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GARDINER, SAMUEL RAWSON (1829–1902), English | beauties, for it is marked by loftiness of thought, a love of purity historian, son of Rawson Boddam Gardiner, was born near and truth, and refinement in taste and feeling. He wrote other Alresford, Hants, on the 4th of March 1829. He was educated at books, mostly on the same period, but his great history is that by Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford, where he obtained a first which his name will live. It is a worthy result of a life of unreclass in lilerde humaniores. He was subsequently elected to mitting labour, a splendid monument of historical scholarship. fellowships at All Souls (1884) and Merton (1892). For some His position as an historian was formally acknowledged: in 1862 years he was professor of modern history at King's College, he was given a civil list pension of £150 per annum,“ in recogni. London, and devoted his life to historical work. He is the tion of his valuable contributions to the history of England "; historian of the Puritan revolution, and has written its history in he was honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, LL.D. of Edinburgh, and a series of volumes, originally published under different titles, Ph.D. of Göttingen, and honorary student of Christ Church, beginning with the accession of James I.; the seventeenth (the Oxford; and in 1894 he declined the appointment of regius third volume of the History of the Commonwealth and Protectorale) professor of modern history at Oxford, lest its duties should appeared in 1901. This was completed in two volumes by C. H. interfere with the accomplishment of his history. He died on Firth as The Last Years of the Proteclorate (1909). The series is the 24th of February 1902. History of England from the Accession of James 1. to the Outbreak Among the more noteworthy of Gardiner's separate works are: of the Civil War, 1003-1042 (10 vols.); History of the Great Civil
Prince Charles and the Spanish Marriage (2 vols., London, 1869); Wor, 1642-1649 (4 vols.); and History of the Commonwealth and ed., Oxford, 1889; 2nd ed., Oxford, 1899); Oliver Cromwell (London,
Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1625-1660 (1st Protectorale, 1649-1660. His treatment is exhaustive and 1901); What Gunpowder' Plot was (London, 1897): Outline of philosophical, taking in, along with political and constitutional English History (1st ed., London, 1887; 2nd ed., London, 1896); history, the changes in religion, thought and sentiment during his and Student's History of England (2 vols., 1st ed., London, 1890period, their causes and their tendencies. Of the original papers for the 'Camden Society; and from 1891 was editor of the
1891; 2nd ed., London, 1891-1892). He edited collections of authorities on which his work is founded many of great value English Historical Review.
(W. Hu.) exist only in manuscript, and his researches in public and GARDINER, STEPHEN (c. 1493-1555), English bishop and private collections of manuscripts at home, and in the archives lord chancellor, was a native of Bury St Edmunds. The date of of Simancas, Venice, Rome, Brussels and Paris, were inde his birth as commonly given, 1483, seems to be about ten years fatigable and fruitful. His accuracy is universally acknowledged. too early, and surmises which have passed current that he was He was perhaps drawn to the Puritan period by the fact of his some one's illegitimate child are of no authority. His father is descent from Cromwell and Ireton, but he has certainly written of now known to have been John Gardiner, a substantial cloth it with no other purpose than to set forth the truth. In his merchant of the town where he was born (see his will, printed in judgments of men and their actions he is unbiassed, and his Proceedings of the Suffolk Archaeological Institute, 1. 329), who appreciations of character exhibit a remarkable fineness of took care to give him a good education. In 1511 he, being then perception and a broad sympathy. Among many proofs of these a lad, met Erasmus at Paris (Nichols's Epistles of Erasmus, qualities it will be enough to refer to what he says of the characters ii. 12, 13). But he had probably already been to Cambridge, of James I., Bacon, Laud, Strafford and Cromwell. On consti- where he studied at Trinity Hall and greatly distinguished himtutional matters he writes with an insight to be attained only by self in the classics, especially in Greek. He afterwards devoted the study of political philosophy, discussing in a masterly himself to the canon and civil law, in which subjects he attained fashion the dreams of idealists and the schemes of government so great a proficiency that no one could dispute his pre-eminence. proposed by statesmen. Throughout his work he gives a promi- He received the degree of doctor of civil law in 1520, and of canon nent place to everything which illustrates human progress in law in the following year. moral and religious, as well as political conceptions, and specially Ere long his abilities attracted the notice of Cardinal Wolsey, to the rise and development of the idea of religious toleration, who made him
his secretary, and in this capacity he is said to have finding his authorities not only in the words and actions of men of been with him at More Park in Hertfordshire, when the conclusion mark, but in the writings of more or less obscure pamphleteers, of the celebrated treaty of the More brought Henry VIII. and whose essays indicate currents in the tide of public opinion. the French ambassadors thither. It is stated, and with great His record of the relations between England and other states probability, that this was the occasion on which he was first proves his thorough knowledge of contemporary European introduced to the king's notice, but he does not appear to have history, and is rendered specially valuable by his researches been actively engaged in Henry's service till three years later. In among manuscript sources which have enabled him to expound that of Wolsey be undoubtedly acquired a very intimate knowfor the first time some intricate pieces of diplomacy.
