Dufaure. resisting the coup d'alal of 1851. Gambetta scized his opportunity When the resignation of the Dufaure cabinet brought about and assailed both the coup d'élat and the government with an the abdication of Marshal MacMahon, Gambetta declined to eloquence of invective which made him immediately famous. become a candidate for the presidency, but gave his support to

In May 1869 he was returned to the Assembly, both by the first Grévy; nor did he attempt to form a ministry, but accepted the circumscription of Paris and by Marseilles, defeating Hippolyte office of president of the chamber of deputies (January 1879). Carnot for the former constituency and Thiers and Lesseps for This position, which he filled with much ability, did not prethc latter. He clected to sit for Marseilles, and lost no oppor- vent his occasionally descending from the presidential chair to tunity of attacking the Empire in the Assembly. He was at first I make speeches, one of which, advocating an amnesty to the communards, was especially memorable. Although he really and the adjoining states, may be accepted, but M. Laur appears directed the policy of the various ministries, he evidently thought to have exaggerated the extent to which any actual negotiations that the time was not ripe for asserting openly his own claims to took place. On the other hand, the increased knowledge of direct the policy of the Republic, and seemed inclined to observe Gambetta's attitude towards European politics which later a neutral attitude as far as possible; but events hurried him on, information has supplied confirms the view that in him France lost and early in 1881 he placed himself at the head of a movement prematurely a master mind, whom she could ill spare. In April for restoring scrutin de liste, or the system by which deputies are 1905 a monument by Dalou to his memory at Bordeaux was returned by the entire department which they represent, so that unveiled by President Loubet. each elector votes for several representatives at once, in place of Gambetta's Discours et plaidoyers politiques were published by J. scrutin d'arrondissement, the system of small constituencies, Reinach in 11 vols. (Paris, 1881-1886); his Dépêches, circulaires, giving one member to each district and one vote to each elector. décrets . ; . in 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-1891). Many biographies have å bill to re-establish scrutin de liste was passed by the Assembly Gambetta orateur (1884) and Le ministère Gambetta, histoire et doctrine on 19th May 1881, but rejected by the Senate on the 19th of (1884); Neucastel, Gambetta, sa vie, el ses idées politiques (1885): June.

J. Hanlon, Gambella (London, 1881); Dr Laborde, Léon Gambetta But this personal rebuff could not alter the fact that in the biographie psychologique (1898); P. B. Gheusi, Gambetta, Life and country his was the name which was on the lips of the voters at

Letters (Eng. trans. by V. M. Montagu, 1910). See also G. Hanotaux, the election. His supporters were in a large majority, and on the de Gambella (1907, Eng. trans., 1908) contains the correspondence

Histoire de la France contemporaine 1903, &c.). F. Laur's Le Caur reassembling of the chamber, the Ferry cabinet quickly resigned with

Léonie Léon;

see also his articles on “ Gambetta and Bismarck" Gambetta was unwillingly entrusted by Grévy on the 14th of in The Times of August 17 and 19, 1907, with the correspondence November 1881 with the formation of a ministry-known as arising from them.

(H. CH) Le Grand Ministère. He now experienced the Nemesis of his GAMBIA, an important river of West Africa, and the only over-cautious system of abstinence from office for fear of com- river of Africa navigable by ocean-going boats at all seasons for promising his popularity. Every one suspected him of aiming at over 200 m. from its mouth. It rises in about 11° 25' N. and a dictatorship; attacks, not the less formidable for their injustice, 12° 15' W., within 150 m. of the sea on the north-eastern escarpwere directed against him from all sides, and his cabinet fell on ment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the the 26th of January 1882, after an existence of only sixty-six head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, days. Had he remained in office his declarations leave no doubt besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to that he would have cultivated the British alliance and co- the Gulf of Guinea. The Gambia, especially in its lower course, is operated with Great Britain in Egypt; and when the Freycinet very serpentine, and although the distance from the source to administration, which succeeded, shrank from that enterprise the mouth of the river is little more than 300 m. in a direct line, only to see it undertaken with signal success by England alone, the total length of the stream is about 1000 m. It flows first Gambetta's foresight was quickly justified. His fortunes were N.N.E., receiving many left-hand tributaries, but about 12° 35'N. presenting a most interesting problem when, on the 31st of takes a sharp bend N.W. and maintains this direction until it December 1882, at his house in Ville d'Avray, near Sèvres, he leaves the fertile and hilly region of Bondu. The descent to the died by a shot from a revolver which accidentally went off. lower district is marked by the Barraconda rapids, formed by a Then all France awoke to a sense of her obligation to him, and ledge of rock stretching across the river. Between 30 and 50 m. his public funeral on the 6th of January 1883 evoked one of the above the falls the Gambia is joined by two considerable affluents, most overwhelming displays of national sentiment ever witnessed the Nicriko from the north and the Kuluntu or Grey river from on a similar occasion.

