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against forms of gambling introduced by the Chinese. Under these GANDAK, a river of northern India. It rises in the Nepal ordinances the money paid for a lottery ticket is recoverable by law. Himalayas, flows south-west until it reaches British territory, (No. 33) soon after the annexation. An invention known in France where it forms the boundary between the United Provinces and as the pari muluel, and in Australia as the totalizator, is allowed Bengal for a considerable portion of its course, and falls into the to be used on race-courses in most of the states (but not in New Ganges opposite Patna. It is a snow-led stream, and the Western Australia the state levies a duty on the takings of the surrounding country in the plains, lying at a lower level than its machine. In Tasmania the balance of the money retained by the banks, is endangered by its floods. The river is accordingly stewards of the course less the tax must be applied solely for improv- enclosed by protective embankments. ing the course or promoting horse-racing. In Victoria under an The LITTLE GANDAK rises in the Nepal hills, enters Gorakhpur act of 1901 the promoters of sports may by advertisement duly posted district about 8 m. west of the Gandak, and joins the Gogra just make betting on the ground illegal. Egypl.-By law No. 10 of 1905 all lotteries are prohibited with

within the Saran district of Bengal. certain exceptions, and it is made illegal to hawk the tickets or offer The BURHI (or old) GANDAK also rises in the Nepal hills, and them for sale or to bring illegal lotteries in any way to the notice follows a course roughly parallel to and cast of that of the Gandak, of the public. The authorized lotteries are those for charitable purposes, e.g. those of the benevolent societies of the various foreign joining the Ganges nearly opposite to Moughjr. Its principal

of which it represents an old channel, passing Muzaffarpur, and communities.

United States. In the United States many of the states make tributary is the Baghmati, which rises in the hills N.. of Kathgaming a penal offence when the bet is upon an election, or a horse mandu, flows in a southerly direction through Tirhut, and joins race, or a game of hazard. Betting contracts and securities given the Burhi Gandak close to Rusera. upon a bet are often made void, and this may destroy a gaming note in the hands of an innocent purchaser for value. The subject lies

GANDAMAK, a village of Afghanistan, 35 m. from Jalalabad outside of the province of the federal government. By the legislation on the road to Kabul. On the retreat from Kabul of General of some states the loser may recover his money if he sue within Elphinstone's army in 1842, a hill ncar Gandamak was the scene limited time, as he might have done in England under 9 Anne c. 19. AUTHORITIES. --Brandt on Games (1872); Oliphant, Law and forty-five British soldiers. It is also notable for the treaty of

of the massacre of the last survivors of the force, twenty officers change (1905); Melsheimer on the Stock Exchange (4th ed., 1905): Gandamak, which was signed here in 1879 with Yakub Khan. Coldridge and Hawksford, The Law of Gambling (1895); Stut field, (See AFGHANISTAN.) Belling (3rd ed., 1901).

(W. F. C.) GAMUT (from the Greek letter gamma, used as a musical | wick, in the deep valley of the Gande, 48 m. S.W. of Brunswick, on

LANDERSHEIM, a town of Germany in the duchy of Brunssymbol, and ut, the first syllable of the medieval hymn Sanctus the railway Böissum-Holzminden. Pop. (1905) 2847. It has two Johannes), a term in music used to mean generally the whole Protestant churches of which the convent church (Stiftskirche) compass or range of notes possessed by an instrument or voice. contains the tombs of famous abbesses, a palace (now used as law Historically, however, the sense has developed from its stricter courts) and the famous abbey (now occupied by provincial musical meaning of a scale (the recognized musical scale of any government offices). There are manufactures of linen, cigars, period), originating in the medieval “great scale," of which the beet-root sugar and beer. invention has usually been ascribed to Guido of Arezzo (9.v.) in

The abbey of Gandersheim was founded by Duke Ludolf of the 11th century. The whole question is somewhat obscure, but, Saxony, who removed here in 856 the nuns who had been in the evolution of musical notation out of the classical alpha- shortly before established at Brunshausen. His own daughter betical system, the invention of the medieval gamut is more Hathumoda was the first abbess, who was succeeded on her death properly assigned to Hucbald (d. 930). In his system of scales by her sister Gerberga. Under Gerberga's government Louis III. the semitone was always between the 2nd and 3rd of a tetrachord, granted a privilege, by which the office of abbess was to continue as G, A, 5B, C, so the B and # F of the second octave were in in the ducal family of Saxony as long as any member was found false relation to the bB and Fof the first two tetrachords. To competent and willing to accept the same. Otto III. gave the this scale of four notes, G, A, 5 B, C, were subsequently added a abbey a market, a right of toll and a mint; and after the bishop note below and a note above, which made the hexachord with with each other about its supervision, Pope Innocent III. declared