ledge of forcign politics, and in 1527 he and Sir Thomas More Gardiner's work is long and minute; the fifty-seven years were named commissioners on the part of England in arranging which it covers are a period of exceptional importance in many a treaty with the French ambassadors for the support of an army directions, and the actions and characters of the principal persons in Italy against the emperor. That year he accompanied Wolsey in it demand careful analysis. He is perhaps apt to attach an on his important diplomatic mission to France, the splendour and exaggerated importance to some of the authorities which he was magnificence of which are so graphically described by Cavendish. the first to bring to light, to see a general tendency in what may Among the imposing train who went with the cardinal-including, only be the expression of an individual eccentricity, to rely 100 as it did, several noblemen and privy councillors-Gardiner much on ambassadors' reports which may have been written for alone seems to have been acquainted with the real heart of the some special end, to enter too fully into the details of diplomatic matter which made this embassy a thing of such peculiar moment. correspondence. In any case the length of his work is not the Henry was then particularly anxious to cement his alliance with result of verbiage or repetitions. His style is clear, absolutely Francis I., and gain his co-operation as far as possible in the unadorned, and somewhat lacking in force; he appeals con-object on which he had secretly set his heart-a divorce from stantly to the intellect rather than to the emotions, and is seldom Catherine of Aragon. In the course of his progress through picturesque, though in describing a few famous scenes, such as the France he received orders from Henry to send back his secretary execution of Charles I., he writes with pathos and dignity. The Gardiner, or, as he was called at court, Master Stevens, for fresh minuteness of his narrative detracts from its interest; though instructions; to which he was obliged to reply that he positively his arrangement is generally good, here and there the reader could not spare him as he was the only instrument he had in finds the thread of a subject broken by the intrusion of incidents advancing the king's “secret matter.” Next year Gardiner, still not immediately connected with it, and does not pick it up again in the service of Wolsey, was sent by him to Italy along with without an effort. And Gardiner has the defects of his supreme Edward Fox, provost of King's College, Cambridge, to promote qualities, of his fairness and critical ability as a judge of character; the same business with the pope. His despatches on this occasion his work lacks enthusiasm, and leaves the reader cold and un- are still extant, and whatever we may think of the cause on which moved. Yet, apart from its sterling excellence, it is not without I he was engaged, they certainly give a wonderful impression of the zeal and ability with which he discharged his functions. Here his | Francis I. took place in September, of which event Henry perfect familiarity with the canon law gave him a great advantage. stood in great suspicion, as Francis was ostensibly his most He was instructed to procure from the pope a decretal com- cordial ally, and had hitherto maintained the justice of his cause mission, laying down principles of law by which Wolsey and in the matter of the divorce. It was at this interview that Bonner Campeggio might hear and determine the cause without appeal. intimated the appeal of Henry VIII. to a general council in case The demand, though supported by plausible pretexts, was not the pope should venture to proceed to sentence against him. only unusual but clearly inadmissible. Clement VII. was then at This appeal, and also one on behalf of Cranmer presented with it, Orvieto, and had just recently escaped from captivity at St were of Gardiner's drawing up. In 1535 he and other bishops Angelo at the hands of the imperialists. But fear of offending were called upon to vindicate the king's new title of "Supreme The emperor could not have induced him to refuse a really Head of the Church of England.” The result was his celebrated legitimate request from a king like Henry. He naturally referred treatise De vera obedientia, the ablest, certainly, of all the the question to the cardinals about him; with whom Gardiner vindications of royal supremacy. In the same year he had an held long arguments, enforced, it would seem, by not a little unpleasant dispute with Cranmer about the visitation of his browbeating of the College. What was to be thought, he said, of diocese. He was also employed to answer the pope's brief a spiritual guide, who either could not or would not show the threatening to deprive Henry of his kingdom. wanderer his way? The king and lords of England would be During the next few years he was engaged in various embassies driven to think that God had taken away from the Holy See the in France and Germany. He was indeed so much abroad that key of knowledge, and that pontifical laws which were not clear he had little influence upon the king's councils. But in 1539 he to the pope himself might as well be committed to the flames. took part in the enactment of the severe statute of the Six Articles,