the south. From the Barraconda rapids to the Atlantic the Gambetta rendered France thrce inestimable services: by Gambia has a course of about 350 m. Throughout this distance preserving her self-respect through the gallantry of the resistance the waters are tidal, and the river is navigable all the year round he organized during the German War, by his tact in persuading by boats drawing 6 ft. of water. At Yarbatenda, a few miles extreme partisans to accept a moderate Republic, and by his below Barraconda, the river has a breadth, even at the dry energy in overcoming the usurpation attempted by the advisers season, of over 300 st., with a depth of 13 to 20 st. From the falls of Marshal MacMahon. His death, at the early age of forty-four, to McCarthy's Island, a distance of 200 m., the river valley, which cut short a career which had given promise of still greater things, here presents a park-like appearance, is enclosed by low rocky for he had real statesmanship in his conceptions of the future of hills of volcanic character. For 50 m. below the island, where the his country, and he had an eloquence which would have been stream is about 800 yds. wide, the banks of the river are steep and potent in the education of his supporters. The romance of his thickly wooded. They then become low and are fringed with life was his connexion with Léonie Léon (d. 1906), the full details mangrove swamps.

From Devil's Point, a sharp promontory on of which were not known to the public till her death. This lady, the north bank-up to which place the water is sall- the river with whom Gambetta fell in love in 1871, was the daughter of a widens considerably and enters the Atlantic, in about 131° N. French artillery officer. She became his mistress, and the liaison and 16° W., by a broad estuary. Near the mouth of the river lasted till he died. Gambetta himself constantly urged her to on the south side is St Mary's Island (3) m. long by 1} broad), marry him during this period, but she always refused, fearing to and opposite on the north bank is Barra Point, the river being compromise his career; she remained, however, his confidante here contracted to 2 m. Eighteen miles lower down the distance and intimate adviser in all his political plans. It is understood from shore to shore is 27 m. There is a sand-bar at the entrance that at last she had just consented to become his wife, and the to the river, but at the lowest state of the tide there are 26 ft. of date of the marriage had been fixed, when the accident which water over the bar. The Gambia is in flood from November to caused his death occurred in her presence. Contradictory June, when the Barraconda rapids are navigable by small boats. accounts have indeed been given as to this fatal episode, but that | Above the rapids the stream is navigable for 100 m. Politically it was accidental, and not suicide, is certain. On Gambetta the the Gambia is divided between Great Britain and France influence of Léonie was absorbing, both as lover and as politician, Britain possessing both banks of the river up to, but not includand the correspondence which has been published shows how ing, Yarbatenda. much he depended upon her. But in various matters of detail the The Gambia was one of the rivers passed by Hanno the serious student of political history must be cautious in accepting Carthaginian in his famous voyage along the west coast of her later recollections, some of which have been embodied in the Africa. It was known to Ptolemy and the Arabian geographers, writings of M. Francis Laur, such as that an actual interview took and was at one time supposed to be a mouth of the Nile, and, place in 1878 between Gambetta and Bismarck. That Gambetta later (18th century), a branch of the Niger. It was possibly after 1875 felt strongly that the relations between France and visited by Genoese navigators in 1291, and was certainly disGermany might be improved, and that he made it his object, by covered by the Portuguese c. 1446, but was first explored for any travelling incognito, to become better acquainted with Germany I distance from its mouth (1455) by the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto

Between

(9.0.), who published an account of bis travels at Vicenza in 1507 | founded by Sir R. G. MacDonnell (administrator, 1847-1852), (La Primu Navigazione per l'Oceano alle terre de' Negri della and various churches. The market-place is shaded by a fine Bassa Ethiopia). Afterwards the Gambia became a starting place avenue of bombax and other wide-spreading trees. There are no for explorers of the interior, among them Mungo Park, who began other towns of any size in the Gambia. A trading station called both his journeys, (1795 and 1805) from this river. It was not Georgetown is situated on McCarthy's Island, so named after Sir until 1818 thai the sources of the Gambia were reached, the Charles McCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who in 1824 was discovery being made by a Frenchman. Gaspard Mollien, who had captured and beheaded by the Ashanti at the battle of Essamako. Travelled by way of the Senegal and Bondu. The middle course Albreda, a small port on the north bank of the river, of some of the river was explored in 1851 by R. G. MacDonnell, then historic interest (see below), is in the Barra district. governor of the Gambia colony, and in 1881 Dr V. S. Gouldsbury Products.-Ground-nuts (Arachis hypogaea), rubber, beeswax, also navigated ils middle course. No native craft of any kind palm kernels, rice, cotton, and millet are the chief productions. was seen above Barraconda. The more correct name of the river

Millet and rice are the staple food of the people. The curing of hides, is Gambra, and it is so called in old books of travel.

the catching and drying of fish, boat-building, and especially the

weaving of cotton into cloths called " pagns," afford employment See Mungo Park's Travels (London, 1799); G. Mollien, Travels to a considerable number of persons. Formerly the principal ex

to the Sources of the Senegal and Gambia edited by T. E. ports, besides slaves, were goid-dust, wax and hides, the gold being Bowdich (London, 1820); the account of Dr Gouldsbury's journey in obtained from the Futa Jallon district farther inland. The Blue Book C 3065 (1881); also under the country heading below. 1830 and 1840 from 1500 to 2000 oz. of gold were exported annually,

GAMBIA, the most northerly of the British West African but shipments ceased soon afterwards, though small quantities of dependencies. Il consists of a stretch of land on both sides of the gold-dust can still be obtained from native goldsmiths. The export

of hides received a severe check in 1892-1893 through the death of lower Gambia. The colony, with the protectorate dependent upon nearly all the cattle, but after an interval of seven or eighı years il, has an area of about 4000 sq. m. and a population officially the industry gradually revived. The value of hides exported in. estimated (1907) a 163,000. The colony proper (including creased from 1520 in 1902 to £9615 in 1907. The collection of rubber

was started about 1880, but the trade has not assumed large pro$i Mary's Island, British Kommbo, the Ceded Mile, McCarthy's Island and other islets) has an area of about 69 sq. m. The portions. In 1907 the value of the rubber exported was 44602.

The export of wax, valued at 37,000 in 1843. had dwindled in proiectorate consists of a strip of land extending ten kilometres !907 to [2325. The cultivation of the ground-nut, first exported (about 6 m.) on each side of the river to a distance of about in 1830, assumed importance by, 1837. and by 1850 had become the 200 m. in a direct line from the sea. The land outside these chief industry of the colony: 'In 1907 the value of the nuts was limits is French. Within the protectorate are various pelly the whole male population is engaged in the industry for eight months

1,256,685. over {l of the total exports (exclusive of specie); Nearly kingdoms, such as Barra, to the north of the Gambia, and of the year. Planted in June, after the early rains, the crop is Kommbo, to the south. The breadth of the colony near the coast reaped in October or November and exported to Europe ( 10

Marseilles) for the extraction of its oil, which is usually sold as olive is somewhat greater than is higher up. The greatest breadth

oil. A scature of the industry is the appearance at the beginning of is 39 m.