of Hildesheim and the archbishop of Mainz had long contested the semitone between the 3rd and 4th both up and down, as it altogether independent of both. The abbey was ultimately F, G, A, 5B, C, D. It was at a much later date that the 7th, our recognized as holding directly of the Empire, and the abbess had leading note, was admitted into a key, and for this the first two a vote in the imperial diet. The conventual estates were of great letters of the last line of the above-named hymn, “Sanctus extent, and among the feudatories who could be summoned to Johannes,” would have been used, save for the notion the court of the abbess were the elector of Hanover and the king that as the note Mi was at a semitone below Fa, the same vowel of Prussia. Protestantism wasintroduced in 1568, and Magdalena, should be heard at a semitone below the upper Ut, and the the last Roman Catholic abbess, died in 1589; but Protestant syllable Si was substituted for Sa. Long afterwards the syllable abbesses were appointed to the foundation, and continued to Ut was replaced by Do in Italy, but it is still retained in France; enjoy their imperial privileges till 1803, when Gandersheim and in these two countries, with whatever others employ their was incorporated with Brunswick. The last abbess, Augusta nomenclature, the original Ut and the substituted Do stand for Dorothea of Brunswick, was a princess of the ducal house, and the sound defined by the letter C in English and German termin-kept her rank till her death. The memory of Gandersheim will ology. The literal musical alphabet thus accords with the long be preserved by its literary memorials. Hroswitha, the A B с D E F G

famous Latin poet, was a member of the sisterhood in the oth syllabic:

In Germany
La, Si, Ut or Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol.

century; and the rhyming chronicle of Eberhard of Gandersheim a remnant of Greck use survives. · A was originally followed ranks as in all probability the earliest historical work composed in in the scale by the semitone above, as the classical Mesē was low German. followed by Paramcsē, and this note, namely bB, is still called The Chronicle, which contains an account of the first period of the B in German, English & B (French and Italian Si) being repre- monastery, is edited by L. Wieland in the Monumenta Germ. historica sented by the letter H. The gamut which, whenever instituted, (1877), and has been the object of a special study by Paul Hasse did not pass out of use until the 19th century, regarded the Gandershemensis primac," in J. &. von Eckhart's Veterum moau. hexachord and not the octachord, employed both letters and mentorum quaternio (Leipzig, 1720); and Hase, Mittelalterliche syllables, made the former invariable while changing the latter Baudenkmäler Niedersachsens (1870). according to key relationship, and acknowledged only the three GANDHARVA, in Hindu mythology, the term used to denote keys of G, C and F; it took its name from having the Greek (1) in the Rig Veda usually a minor deity; (2) in later writings letter gamma with Ut for its lowest keynote, though the Latin a class of divine beings. As a unity Gandharva has no special letters with the corresponding syllables were applied to all the attributes but many duties, and is in close relation with the great other notcs.

gods. Thus he is director of the sun's horses, he is guardian of

soma, the sacred liquor, and therefore is regarded as the heavenly receives the Jahnavi from the north-west, and subsequently the

During its passage through the southern spurs of the Himalayas it physician, soma being a panacea. He is servant of Agni the god Alaknanda, after which the united stream takes the name of the of light and of Varuna the divine judge. He is omnipresent: in Ganges. Deo Prayag, their point of junction, is a celebrated place the heavens, in the air and in the waters. He is the keeper of of pilgrimage, as is also Gangotri, the source of the parent stream. heaven's secrets and acts as messenger between gods and men. At Sukhi it pierces through the Himalayas, and turns south-west to He is gorgeously clothed and carries shining weapons. For wife Hardwar, also a place of great sanctity. It proceeds by a tortuous he has the spirit of the clouds and waters, Apsaras, and by her course through the districts of Dehra Dun, Saharanpur, Muzaffbecame father of the first mortals, Yama and Yami. He is the receives the Ramganga. Thus far the Ganges has been little more tutelary deity of women and presides over marriage ceremonies. than a series of broad shoals, long deep pools and rapids, except, of In their collective capacity the Gandharva share the duties course, during the melting of the snows and throughout the rainy allotted to the single deity. They live in the house of Indra and sister stream, which takes its rise also in the Himalayas to the west

At Allahabad, however, it receives the Jumna, a mighty with their wives, the Apsaras, beguile the time by singing, acting of the sources of the Ganges. The combined river winds eastwards and dancing. Sometimes they are represented as numbering by south-east through the United Provinces, receiving the Gumti twelve, sometimes twenty-seven, or they are innumerable. In and the Gogra. The point of junction with both the Gumti and the Hindu law a Gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual Gogra has more or less pretension to sanctity. But the tongue of

land at Allahabad, where the Jumna and the Ganges join, is the true consent and without formality.