This ingenious pleading, however, did not serve, and he was which led to the resignation of Bishops Latimer and Shaxton and obliged to be content with a general commission for Campeggio the persecution of the Protestant party. In 1540, on the death of and Wolsey to try the cause in England. This, as Wolsey saw, Cromwell
, carl of Essex, he was elected chancellor of the university was quite inadequate for the purpose in view; and he again of Cambridge. A few years later he attempted, in concert with instructed Gardiner, while thanking the pope for the commission others, to fasten a charge of heresy upon Archbishop Cranmer in actually granted, to press him once more by very urgent pleas, connexion with the Act of the Six Articles; and but for the to send the desired decretal on, even if the latter was only to be personal intervention of the king he would probably have shown to the king and himself and then destroyed. Otherwise, succeeded. He was, in fact, though he had supported the royal he wrote, he would lose his credit with the king, who might even supremacy, a thorough opponent of the Reformation in a be tempted to throw off his allegiance to Rome altogether. At doctrinal point of view, and it was suspected that he even last the pope to his own bitter regret afterwards--gave what repented his advocacy of the royal supremacy. He certainly 'was desired on the express conditions named, that Campeggio had not approved of Henry's general treatment of the church, was to show it to the king and Wolsey and no one else, and then especially during the ascendancy of Cromwell, and he was destroy it, the two legates holding their court under the general frequently visited with storms of royal indignation, which he commission. After obtaining this Gardiner returned home; schooled himself to bear with patience. In 1544 a relation of but early in the following year, 1529, when proceedings were his own, named German Gardiner, whom he employed as his delayed on information of the brief in Spain, he was sent once secretary, was put to death for treason in reference to the king's more to Rome.
This time, however, his efforts were unavailing. supremacy, and his enemies insinuated to the king that he The pope would make no further concessions, and would not himself was of his secretary's way of thinking. But in truth the even promise not to revoke the cause to Rome, as he did very king had need of him quite as much as he had of Cranmer; for it shortly after.
was Gardiner, who even under royal supremacy, was anxious Gardiner's services, however, were fully appreciated. He was to prove that England had not fallen away from the faith, appointed the king's secretary. He had been already some years while Cranmer's authority as primate was necessary to upholding archdeacon of Taunton, and the archdeaconry of Norfolk was that supremacy. Thus Gardiner and the archbishop maintained added to it in March 1529, which two years later he resigned for opposite sides of the king's church policy; and though Gardiner That of Leicester. In 1530 he was sent to Cambridge to procure was encouraged by the king to put up articles against the archthe decision of the university as to the unlawfulness of marriage bishop bimself for heresy, the archbishop could always rely on the with a deceased brother's wife, in accordance with the new plan king's protection in the end. Heresy was gaining ground in high devised for settling the question without the pope s intervention. places, especially after the king's marriage with Catherine Parr; In this he succeeded, though not without a good deal of artifice, and there seems to be some truth in the story that the queen more creditable to his ingenuity than to his virtue. In November herself was nearly committed for it at one time, when Gardiner, 1531 the king rewarded him for his services with the bishopric with the king's approbation, censured some of her expressions of Winchester, vacant by Wolsey's death. The promotion was in conversation. In fact, just after her marriage, four men unexpected, and was accompanied by expressions from the king of the Court were condemned at Windsor and three of them which made it still more honourable, as showing that if he had were burned. The fourth, who was the musician Marbeck, was been in some things too subservient, it was from no abject, self- | pardoned by Gardiner's procurement. seeking policy of his own. Gardiner had, in fact, ere this remon- Great as Gardiner's influence had been with Henry VIII., his strated boldly with his sovereign on some points, and Henry name was omitted at the last in the king's will, though Henry now reminded him of the fact. “ I have often squared with you, was believed to have intended making him one of his executors. Gardiner," he said familiarly, “but I love you never the worse, Under Edward VI. he was completely opposed to the policy of the as the bishopric I give will convince you." In 1532, nevertheless, dominant party both in ecclesiastical and in civil matters. The he excited some displeasure in the king by the part he took in the religious changes he objected to both on principle and on the preparation of the famous “ Answer of the Ordinaries” to the ground of their being moved during the king's minority, and complaints brought against them in the House of Commons. he resisted Cranmer's project of a general visitation. His reOn this subject he wrote a very manly letter to the king in his own monstrances, however, were met by his own committal to the defence.