the planting season of thousands of men from a distance, “ strange Physical Features, Fauna and Flora.- The colony, as its name farmers," as they are called, who are housed and fed and given implies, derives its character and value from the river Gambia (9.v.), farms to cultivate. In return they have to give half the produce which is navigable throughout and beyond the limits of the colony, to the landlords. As soon as he has sold his nuts, the " strange while large occan-going ships can always cross the bar at its mouth farmer "goes off, often not returning for years. and enter the port of Bathurst. Away from the swamps by the river Apart from the cultivation of the ground-nut, the agricultural banks, the country is largely“ bush." The region above McCarthy's resources of the country are undeveloped. Large herds of catile are Island is hilly. Much of ihe land is cleared for cultivation. The kept by the Fula, and in cattle rich natives usually invest their fauna includes lions, leopards, several kinds of deer, monkeys, wealth. Land can be hired for 2d. an acre per annum for twentybush-cow and wild boar. Hippopotami are found in the upper part one years. All land lying vacant or unused, or to which the occupier of the river, and crocodiles abound in the crecks. The birds most is unable to produce any title, is vested in the crown. A botanical common are bush-fowl, bustards, guinea-fowl, quail, pigeon and station was opened in 1894, and the cultivation of American and sand-grouse. Bees are very numerous in parts of the country. Egyptian cotton was taken in hand in 1902. The experiment The Hora resembles that of West Africa generally, the mangrove proved discouraging. Great difficulty was experienced in getting being common. Mahogany and rosewood (Plerocarpus erinaceus) farmers to grow cotton for export, as unless carried on on highly trees are found, though not in large numbers, and the rubber-vine scientific lines its cultivation is not so profitable as that of thegroundand oil-palm are also comparatively scarce. There are many varieties nut. The principal imports, of which over { come from Great Britain of lern. The cassava (manioca) and indigo plants are indigenous. or British colonies, are cotton goods, kola-nuts (from Sierra Leone),

Climate.The climate during the dry season (November-June) tobacco, rice, sugar and spirits. In the ten years 1898 to 1907 the is the best on the British West African coast, and the Gambia is average annual value of the exports was £301,000, of the imports then considered fairly healthy. Measures for the extermination of £3.16,000. There are no mines in the colony, nor any apparent the malarial mosquito are carried on with good effect. The mean mineral wealth, except ridges of ironstone in the regions above temperature at Bathurst is 770 F., the shade minimum being 56° McCarthy's Island. Bathurst is in telegraphic communication with and the solar maximum 1650" Upriver the variation in temperature Europe and the rest of Africa. There are no railways in the colony, is even greater than at Bathurst, from 50° in the morning to 100°. but it is traversed by well-made roads of a uniform width of 18 st. 104° at 3 P.M. being common at McCarthy's Isle. The average The Liverpool mail steamers call at the port every fortnight. A rainfall is about 50 in, a year, but save for showers in May and June government steamer runs regularly from Bathurst to McCarthy's there is rarely any rain except between July and October. The first Island, and a smaller boat plies on the upper river. The shipping instance of rain in December in twenty-six years was recorded in trade is chiefly British; French and German tonnage coming next. 1906. The dry east wind known as the harmattan blows inter- Surrounded on all sides, save seawards, by French territory, the mittently from December to March.

colony largely depends, economically, upon France, to which Inhabilants.—The inhabitants, who are both thrifty and country most of the exports go. A considerable entrepôt trade is industrious, are almost entirely of Negro or Negroid race, the also done with the neighbouring French colonies. The extent of

French influence is indicated by the fact that the five-franc piece, chiei tribes represented being the Mandingo (q.v.), the Jolof and locally known as a dollar, is largely circulated throughout the prothe Jola. Numbers of Fula (9.0.) are also settled in the country. tectorate, and is accepted as legal tender, although the currency in Fully four-fifths of the natives are Mahommedans. The few the colony proper is the English coinage.