Prayag, the place of pilgrimage, to which hundreds of thousands of GANDÍA, a seaport of eastern Spain, in the province of devout Hindus repair to wash away their sins in the sacred river. Valencia; on the Gandía-Alcóy and Alcira-Denia railways. It is here that the great festival called the Magh inela is held. Pop. (1900) 10,026. Gandía is on the left bank of the river Behar, and after receiving an important tributary, the Sone from Alcóy or Sérpis, which waters one of the richest and most populous the south, passes Patna, and obtains another accession to its volume plains of Valencia and enters the Mediterranean Sea at the small from the Gandak, which rises in Nepal. Farther to the east it harbour of Gandía (El Grab), 3 m. N.E. The chief ancient receives the Kusi, and then, skirting the Rajmahal hills, turns sharply buildings of Gandía

are the Gothic church, the college, founded by By this time it has approached to within 240 m., as the crow flies, San Francisco de Borgia, director-general of the order of Jesus from the sea. About 20 m. farther on it begins to branch out over (1510-1572), and the palace of the dukes of Gandía-a title held the level country, and this spot marks the commencement of the in the 15th and 16th centuries by members of the princely house delta, 220 m. in a straight line, or 300 by the windings of the river, of Borgia or Borja. A Jesuit convent, the theatre, schools and

from the Bay of Bengal. The main channel takes the name of the the palace of the dukes of Osuna, are modern.

Padma or Padda, and proceeds in a south-easterly direction, past Besides its manu

Pabna to Goalanda, above which it is joined by the Jamuna or factures of leather, silk, velvet and ribbons, Gandía has a thriving main stream

of the Brahmaputra. The vast confluence of waters export trade in fruit, and imports coal, guano, timber and flour. rushes towards the sca, receiving further additions from the hill In 1904; 400 vessels, of 200,000 tons, entered the harbour. country on the east, and forming a broad estuary known under the GANDO, a sultanate of British West Africa, included in the This estuary, however, is only the largest and most casterly of a great

name of the Meghna, which enters the Bay of Bengal ncar Noakhali. protectorate of Nigeria, situated on the left bank of the Niger number of mouths or channels. The most westerly is the Hugli

, above Borgu. The sultanate was established, c. 1819, on the death which receives the waters of a number of distributary channels that of Othman Dan Fodio, the founder of the Fula empire, and its start from the parent Ganges above Murshidabad. Between the area and importance varied considerably during the 19th century, upper angle of it consists of rich and fertile districts, such as Murshiseveral of the Fula emirates being regarded as tributaries, while dabad, Nadia, Jessore and the 24 Parganas. But towards its southern Gando itself was more or less dependent on Sokoto. Gando in base, resting on the sea, the country sinks into a series of great the middle of the century included both banks of the Niger swamps, intercepted by a network of innumerable channels. This at least as far N.W. as Say. The districts outside the British wild waste is known as the Sundarbans, from the sundari tree,

which grows in abundance in the seaboard tracts. protectorate now belong to France. Since 1884 Gando has been

The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the in treaty relations with the British, and in 1903 the part assigned Hugli, on which stands Calcutta, about 90 m. from the mouth. to the British sphere by agreement with France came definitely Beyond this city the navigation is conducted by native craft,-the under the control of the administration in Nigeria. Gando now

modern facilities for traffic by rail and the increasing shoals in the forms the sub-province of the double province of Sokoto. The which plied until about 1860 as high up as Allahabad.

river having put an end to the previous steamer communication, emir was appointed under British authority after the conquest of Calcutta important boat routes through the delta connect the Hugli Sokoto in 1903. Since that date the province has been organized with the eastern branches of the riyer, for both native craft and for administration on the same system as the rest of the protectorate of Northern Nigeria. Provincial and native courts of

The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities: Calcutta, Monghyr,

Patna, Benares and Allahabad all lie on its course below its junction justice have been established, roads have been opened, the slave with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are trade has been abolished, and the country assessed under the new on the Jumna, higher up; The catchment basin of the Ganges is scheme for taxation. British garrisons are stationed at Jegga bounded on the Ņ. by a length of about 700 m. of the Himalayan and Ambrusa. The chief town is Gando, situated on the Sokoto, range, on the S. by the Vindhya

mountains, and on the E. by the

ranges which separate Bengal from Burma. The vast river basin the first considerable affluent of the Niger from the cast, about thus enclosed embraces 432,480 sq. m. According to the latest 60 m. S.W. of the town of Sokoto.