Fleet, and the visitation of his diocese was held during his His next important action was not so creditable; for he was, imprisonment. Though soon afterwards released, it was not long not exactly, as is often said, one of Cranmer's assessors, but, before he was called before the council, and, refusing to give according to Cranmer's own expression, “ assistant ” to him as them satisfaction on some points, was thrown into the Tower, counsel for the king, when the archbishop, in the absence of where he continued during the whole remainder of the reign, a Queen Catherine, pronounced her marriage with Henry null and period slightly over five years. During this time he in vain void on the 23rd of May 1533. Immediately afterwards he was demanded his liberty, and to be called before parliament as a peer sent over to Marseilles, where an interview between the pope and I of the realm. His bishopric was taken from him and given to Dr Poynet, a chaplain of Cranmer's who had not long before been learning even in divinity was far from commonplace. The part made bishop of Rochester. At the accession of Queen Mary, the that he was allowed to take in the drawing up of doctrinal duke of Norfolk and other state prisoners of high rank were in the formularies in Henry VIII.'s time is not clear; but at a later Tower along with him; but the queen, on her first entry into date he was the author of various tracts in desence of the Real London, set them all at liberty. Gardiner was restored to his Presence against Cranmer, some of which, being written in prison, bishopric and appointed lord chancellor, and he set the crown on were published abroad under a feigned name. Controversial the queen's head at her coronation. He also opened her first writings also passed between him and Bucer, with whom he had parliament and for some time was her leading councillor.
several interviews in Germany, when he was there as Henry He was now called upon, in advanced life, to undo not a little of VIII.'s ambassador. the work in which he had been instrumental in his earlier years- He was a friend of learning in every form, and took great to vindicate the legitimacy of the queen's birth and the lawfulness interest especially in promoting the study of Greek at Cambridge, of her mother's marriage, to restore the old religion, and to He was, however, opposed to the new method of pronouncing recant what he himself had written touching the royal supremacy. the language introduced by Sir John Cheke, and wrote letters to It is said that he wrote a formal Palinodia or retractation of his him and Sir Thomas Smith upon the subject, in which, according book De vera obedientia, but it does not seem to be now extant; to Ascham, his opponents showed themselves the better critics, and the reference is probably to his sermon on Advent Sunday but he the superior genius. In his own household he loved to 1554, after Cardinal Pole had absolved the kingdom from schism. take in young university men of promise; and many whom he As chancellor he had the onerous task of negotiating the queen's thus encouraged became distinguished in after life as bishops, marriage treaty with Philip, to which he shared the general ambassadors and secretaries of state. His house, indeed, was repugnance, though he could not oppose her will. In executing it, spoken of by Leland as the seat of eloquence and the special however, he took care to make the terms as advantageous for abode of the muses. England as possible, with express provision that the Spaniards He lies buried in his own cathedral at Winchester, where his should in nowise be allowed to interfere in the government of the effigy is still to be seen.