Administration, Revenue, &c. -The Gambia is administered by a European residents are officials, traders or missionaries.

governor, assisted by an executive and a legislative council. On Towns and Trade.-Bathurst, pop. about 8000, the chief the last-named boily nominated unofficial members have seats. town of the colony, in 13° 24' N., 16° 36' W., is built on St Mary's | The colony is self-supporting and has no public debt. The revenue, Island, which lies at the mouth of the river near its south

which in 1906 for the first time exceeded (60.000, is mainly derived bank and is connected with the mainland by a bridge across

from customs. A company of the West African Frontier Force is

maintained. Travelling commissioners visit the five districts into Oyster Creek. It was founded in 1816 and is named after the

which, for administrative purposes, the protectorate is divided, and 3rd earl Bathurst, secretary of state for the colonies from 1812 tol in which the native form of government prevails. From the native 1827. Bathurst is a fairly well-built town, the chief material iaw-courts appeal can be made to the supreme court at Bathurst.

There is also at Bathursta Mahommedan court, established in 1906, employed being red sandstone. It lies about 12 to 14 ft. above

for the trial of cases involving the civil status of Moslems. the level of the river. The principal buildings face the sea, and

Primary schools are maintained by the various religious denomiinclude Government House, barracks, a well-appointed hospital, 1 nations, and receive grants from government. The Wesleyans have also a secondary and a technical school. There is a privately this period the colony had gone through an economic crisis by supported school for Mahommedans at Bathurst. The Anglicans, the abolition of the slave trade (1807), which had been since 1662 Wesleyans and Roman Catholics have numerous converts.

its chief financial support. The beginning of a return to proHistory. Of the early history of the Gambia district there is sperity came in 1816 when some British traders, obliged to leave scant mention. At what period the stone circles and pillars Senegal on the restoration of that country to France after the (apparently of a “Druidical" character), whose ruins are found at Napoleonic wars, founded a settlement on St Mary's Isle. From several places along the upper Gambia, were erected is not known that year the existing colony, as distinct from trading on the river, Those at Lamin Koło, on the right bank of the river opposite dates. The Gambia witnessed many administrative changes. McCarthy's Island, are still in good preservation, and are an When the slave trade was abolished, the settlement was placed object of veneration to the Mahommedans (see Geog. Journ. under the jurisdiction of the governor of Sierra Leone, and was vol. xii., 1898). The country appears to have formed part, formally annexed to Sierra Leone on the dissolution of the Royal successively, of the states of Ghana, Melle and Songhoi. The African Company (1822). It so remained until 1843, when ihe relations, political and commercial, of the natives were all with Gambia was made an independent colony, its first governor the north and east; consequently no large town was founded on being Henry Frowd Seagram. Afterwards (1866) the Gambia the banks of the river, nor any trade carried on (before the became a portion of the officially styled “ West African Setile. coming of the white man) by vessels sailing the ocean About ments.” In 1888 it was again made a separate government, the irth century the district came under Mahommedan influence. administered as a crown colony. Between the years last