calculations, the length of the main stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., GANESA, or GANESH, in Hindu mythology, the god of wisdom

or with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance into the and prudence, always represented with an elephant's head possibly sca, 20 m.; breadth of channel in dry season, 1 to 2 m.; depth in to indicate his sagacity. He is the son of Siva and Parvati. He is ordinary discharge, 207,000 cub. ft.; longest duration of flood, among the most popular of Indian deities, and almost every act, about 40 days. The average fall from Allahabad to Benares is 6 in. religious or social, in a Hindu's life begins with an invocation to per mile; from Benares to Calcutta, between 4 and 5 in.; from him, as do most books. He typifies not the wisdom of knowledge Calcutta to the sea, 1 to 2 in. Great changes take place from time

to time in the river-bed, which alter the face of the country. Exbut that worldly wisdom which results in financial success, and

tensive islands are thrown up, and attach themselves to the mainland, thus he is particularly the god of the Hindu shopkeeper. In his while the river deserts its old bed and seeks a new channel, it may be divine aspect Ganesa is ruler over the hosts of heaven, the spirits many miles off. Such changes are so rapid and on so vast a scale, and which come and go to do Indra's will.

the corroding power of the current on the bank so irresistible, that

in Lower Bengal it is considered perilous to build any structure of a GANGES (GANGA), a great river of northern India, formed by large or permanent character on its margin. Many decayed or ruined the drainage of the southern ranges of the Himalayas. This cities attest the changes in the river-bed in ancient times; and mighty stream, which in its lower course supplies the river within our own times the main channel which formerly passed system of Bengal, rises in the Garhwal state, and falls into the Rajmahal has turned away from it, and left the town high and dry,

7 m. from the bank. Bay of Bengal after a course of 1500 m. It issues, under the name

The Ganges is crossed by six railway bridges on its course as of the Bhagirathi, from an ice cave at the foot of a Himalayan far as Benares; and another, at Şara in Eastern Bengal, has been snow-bcd ncar Gangotri, 10,300 ft. above the level of the sea. sanctioned




groves of trees in the plains give to the scenery a greener appear. two principal systems of perennial irrigation in the United Provinces. The Ganges canal was opened by Lord Dalhousie in 1854, and

ance than is usually met with in the districts to the south. The irrigates 978,000 acres. The Lower Ganges canal, an extension of mountainous tract known as the Maliyas, or chain of the Eastern the original canal, has been in operation since 1878 and irrigates Ghats, has an average height of about 2000 ft.-its principal 830,000 acres. The two canals, together with the castern sumna, peaks being Singharaj (4976 st.), Mahendragiri (4923) and command the greater portion of the Doab lying between the Devagiri (4535). The hilly region forms the agency of Ganjam, Ganges and the Jumna, above Allahabad. Navigation in cither is insignificant.

(T. H. H.) with an area of 3483 sq. m. and a population (in 1901) of 321,114, GANGOTRI, a celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage, among mostly wild backward tribes, incapable of being governed under the Himalaya Mountains. It is situated in the native state of ordinary conditions and therefore ruled by an agent of the Garhwal in the United Provinces, on the Bhagirathi, the chief governor with special powers. The chief rivers are the Rushikulya, head-stream of the Ganges, which is here not above 15 or 20 yds. the Vamsadhara and the Languliya. The sea and river fisheries broad, with a moderate current, and not in general above 3 ft. afford a livelihood to a considerable section of the population. deep. The course of the river runs N. by E.; and on the bank The hilly region abounds in forests consisting principally of sal, near Gangotri there is a small temple about 20 ft. high, in which with satin-wood, ebony and sandal-wood in smaller quantities. are images representing Ganga, Bhagirathi and other figures of

Ganjam formed part of the ancient kingdom of Kalinga. Its mythology. It dates from the early part of the 18th century. carly history is involved in obscurity, and it was not till after the The bed of the river adjoining the temple is divided off by the Gajapati dynasty ascended the throne of Orissa that this tract Brahmans into three basins, where the pilgrims bathe. One of became even nominally a part of their dominions. Owing to the these portions is dedicated to Brahma, another to Vishnu and

nature of the country the rising Mahommedan power was long the third to Siva. The pilgrimage to Gangotri is considered kept at bay; and it was not till nearly a century after the first efficacious in washing away the sins of the devotce, and ensuring invasion of Orissa that a Mahommedan governor was sent 10 him eternal happiness in the world to come. The water taken govern the Chicacole Circars, which included the present district of from this sacred spot is exported by pilgrims to India and sold Ganjam. In 1753 Chicacole, with the Northern Circars, were made at a high price. The elevation of the temple above the sea is over to the French by Salabat Jang for the maintenance of his 10,319 ft.