U. GA.) country. After the coming of Cardinal Pole, and the reconcilia- GARDINER, a city of Kennebec county, Maine, U.S.A., at the tion of the realm to the see of Rome, he still remained in high confluence of Cobbosseecontee river with the Kennebec, 6 m. favour. How far he was responsible for the persecutions which below Augusta. Pop. (1890) 5491; (1900) 5501 (537 foreignafterwards arose is, a debated question. He no doubt approved born); (1910) 5311. It is served by the Maine Central railway. of the act, which passed the House of Lords while he presided | The site of the city is only a few feet above sea-level, and the there as chancellor, for the revival of the heresy laws. Neither Kennebec is navigable for large vessels to this point; the water is there any doubt that he sat in judgment on Bishop Hooper, of the Cobbosscecontee, falling about 130 ft. in a mile, furnishes and on several other preachers whom he condemned, not exactly the city with good power for its manufactures (chiefly paper, to the flames, but to be degraded from the priesthood. The machine-shop products, and shoes). The city exports considerable natural consequence of this, indeed, was that when they declined, quantities of lumber and ice. Gardiner was founded in 1760 by even as laymen, to be reconciled to the Church, they were Dr Sylvester Gardiner (1707-1786), and for a time the settlement handed over to the secular power to be burned. Gardiner, was called Gardinerston; in 1779, when it was incorporated as a however, undoubtedly did his best to persuade them to save town, the founder being then a Tory, it was renamed Pittston. themselves by a course which he conscientiously followed himself; But in 1803, when that part of Pittston which lay on the W. nor does it appear that, when placed on a commission along with bank of the Kennebec was incorporated as a separate town and a number of other bishops to administer a severe law, he could new life was given to it by the grandson of the founder, the present very well have acted otherwise than he did. In his own diocese name was adopted. Gardiner was chartered as a city in 1849. no victim of the persecution is known to have suffered till after The town of Pittston, on the E. bank of the Kennebec, had a his death; and, much as he was already maligned by opponents, population of 1177 in 1900. there are strong evidences that his natural disposition was humane GARDNER, PERCY (1846– ), English classical archaeoand generous. In May 1553 he went over to Calais as one of the logist, was born in London, and was educated at the City English commissioners to promote peace with France; but their of London school and Christ's College, Cambridge (fellow, 1872). efforts were ineffectual. In October 1555 he again opened parlia- He was Disney professor of archaeology at Cambridge from 1880 ment as lord chancellor, but towards the end of the month he to 1887, and was then appointed professor of classical archaeo. fell ill and grew rapidly worse till the 12th of November, when logy at Oxford, where he had a stimulating influence on the study he died over sixty years of age.
of ancient, and particularly Greek, art. He also became promiPerhaps no celebrated character of that age has been the nent as an historical critic on Biblical subjects. Among his works subject of so much ill merited abuse at the hands of popular are: Types of Greek Coins (1883): A Numismatic Commenlary historians. That his virtue was not equal to every trial must be on Pausanias (with F. Imhoof-Blumer, 1887); New Chaplers in admitted, but that he was anything like the morose and narrow- Greek History (1892), an account of excavations in Greece and minded bigot. he is commonly represented there is nothing Aisa Minor; Manual of Greek Antiquities (with F. B. Jevons, whatever to show. He has been called ambitious, turbulent, 2nd ed. 1898); Grammar of Greek Art (1905); Exploratio crafty, abject, vindictive, bloodthirsty and a good many other Evangelica (1899), on the origin of Christian belief; A Historic things besides, not quite in keeping with each other; in addition View of the New Testament (1901); Growth of Christianity (1907). to which it is roundly asserted by Bishop Burnet that he was His brother, ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER (1862– ), educated despised alike by Henry and by Mary, both of whom made use of at the City of London school and Caius College, Cambridge him as a tool. How such a mean and abject character submitted (fellow, 1885), is also well known as an archaeologist. From to remain five years in prison rather than change his principles is 1887 to 1895 he was director of the British School of Archaeology not very clearly explained; and as to his being despised, we have at Athens, and later became professor of archaeology at University seen already that neither Henry nor Mary considered him by any College, London. His publications include: Introduction 10 means despicable. The truth is, there is not a single divine or Greek Epigraphy (1887); Ancient Athens (1902); Handbook of statesman of that day whose course throughout was so thoroughly | Greek Sculpture (1905); Six Greek Sculptors (1910). He was consistent. He was no friend to the Reformation, it is true, but elected first Public Orator of London University in 1910. he was at least a conscientious opponent. In doctrine he adhered GARDNER, a township of Worcester county, Massachusetts, to the old faith from first to last, while as a question of church U.S.A. Pop. (1890) 8424; (1900) 10,813, of whom 3449 were policy, the only matter for consideration with him was whether foreign-born; (1910 census) 14,699. The township is traversed the new laws and ordinances were constitutionally justifiable. by the Boston & Maine railway. It has an area of 21.4 sq. m. of
His merits as a theologian it is unnecessary to discuss; it is as bill country, well watered with streams and ponds, and includes a statesman and a lawyer that he stands conspicuous. But his I the villages of Gardner (15 m. by rail W. of Fitchburg), South Gardner and West Gardner. In the township are the state, which, though the bird was just about twice the linear dimensions colony for the insane, the Henry Heywood memorial hospital, of the razor-bill, were almost exactly of the same size as in that and the Levi Heywood memorial library (opened in 1886), a species--proving, if more direct evidence were wanting, its memorial to Levi Heywood (1800-1882), a prominent local inability to fly. manufacturer of chairs, who invented various kinds of chair- The most prevalent misconception concerning the gare-fowl is making machinery. By far the principal industry of the township one which has been repeated so often, and in books of such (dating from 1805) is the manufacture of chairs, the township generally good repute and wide dispersal, that a successful having in 1905 the largest chair factory in the world; among the refutation seems almost hopeless. This is the notion that it was other manufactures are toys, baby-carriages, silver-ware and a bird possessing a very high northern range, and consequently oil stoves. In 1905 the total factory product of the township to be looked for by Arctic explorers. How this error arose would was valued at $5,019,019, the furniture product alone amounting take too long to tell, but the fact remains indisputable that, to $4,267,064, or 85.2% of the total. Gardner, formed from setting aside general assertions resting on no evidence worthy of parts of Ashburnham, Templeton, Westminster and Winchenden, attention, there is but a single record deserving any credit at all was incorporated in 1785, and was named in honour of Col. of a single example of the species having been observed within the Thomas Gardner (1724-1775), a patriot leader of Massachusetts, Arctic Circle, and this, according to Prof. Reinhardt, who had the who was mortally wounded in the battle of Bunker Hill.