The Portuguese visited the Gambia in the 15th century, and mentioned—1866–1888—the colony had suffered from the retroin the beginning of the 16th century were trading in the lower grade policy adopted by parliament in respect to the West river. Embassies were sent from the Portuguese stations in African Settlements (vide Report of the Select Committec of 1865). land to Melle to open up trade with the interior, but about the In 1870 negotiations were opened between France and Great middle of the century this trade--apparently mostly in gold and Britain on the basis of a mutual exchange of territories in West slaves-declined. At the end of the century the river was known Africa. Suspended owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian as the resort of banished men and fugitives from Portugal and War the negotiations were resumed in 1876. “Definite proposals Spain. It was on the initiative of Portuguese living in England were at that time formulated by which the Gambia was to be that Queen Elizabeth, in 1588, granted a patent to a certain exchanged for all posts by France between the Rio Pongas merchants of Exeter and others of the west parts and of London (Pongo river, French Guinea) and the Gabun. This would have for a trade to the river of Senega and Gambra in Guinea.” This been a comprehensive and intelligible arrangement, but so strong company was granted a monopoly of trade for ten years. Ils a feeling in opposition to any cession of British territory was operations led to no permanent settlement in the Gambia. In manifesied in parliament, and by various mercantile bodies, 1618 James I. granted a charter to another company named that the government of the day was unable to press the scheme." “ The Company of Adventurers of London trading into Africa," Nothing was done, however, 10 secure for the Gambia a suitable and formed at the instigation of Sir Robert Rich, afterwards earl hinterland, and in 1877 the 4th earl of Carnarvon (then colonial of Warwick, for trade with the Gambia and the Gold Coast. secretary) warned British traders that they proceeded beyond This company sought to open up trade with Timbuktu, then McCarthy's Isle at their own risk. Meantime the French from believed to be a great mart for gold, which reached the lower Senegal pushed their frontier close to the British settlements, Gambia in considerable quantities. With this object George so that when the boundaries were settled by the agreement of Thompson (a merchant who had traded with Barbary) was sent the roth of August 1889 with France, Great Britain was able to out in the “ Çatherine," and ascended the Gambia in his ship to secure only a ten-kilometre strip on either side of the river. This Kassan, a Portuguese trading town, thence continuing his journey document fixed the frontier of the British protectorate inland at in small boats. In his absence the “ Catherine "was seized and a radius of 10 m. from the centre of the town of Yarbatenda; the crew murdered by Portuguese and half-castes, and Thompson which town is situated at the limit of navigability of the Gambia himself was later on murdered by natives. Two years afterwards from the sea. By Art. 5 of the Anglo-French convention of the Richard Jobson, another agent of the Company of Adventurers, 8th of April 1904, Yarbatenda was ceded to France, with the advanced beyond the falls of Barraconda; and he was followed, object of giving that country a port on the river accessible to about forty years later, by Vermuyden, a Dutch merchant, who sea-going merchantmen. on his return to Europe asserted that he had reached a country Since 1871 the colony had been self-supporting, but on the full of gold.

acquirement of the protectorate it was decided, in order to balance The Company of Adventurers had built a fort near the mouth increasing expenditure, lo impose a “hut tax on the natives. of the Gambia. This was superseded in 1664 by a fort built by This was done in 1895. The lax, which averages 4s. per annum Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir Robert) Holmes on a small for a family, met with no opposition. island 20 m. from the mouth of the river and named Fort James, In 1892 a slave-raiding chief, named Fodi Kabba, had to be in honour of the duke of York (James II.). This fort was built forcibly expelled from British territory. In 1894 another slave. expressly to defend the British trade against the Dutch, and from raider, Fodi Silah, gave much trouble to the protectorate. An that time the British remained in permanent occupation of one or expedition under Captain E. H. (afterwards admiral) Gamble more ports on the river. In 1723 Captain Bartholomew Stibbs succeeded in routing him, and Fodi Silah took refuge in French was sent out by the Royal African Company, which had succeeded territory, where he died. During the expedition Captain Gamble the earlier companies, to verify Vermuyden's reports of gold. was led into an ambush, and in this engagement lost 15 killed and He proceeded 60 m. above the falls, but the land of gold was not 47 wounded. In 1900 trouble again arose through the agency of found. The French now became rivals for the trade of the Fodi Kabba, who had fixed his residence at Medina, in French Gambia, but the treaty of Versailles in 1783 assigned the trade in territory. Two travelling commissioners (Mr F. C. Sitwell and the river to Britain, reserving, however, Albreda for French trade, Mr Silva) were murdered in June of that year, at a place called while it assigned the Senegal to France, with the reservation of Suankandi, and a punitive expedition was sent out under the right of the British to trade at Portendic for gum. This Colonel H. E. Brake. Suankandi was captured and, the French arrangement remained in force till 1857, when an exchange of co-operating, Medina was also captured, Fodi Kabba being possessions was effected and the lower Gambia became a purely killed on the 23rd of March 1901. British river. In the period between the signing of the treaty of The people of the protectorate are in general peaceful and Versailles and 1885 the small territories which form the colony contented, and slave trading is a thing of the past. Provision proper were acquired by purchase or cession from native kings. was moreover made by an ordinance of 1906 for the extinction of St Mary's Isle was acquired in 1806; McCarthy's Isle was bought slavery itself throughout the protectorate, it being enacted that in 1823; the Ceded Mile was granted by the king of Barra in