French auxiliaries. In 1759 Masulipatam was taken by an GANGPUR, a tributary state of Orissa, Bengal, included until English force sent from Bengal, and the French were compelled to 1905 among the Chota Nagpur States. It is bounded N. by abandon Ganjam and their other factories in the north. In 1765 Ranchi district, E. by the Singhbhum district, S. by Sambalpur the Northern Circars (including Ganjam) were granted to the and Bamra, and w. by Raigarh in the Central Provinces. The English by imperial firman, and in August 1768 an English country is for the most part an undulating plain, broken by factory was founded at Ganjam, protected by a fort. The present detached ranges of hills, one of which, the Mahavira range, district of Ganjam was constituted in 1802. In the earlier years of possesses a very remarkable appearance, springing abruptly from British rule considerable difficulty was experienced in the administhe plain in an irregular wall of tilted and disrupted rock, with tration of the district; and on more than one occasion the retwo flanking peaks. The rivers are the Ib and the Brahmani, fractory large landholders had to be coerced by means of regular formed here by the union of the Sankh and the South Koel, both troops. In 1816 Ganjam was overrun by the Pindaris; and in navigable by canoes. The Ib was formerly famous on account of 1836 occurred the Gumsur campaign, when the British first came diamonds found in its bed, and its sands are still washed for gold. into contact with the aboriginal Kondhs, the suppression of whose One of the largest coalfields in India extends into the state, practice of human sacrifice was successfully accomplished. A and iron ore is also found. Jungle products-lac, silk cocoons, petty rising of a section of the Kondhs occurred in 1865, which catechu and resin, which are exported; wild animals-bisons, was, however, suppressed without the aid of regular troops. buffaloes, tigers, leopards, hyenas, wolves, jackals, wild dogs and In 1901 the pop. of the district was 2,010,256, showing an many sorts of deer. Area, 2492 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 238,896; increase of 20% in the decade. There are two systems of governestimated revenue, £16,000.

ment irrigation: (1) the Rushikulya project, and (2) the Ganjam GANGRENE (from Gr. várypalva, an eating sore, from minor rivers system. The principal crops are rice, other food Ypaívely, to gnaw), a synonym in medicine for mortification (q.v.), grains, pulse, oil seeds and a little sugar-cane and cotton. Salt is or a local death in the animal body due to interruption of the evaporated, as a government monopoly, along the coast. Sugar circulation by various causes.

is refined, according to German methods, at Aska, where rum also GANILH, CHARLES (1758–1836), French economist and is produced. A considerable trade is conducted at the ports of politician, was born at Allanche in Cantal on the 6th of January Gopalpur and Calingapatam, which are only open roadsteads. 1758. He was educated for the profession of law and practised | The district is traversed thrcughout by the East Coast railway as avocal. During the troubled period which culminated in the (Bengal-Nagpur system), which was opened from Calcutta to taking of the Bastille on the 14th of July 1789, he came pro

Madras in 1900.

There are colleges at Berhampore and Parlakiminently forward in public affairs, and was one of the seven medi. The headquarters station is Berhampore; the town of members of the permanent Committee of Public Safety which sat Ganjam occupied this position till 1815, when it was found at the hôtel de ville,

He was imprisoned during the Reign of unhealthy, and its importance has since declined. Terror, and was only released by the counter-revolution of the

GANNAL, JEAN NICOLAS (1791-1852), French chemist, was 9th Thermidor. During the first consulate he was called to the born at Sarre-Louis on the 28th of July 1791. In 1808 he entered tribunate, but was excluded in 1802. In 1815 he was clected the medical department of the French army, and witnessed the deputy for Cantal, and finally left the Chamber on its dissolution retreat from Moscow in 1812. After the downfall of the empire he in 1823. He died in 1836. Ganilh is best known as the most

worked at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris and subsequently at vigorous defender of the mercantile school in opposition to the the Faculty of Sciences as assistant to L. J. Thénard. His views of Adam Smith and the English economists.

contributions to technical chemistry included a method of His works, though interesting from the clcarness and precision refining borax, the introduction of elastic rollers formed of with which these peculiar opinions are presented, do not now possess gelatin and sugar for use in printing, and processes for manumuch value for the student of political economy. He wrotc Essai

The Institute politique sur le revenue des peuples de l'antiquité, du moyen âge, &c. facturing glue and gelatin, lint, white lead, &c. (1808); Des systèmes d'économie politique (1809); Théorie d'économie awarded him a Montyon prize in 1827 for his advocacy of politique (1815); Dictionnaire analytique de l'économie politique chlorine as a remedy in pulmonary phthisis, and again in 1835 for (1826).

his discovery of the efficacy of solutions of aluminium acetate and GANJAM, a district of British India, in the extreme north-east chloride for preserving anatomical preparations. In the latter of the Madras Presidency. It has an area of 8372 sq. m. Much part of his life he turned his attention to embalmment, his of the district is exceedingly mountainous and rocky, but is method depending on the injection of solutions of aluminium salts interspersed with open valleys and fertile plains. Pleasant I into the arteries. He died at Paris in January 1852. His son