best means of ascertaining the truth, is open to grave doubt.? It See W. D. Herrick, History of the Town of Gardner (Gardner, is clear that the older ornithologists let their imagination get the 1878), covering the years 1785-1878.
better of their knowledge or their judgment; and their statements GARE-POWL' (Icelandic, Geirfugl; Gaelic, Gearbhul), the have been blindly repeated by most of their successors. Another anglicized form of the Hebridean name of a large sea-bird now considered extinct, formerly a visitor to certain remote Scottish error which, if not so widely spread, is at least as serious, since islands, the Great' Auk of most English book-writers, and the Sir R. Owen unhappily gave it countenance, is that this bird
“has not been specially hunted down like the dodo and dinornis, but by degrees has become more scarce." If any reliance can be placed upon the testimony of former observers, the first part of this statement is absolutely untrue. Of the dodo all we know is that it flourished in Mauritius, its only abode, at the time the island was discovered, and that some 200 years later it had ceased to exist-the mode of its extinction being open to conjecture, and a strong suspicion existing that though indirectly due to man's acts it was accomplished by his thoughtless agents (Phil. Trans., 1869, p. 354). The extinction of the Dinornis lies beyond the range of recorded bistory. Supposing it even to have taken place at the very latest period as yet suggested-and there is much to be urged in favour of such a supposition-little but oral tradition remains to tell us how its extirpation was effected. That it existed after New Zealand was inhabited by man is indeed certain, and there is nothing extraordinary in the proved fact that the early settlers (of whatever race they were) killed and ate moas. But evidence that the whole population of those birds was done to death by man, however likely it may seem, is wholly wanting. The contrary is the case with the gare-fowl. In Iceland there is the testimony of a score of witnesses, taken down from their lips by one of the most careful naturalists who ever lived, John Wolley, that the latest survivors of the species were caught and killed by expeditions expressly organized with the view of supplying the demands of caterers to the various museums of Europe. In like manner the fact is incontestable that its breeding-stations in the western part of the Atlantic were for three centuries regularly visited and devastated with the combined
objects of furnishing food or bait to the fishermen from very early Gare-Fowl, or Great Auk.
days, and its final extinction, according to Sir Richard Bonny
castle (Newfoundland in 1842, i. p. 232), was owing to “the ruthAlca impennis of Linnaeus. In size it was hardly less than a tame less trade in its eggs and skin." There is no doubt that one of the goose, and in appearance it much resembled its smaller and chief stations of this species in Icelandic waters disappeared surviving relative the razor-bill (Alca torda); but the glossy through volcanic action, and that the destruction of the old black of its head was varied by a large patch of white occupying Geirfuglaskér drove some at least of the birds which frequented it nearly all the space between the eye and the bill, in place of the to a rock nearer the mainland, where they were exposed to danger razor-bill's thin white line, while the bill itself bore eight or more from which they had in their former abode been comparatively deep transverse grooves instead of the smaller number and the free; yet on this rock (Eldey=fire-island) they were specially ivory-like mark possessed by the species last named. Otherwise hunted down ” whenever opportunity offered, until the stock the coloration was similar in both, and there is satisfactory there was wholly extirpated in 1844. evidence that the gare-fowl's winter-plumage differed from that
A third misapprehension is that entertained by John Gould of the breeding-season just as is ordinarily the case in other in his Birds of Greal Britain, where he says that “ formerly this members of the family Alcidae to which it belongs. The most bird was plentiful in all the northern parts of the British Islands, striking characteristic of the gare-fowl, however, was the comparticularly the Orkneys and the Hebrides. At the commenceparatively abortive condition of its wings, the distal portions of ment of the 19th century, however, its fate appears to have been
* The name first appears, and in this form, in the Account of Hirta sealed; for though it doubtless existed, and probably bred, up to (St Kilda) and Rona, &c., by the lord register, Sir George M.Kenzie, the year 1830, its numbers annually diminished until they became of Tarbat, printed by Pinkerton in his Collection of Voyages and Travels (iii. p. 730), and then in Sibbald's Scolia illustrata (1684).