1 Extract from a despatch of Lord Salisbury to the British 1826; and British Kommbo between 1840 and 1855. During I ambassador to France, dated 30th of March 1892.

that all slaves became free on the death of their master.

henceforth all children born of slaves were free from birth, and with the United States; for his exertions in which business he

was honoured with the Grand Cross of the Bath. In 1830 he was See the Annual Reports on the colony published by the colonial raised to the high rank of admiral of the fileet, and he died on the Lucas's Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol. iii, wesi 19th of April 1833. Africa (2nd ed., Oxford, 1960) (this book contains valuable biblio

Lord Gambier was a man of earnest, almost morbid, religious graphical notes); and The Gambia Colony and Protectorate, an principle, and of undoubted courage; but the administration of official handbook (with map and considerable historical information), the admiralty has seldom given rise to such flagrant scandals as by F. B. Archer, treasurer of the colony (London, 1906) Early during the time when he was a member of it; and through the New General Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1745-1747). whole war the self-esteem of the navy suffered no such wound as See also Major W. Gray and Surgeon Dochard, Travels in Western during Lord Gambier's command in the Bay of Biscay, Africa in 1818-1821, from the River Gambia ... to the River Niger The so-called Memorials, Personal and Historical, of Admiral (London, 1829), The flora has been the subject of a special study, Lord Gambier, by Lady. Chatterton (186!), has no historical value, A. Rançon, La Flore ulile du bassin dela Gambie (Bordeaux, 1895). Most The life of Lord Gambier is to be read in Marshall's Royal Naval of the books mentioned under Gold Coast also deal with the Gambia. Biography, in Ralse's Naval Biography, in Lord Dundonald's Auto

GAMBIER, JAMES GAMBIER, BARON (1756-1833), English biography of a Seaman, in the Minutes of the Courts-Martial and in admiral, was born on the 13th of October 1756 at the Bahamas, the general history of the period. of which his father, John Gambier , was at that time lieutenant- U.S.A., on the Kokosing river, 5 m. E. of Mount Vernon. Pop.

GAMBIER, a village of College township, Knox county, Ohio, governor. He entered the navy in 1767 as a midshipman on board the "Yarmouth,” under the command of his uncle; and, (1900) 751; (1910) 537. It is served by the Cleveland, Akron &

Columbus railway. The village is finely situated, and is the seat his family interest obtaining for him rapid promotion, he was raised in 1778 to the rank of post-captain, and appointed to the of Kenyon College and its theological seminary, Bexley Hall “ Raleigh," a fine 32-gun frigate. At the peace of 1783 he was

(Protestant Episcopal), and of Harcourt Place boarding school placed on balf-pay; but, on the outbreak of the war of the for girls (1889), also Protestant Episcopal. The college was inFrench Revolution, he was appointed to the command of the corporated in 1824 as the “ Theological Seminary of the Protes74-gun ship “ Defence,” under Lord Howe; and in her he had tant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Ohio"; but in 1891 an honourable share in the battle on the ist of June 1794. In

“Kenyon College," the name by which the institution has always recognition of his services on this occasion, Captain Gambier been known, became the official title. Its first exercises were held received the gold medal, and was made a colonel of marines; at Worthington, Ohio, in the home of Philander Chase (1775the following year he was advanced to the rank of rear-admiral, 1852), first Protestant Episcopal bishop in the North-west and appointed one of the lords of the admiralty. In this office he Territory, by whose cfforts the funds for its endowment had been continued for six years, till, in February 1801, he, a vice-admiral raised in England in 1823-1824, the chief donors being Lords of 1799, hoisted his flag on board the “ Neptune," of 98 guns, Kenyon and Gambier. The first permanent building, “ Old as ibird in command of the Channel Fleet under "Admiral Corn Kenyon” (still standing, and used as a dormitory), was erected wallis, where, however, he remained for but a year, when he was

on Gambier Hill in 1827 in the midst of a forest. In 1907-1908 appointed governor of Newfoundland and commander-in-chief the thcological seminary bad 18 students and the collegiate of the ships on that station. In May 1804 he returned to the department 119. admiralty, and with a short intermission in 1806, continued Chase's Reminiscences; an Autobiography. comprising a History of the