FELIX, born in 1829, also devoted himself to the question of the Ireland, the Skellig Islands and the Stags of Broadhaven, and it lisposal of the dead, among his publications being Mort réelle et resorts besides to Lundy Island in the Bristol Channel-its only mort apparente (1868), Inhumation et cremation (1870), and Les English breeding-place. Farther to the northward its settleCimetières (1885), a work on the history and law of burial, of ments are Myggenaes, the most westerly of the Faeroes, and which only one volume appeared.

various small islands off the coast of Iceland, of which the GANNET (O.E. ganot) or SOLAN Goose,' the Pelecanus bassanus Vestmannaeyjar, the Reykjanes Fuglaskér and Grimsey are the of Linnaeus and the Sula bassana of modern ornithologists, a chief. On the western side of the Atlantic it appears to have but large sea-fowl long known as a numerous visitor, for the purpose five stations, one in the Bay of Fundy, and four rocks in the of breeding, to the Bass Rock at the entrance of the Firth of Gulf of St Lawrence. On all these seventeen places the bird

arrives about the end of March or in April and departs in autumn when its young are ready to fly; but even during the breedingseason many of the adults may be seen on their fishing excursions at a vast distance from their home, while at other times of the year their range is greater still, for they not only frequent the North Sea and the English Channel, but stray to the Baltic, and, in winter, extend their flight to the Madeiras, while the members of the species of American birth traverse the ocean from the shores of Greenland to the Gulf of Mexico.

Apparently as bulky as a goose, and with longer wings and tail, the gannet weighs considerably less. The plumage of the adult is white, tinged on the head and neck with buff, while the outer edge and principal quills of the wings are black, and some bare spaces round the eyes and on the throat reveal a dark blue skin. The first plumage of the young is of a deep brown above, but paler beneath, and each feather is tipped with a triangular white spot. The nest is a shallow depression, either on the ground itself or on a pile of turf, grass and seaweed--which last is often conveyed from a great distance. The single egg it contains has a white shell of the same chalky character as a cormorant's. The young are hatched blind and naked, bul the slate-coloured skin with which their body is covered is soon clothed with white down, replaced in due time by true feathers of the dark colour already mentioned. The mature plumage is believed not to be attained for some three years. Towards the end of summer the majority of gannets, both old and young, leave the neighbourhood of their breeding-place, and, betaking themselves to the open sea, follow the shoals of herrings and other fishes (the presence of which they are most useful in indicating to fishermen) to a great distance from land. Their prey is almost invariably captured by plunging upon it from a height, and a company of gannets fishing presents a curious and interesting spectacle. Flying in a line,

each bird, when it comes over the shoal, closes its wings and Gannet, or Solan Goose.

dashes perpendicularly into the waves, whence it emerges after a

few seconds, and, shaking the water from its feathers, mounts in a Forth, and to certain other islands off the coast of Britain, of wide curve, and orderly takes its place in the rear of the string, to which four are in Scottish waters-namely, Ailsa Craig, at the repeat is headlong plunge so soon as it again finds itself above its mouth of the Firth of Clyde; the group known collectively as prey.? St Kilda; Suleskerry, some 40 m. north-east of the Butt of Lewis; Structurally the gannet presents many points worthy of note, and the Stack and Skerry, about the same distance westward of such as its closed nostrils, its aborted tongue, and its toes alí Stromness. It appears also to have two stations off the coast of connected by a web-characters which it possesses in common

with most of the other members of the group of birds (Stegano* The phrase ganotes bæð (gannet's bath), a periphrasis for the sea, podes) to which it belongs. But more remarkable still is the took place A.D. 975, as pointed out by Prof. Cunningham, whose system of subcutaneous air-cells, some of large size, pervading learned treatise on this bird (Ibis, 1866, P. 1) nearly exhausts all almost the whole surface of the body, communicating with the that can be said of its history and habits. A few pages further on lungs, and capable of being inflated or emptied at the

will of the nected with our modern English gander, both words being modifica; writers-Montagu, Sir R. Owen (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1831, p. 90), (p. 13) this writer remarks: The name garnet is intimately con- bird. This peculiarity has attracted the attention of several tions of the ancient Britishgan as the modern German Gans,' which in its turn corresponds with and Macgillivray. the old High German Kans,' the Greek xúv, the Latin anser, and In the southern hemisphere the gannet is represented by two the Sanskrit 'hansa,' all of which possess the same signification, viz. nearly allied but somewhat smaller forms-one, Sula capensis, hal-sula, which are evidently all closely related, is not so obvious. I inhabiting the coast of South Africa, and the other, S. serrator, Martin (Voy. St Kilda] informs us that some imagine that the word the Australian seas. Both much resemble the northern bird, but solan comes from the Irish souler, corrupted and adapted to the ? The large number of gannets, and the vast quantity of fish they Scottish language, qui oculis irretortis e longinquo respiciat praedam. take, has been frequently