so few that the species could not hold its own.” Now of the Martin soon after, in his Voyage to St Kilda, spelt it "Gairlowl." 2 The specimen is in the Museum of Copenhagen; the doubt lies as Sir R. Owen adopted the form " garsowl," without, as would seem, to the locality where it was obtained, whether at Disco, which is any precedent authority.
within, or at the Fiskernäs, which is without, the Arctic Circle.
Orkneys, we know that George Low, who died in 1795, says in his of such labour as fell to the lot of every farmer's son in the new posthumously-published Fauna Orcadcnsis that he could not find states, and in the acquisition of such education as could be bad it was ever seen there; and on Bullock's visit in 1812 he was told, in the district schools held for a few weeks each winter. But life says Montagu (Orn. Dict. App.), that one male only had made its on a farm was not to his liking, and at sixteen he left home and appearance for a long time. This bird he saw and unsuccessfully set off to make a living in some other way. A book of stories hunted, but it was killed soon after his departure, while its mate of adventure on the sea, which be read over and over again when had been killed just before his arrival, and none have been seen a boy, had filled him with a longing for a seafaring life. He there since. As to the Hebrides, St Kilda is the only locality decided, therefore, to become a sailor, and, in 1848, tramping recorded for it, and the last example known to have been obtained across the country to Cleveland, Ohio, he sought employment there, or in its neighbourhood, was that given to Fleming (Edinb. from the captain of a lake schooner. But the captain drove him Phil. Journ. X. p. 96) in 1821 or 1822, having been some time from the deck, and, wandering on in search of work, he fell in before captured by Mr Maclellan of Glass. That the gare-fowl with a canal boatman who engaged him. During some months was not plentiful in either group of islands is sufficiently obvious, young Garfield served as bowsman, deck-hand and driver of a as also is the impossibility of its continuing to breed " up to the canal boat. An attack of the ague sent him home, and on year 1830."
recovery, having resolved to attend a high school and fit himself But mistakes like these are not confined to British authors. to become a teacher, he passed the next four years in a bard As on the death of an ancient bero myths gathered round his struggle with poverty and in an earnest effort to secure an educa. memory as quickly as clouds round the setting sun, so have stories, tion, studying for a short time in the Geauga Seminary at Chester, probable as well as impossible, accumulated over the true history of Ohio. He worked as a teacher, a carpenter and a farmer; this species, and it behoves the conscientious naturalist to exercise studied for a time at the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute more than common caution in sisting the truth from the large at Hiram, Ohio, which afterward became Hiram College, and mass of error. Americans have asserted that the specimen which finally entered Williams College. On graduation, in 1856, belonged to Audubon (now at Vassar College) was obtained by Garfield became professor of ancient languages and literature him on the banks of Newfoundland, though there is Macgillivray's in the Eclectic Institute at Hiram, and within a year had risen distinct statement (Bril. Birds, v. p. 359) that Audubon pro- to the presidency of the institution. cured it in London. The account given by Degland (Orn. Europ. Soon afterwards he entered political life. In the early days ii. p. 529) in 1849, and repeated in the last edition of his work by of the Republican party, when the shameful scenes of the Kansas M. Gerbe, of its extinction in Orkney, is so manifestly absurd that struggle were exciting the whole country, and during the camit deserves to be quoted in full: “Il se trouvait en assez grand paigns of 1857 and 1858, he became known as an effective nombre il y a une quinzaine d'années aux Orcades; mais le speaker and ardent anti-slavery man. His reward for his services ministre presbytérien dans le Mainland, en offrant une forte prime was election in 1859 to the Ohio Senate as the member from aux personnes qui lui apportaient cet oiseau, a été cause de sa Portage and Summit counties. When the “cotton states" destruction sur ces îlcs." The same author claims the species as a seceded, Garfield appeared as a warm supporter of vigorous visitor to the shores of France on the testimony of Hardy measures. He was one of the six Ohio senators who voted (Annuaire normand, 1841, p. 298), which he grievously misquotes against the proposed amendment to the Federal Constitution both in his own work and in another place (Naumannia, 1855, (Feb. 28th, 1861) forbidding any constitutional amendment P. 423), thereby misleading an anonymous English writer (Nat. which should give Congress the power to abolish or interfere Hist. Rev., 1865, p. 475) and numerous German readers.