Some account of the sounding of the college may be found in Bishop there during the naval administration of Lord Melville, of his Principal Events in the Author's Life lo 1847 (2 vols., New York, 1848). uncle, Lord Barham, and of Lord Mulgrave. In November 1805 GAMBOGE (from Camboja, a name of the district whence it is he was raised to the rank of admiral; and in the summer of 1807, obtained), a gum-resin procured from Garcinia Honburii, a whilst still a lord of the admiralty, he was appointed to the dioecious tree with leathery, laurel-like leaves, small yellow command of the fleet ordered to the Baltic, which, in concert flowers, and usually square-shaped and four-seeded fruit, a with the army under Lord Cathcart, reduced Copenhagen, and member of the natural order Guttiferae, and indigenous to enforced the surrender of the Danish navy, consisting of nineteen Cambodia and parts of Siam and of the south of Cochin China, ships of the line, besides frigates, sloops, gunboats, and naval formerly comprised in Cambojan territory. The juice, which stores. This service was considered by the government as worthy when hardened constitutes gamboge, is contained in the bark of of special acknowledgment; the naval and military commanders, the tree, chiefly in numerous ducts in its middle layer, and from officers, seamen and soldiers received the thanks of both Houses this it is procured by making incisions, bamboo joints being of Parliament, and Admiral Gambier was rewarded with a peerage. placed to receive it as it exudes. Gamboge occurs in commerce

In the spring of the following year he gave up his seat at the in cylindrical pieces, known as pipe or roll gamboge, and also, admiralty on being appointed to the command of the Channel usually of inferior quality, in cakes or amorphous masses. It is Fleet; and in that capacity be witnessed the partial, and pre- of a dirty orange externally; is hard and brittle, breaks with a vented the total, destruction of the French fleet in Basque Roads, conchoidal and reddish-yellow, glistening fracture, and affords a on the 12th of April 1809. It is in connexion with this event, brilliant yellow powder; is odourless, and has a taste at first which might have been as memorable in the history of the British slight, but subsequently acrid; forms with water an emulsion; navy as it is in the life of Lord Dundonald (see DUNDONALD), and consists of from 20 to 25% of gum soluble in water, and from that Lord Gambier's name is now best known. A court-martial, 70 10 75% of a resin. Its commonest adulterants are rice flour assembled by order of a friendly admirally, and presided over and pulverized bark. by a warm partisan, “most honourably acquitted ” him on the Gamboge (Cambogia) is a drastic hydragogue cathartic, causcharge “tbat, on the 12th of April, the enemy's ships being then ing much griping and irritation of the intestine. A small on fire, and the signal having been made that they could be quantity is absorbed, adding a yellow ingredient to the urine destroyed. he did, for a considerable time, neglect or delay taking and acting as a mild diuretic. Its irritant action on the skin may effectual measures for destroying them "; but this decision was cause the formation of pustules. It is less active only than in reality nothing more than a party statement of the fact that a croton oil and elaterium, and may be given in doses of half to two commander-in-chief, a supporter of the government, is not to be grains, combined with some sedative such as hyoscyamus, in condemned or broken for not being a person of brilliant genius or apoplexy and in extreme cases of dropsy. Gamboge is used as a dauntless resolution. No one now doubts that the French fleet pigment, and as a colouring matter for varnishes. It appears to should have been reduced to ashes, and might have been, had have been first brought into Europe by merchants from the East Lord Gambier had the talents, the energy, or the experience of at the close of the 16th century. many of his juniors. He continued to hold the command of the GAMBRINUS, a mythical Flemish king who is credited with the Channel Flece for the full period of three years, at the end of which first brewing of beer. His name is usually derived from that of time-in 1811--he was superseded. In 1814 he acted in a civil Jan Primus, i.e. Jan (John) I., the victorious duke of Brabant, çapacity as chief commissioner for pegotiating a treaty of peace from 1261 to 1294, who was president of the Brussels gild of

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