animadverted upon, but the computations The earlier writers in general derive the word from the Latín solea,in on this last point are perhaps fallacious. It seems to be certain that consequence of the bird's supposed habit of hatching its egg with its in former days fishes, and herrings in particular, were at least as foot; and in a note intercalated into Ray's description of the solan plentiful as now, if not more so, notwithstanding that gannets were goose in the edition of his Itineraries published by the Ray Society, more numerous. Those frequenting, the Bass were reckoned by and edited by Dr Lankester, we are told, though no authority for the Macgillivray at 20,000 in 1831, while in 1869 they were computed at statement is given, that 'the gannet, Sula alba, should be written 12,000, showing a decrease of two-bfths in 38 years. On Ailsa in solent goose, ie. a channel goose.'" Hereon an editorial note 1869 there were supposed to be as many as on the Bass, but their remarks that this last statement appears to have been a suggestion of number was estimated at 10,000 in 1877 (Report on the Herring Yarrell's, and that it seems at least as possible that the

Fisheries of Scotland, 1878, pp. xxv. and 171),-being a diminution of took its name from the bird.

one-sixth in eight years, or nearly twice as great as on the Bass.

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the former seems to have a permanently black tail, and the latter the Philosophie der Geschichte in Hegel's Werke, and contributed a tail the four middle feathers of which are blackish-brown with an admirable preface. white shafts.

See Revue des deux mondes (Dec. 1839). Apparently inseparable from the gannets generically are the

GÄNSBACHER, JOHANN BAPTIST (1778-1844), Austrian smaller birds well known to sailors as boobies, from the extra- musical composer, was born in 1778 at Sterzing in Tirol. His ordinary stupidity they commonly display. They differ, how- father, a schoolmaster and teacher of music, undertook his son's ever, in having no median stripe of bare skin down the front of carly education, which the boy continued under various masters the throat; they almost invariably breed upon trees and are

till 1802, when he became the pupil of the celebrated Abbé G. J. inhabitants of warmer climates. One of them, S. cyanops, when Vogler. To his connexion with this artist and with his fellowadult has much of the aspect of a gannet, but S. piscator is readily pupils, more perhaps than to his own merits, Gänsbacher's distinguishable by its red legs, and S. leucogaster by its upper permanent place in the history of music is due; for it was during plumage and neck of deep brown. These three are widely his second stay with Vogler, then (1810) living at Darmstadt, distributed within the tropics, and are in some places exceedingly that he became acquainted with Weber and Meyerbeer, and the abundant. The fourth, S. variegata, which seems to preserve close friendship which sprang up among the three young throughout its life the spotted suit characteristic of the immature musicians, and was dissolved by death only, has become celeS. bassana, has a much more limited range, being as yet only brated in the history of their art. But Gänsbacher was himself known from the coast of Peru, where it is one of the birds which by no means without merit. He creditably filled the responsible contribute to the formation of guano.

(A. N.)

and difficult post of director of the music at St Stephen's GANODONTA (so named from the presence of bands of enamel cathedral, Vienna, from 1823 till his death (July 13, 1844); and on the teeth), a group of specialized North American Lower and his compositions show high gifts and accomplishment. They Middle Eocene mammals of uncertain affinity. The group consist chiefly of church music, 17 masses, besides litanies, includes Hemiganus, Psittacotherium and Cororyctes from the motets, offertories, &c., being amongst the number. He also Puerco, Calamodon and Hemiganus from the Wasatch, and wrote several sonatas, a symphony, and one or two minor comStylinodon from the Bridger Eocene. With the exception of positions of a dramatic kind. Conoryctes, in which it is longer, the skull is short and suggests

GANTÉ, a cloth made from cotton or tow warp and jute west. affinity to the sloths, as does what little is known of the limb- It is largely used for bags for sugar and similar material, and has bones. The dentition, too, is of a type which might well be the appearance of a fine hessian cloth. considered ancestral to that of the Edentata. For instance, the GANYMEDE, in Greek mythology, son of Tros, king of molars when first developed have tritubercular summits, but Dardania, and Callirrhoë. He was the most beautiful of mortals, these soon become worn away, leaving tall columnar crowns,

and was carried off by the gods (in the later story by Zeus himself, with a subcircular surface of dentine exposed at the summit of or by Zeus in the form of an cagle) to Olympus to serve as cupeach. Moreover, while the earlier types have a comparatively bearer (Apollodorus iï. 12; Virgil, Aeneid, v. 254; Ovid, full series of teeth, all of which are rooted and invested with