with slavery in any state; he upheld the right of the government John Milne in 1875 visited Funk Island, one of the former to coerce seceded states; defended the “Million War Bill” resorts of the gare-fowl, or “ penguin," as it was there called, in appropriating a million dollars for the state's military expenses; the Newfoundland seas, a place where bones had before been and when the call came for 75,000 troops, he moved that Ohio obtained by Stuvitz, and natural mummies so lately as 1863 and furnish 20,000 soldiers and three millions of dollars as her share. 1864. Landing on this rock at the risk of his life, he brought off | He had just been admitted to the bar, but on the outbreak of a rich cargo of its remains, belonging to no fewer than fifty birds, war he at once offered his services to the governor, and became some of them in size exceeding any that had before been known. lieutenant-colonel and then colonel of the 42nd Ohio Volunteers, His collection was subsequently dispersed, most of the specimens recruited largely from among his former students. He served finding their way into various public museums,
in Kentucky, was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general A literature by no means inconsiderable has grown up respecting of volunteers early in 1862; took part in the second day's the gare-fowl. Neglecting works of general bearing, few of which fighting at the battle of Shiloh, served as chief of staff under are without many inaccuracies, the following treatises may be Rosecrans in the Army of the Cumberland in 1863, fought at especially mentioned:-J. J. S. Steenstrup: - Et Bidrag til Geir- Chickamauga, and was made a major-general of volunteers for fuglens Naturhistorie og saerligt til Kundskaben om dens tidligere
In 1862 he was elected a member of Udbredningskreds,” Naturh. Foren. Vidensk. Meddelelser (Copen- gallantry in that battle. hagen, 1855), p. 33; E. Charlton, “On the Great Auk," Trans. Congress from the Ashtabula district of Ohio, and, resigning his Tyneside Nat. Field Club, iv. p. 111; “ Abstract of Mr J. Wolley's military commission, took his seat in the House of Representatives Researches in Iceland respecting the Gare-fowl," Ibis (1861), P: 374; in December 1863. In Congress he joined the radical wing of W Preyer, Über Plaulus impennis," Journ. für Orn. (1862), pp. 110, 337): K. E. von Baer, " Über das Aussterben der Tierarten in
the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of Confederate physiologischer und nicht physiologischer Hinsicht," Bull. de property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto
Description of denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized the Skeleton of the Great Auk," Trans. Zool. Soc. V. p. 317; The as a hard worker and ready speaker. Capacity for work brought Gare-fowl and its Historians," Na!. Hist. Rev. v. p. 467; J: H. him places on important committecs-he was chairman sucGurney, jun., 1639: H. Recks, "Great Auk in Newfoundland," &c., op. till cessively of the committee on military affairs, the committee on p. 1854; V. Fatio, "Sur l'Alca impennis," Bull. Soc. Orn. Suisse, banking and currency, and the committee on appropriations, ii. pp. 1, 80, 1471. On existing Remains of the Gare-fowl;". Jois and his ability as a speaker enabled him to achieve distinction (1870). p. 256; ). Milne, " Relics of the Great Auk," Field (27th of
on the floor of the House and to rise to leadership. Between March, 3rd and 10th of April 1875). Lastly, reference cannot be omitted to the happy exercise of poetic fancy with which Charles 1863 and 1873 Garfield delivered speeches of importance on Kingsley was enabled to introduce the chief lacts of the gare-fowl's “ The Constitutional Amendment to abolish Slavery," “ The extinction (derived from one of the above-named papers) into his Freedman's Bureau," "The Reconstruction of the Rebel States," charming Water Babies.
“The Public Debt and Specie Payments,' Reconstruction," GARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM (1831-1881), twentieth president “ The Currency," “ Taxation of United States Bonds," “ Enforcof the United States, was born on the 19th of November 1831 ing the 14th Amendment,” “National Aid to Education," in a log cabin in the little frontier town of Orange, Cuyahoga and the Right to Originate Revenue Bills." The year 1874 county, Ohio His early years were spent in the performance I was one of disaster to the Republican party. The greenback