Melam. x. 255). By way of compensation, Zeus presented his enamel, in the later forms the incisors are lost, the cheek-teeth father with a team of immortal horses (or a golden vine). never develop roots but grow continuously throughout life. Ganymede was afterwards regarded as the genius of the fountains These and other features induced Dr J. L. Wortman to regard of the Nile, the life-giving and fertilizing river, and identified by the Ganodonta as an ancestral suborder of Edentata; but this astronomers with the Aquarius of the zodiac. Thus the divinity view is not accepted by Prof. W. B. Scott. Teeth provision that distributed drink to the gods in heaven became the genius ally assigned to Calamodon have been obtained from the Lower who presided over the due supply of water on earth. When Tertiary deposits of Switzerland.

pederasty became common in Greece, an attempt was made to See J. L. Wortman, " The Ganodonta and their Relationship to justify it and invest it with dignity by referring to the rape of the the Edentata," Bull. Amer. Mus. vol. ix. P; 59 (1897); W. B. Scott, beautiful boy by Zeus; in Crete, where the love of boys was "Mammalia of the Santa Cruz Beds, Edentata," Rep. Princeton

reduced to a system, Minos, the primitive ruler and law-giver, Exped. Io Patagonia, vol. v. (1903-1904).

(R. L.*) GANS, EDUARD (1797-1839), German jurist, was born at

was said to have been the ravisher of Ganymede. Thus the name Berlin on the 22nd of March 1797, of prosperous Jewish parents.

which once denoted the good genius who bestowed the precious He studied law first at Berlin, then at Göttingen, and finally at gift of water upon man was adopted to this use in vulgar Latin

under the form Calamitus. Ganymede being carried off by the Heidelberg, where he attended Hegel's lectures, and became thoroughly imbued with the principles of the Hegelian philosophy. eagle was the subject of a bronze group by the Athenian sculptor In 1820, after taking his doctor's degree, he returned to Berlin | Leochares, imitated in a marble statuette in the Vatican. E. as lecturer on law. In 1825 he turned Christian, and the following Ganymede is the genius of intoxicating drink (uébv, mcad, for

Veckenstedt (Ganymedes, Libau, 1881) endeavours to prove that year was appointed extraordinary, and in 1828 ordinary: professor which he postulates a form usoos), whose original home was in the Berlin faculty of law. At this period the historical school of jurisprudence was coming to the front, and Gans, predisposed

Phrygia. owing to his Hegelian tendencies to treat law historically, applied in the article GREEK ART,. fig. 53 (Pl. I.) gives an illustration of

See article by P. Weizsäcker in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie. the method to one special branch-the right of succession. 'His Ganymede borne alost by an eagle. great work, Erbrecht in weltgeschichtlicher Entwicklung (1824, GAO, GAO-GAO, or Garo, a town of French West Africa, in the 1825, 1829 and 1835), is of permanent value, not only for its Upper Senegal and Niger colony, on the left bank of the Niger, extensive survey of facts, but for the admirable manner in which 400 m. by river below Timbuktu. Pop. about 5000. The the general theory of the slow evolution of legal principles is present town dates from the French occupation in 1900; of the presented. In 1830, and again in 1835, Gans visited Paris, and ancient city there are scanty ruins, the chief being a truncated formed an intimate acquaintance with the leaders of literary pyramid, the remains of the tomb (16th century) of Mahommed culture and criticism there. The liberality of his views, especially Askia, the Songhoi conqueror, and those of the great mosque. on political matters, drew upon Gans the displeasure of the According to tradition a city stood on this spot in very ancient Prussian government, and his course of lectures on the history of times and its inhabitants are said to have had intercourse with the last fifty years (published as Vorlesungen über d. Geschichte the Egyptians. It is known, how er, that the city of which the d. letzten fünfzig Jahre, Leipzig, 1833–1834) was prohibited. He French settlement is the successor was founded by the Songhoi, died at Berlin on the 5th of May 1839. In addition to the works probably in the 7th or 8th century, and became the capital of above mentioned, there may be noted the treatise on the funda- their empire. Garo (Ga-rho) appears to have been the correct mental laws of property (Über die Grundlage des Besitzes, Berlin, name of the Songhoi city, though it was also known as Gogo and 1829), a portion of a systematic work on the Roman civil law Kuku (Kaougha). In the 12th century Idrisi describes Kuku as (System des römischen Civil-Rechts, 1827), and a collection of his

There was another city called Kaoka or Gaoga cast of Lake miscellaneous writings (Vermischte Schriften, 1832). Gans edited.' Chad in the country now known as Bagirmi. It was the seat of the

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