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issue, the troubles growing out of reconstruction in the South, | July, while on his way to attend the commencement exercises at the Crédit Mobilier and the “ Salary Grab,” disgusted thousands Williams College, the new president was shot in a Washington of independent voters and sent a wave of Democracy over the railway station by a disappointed office-seeker named Charles country. Garfield himself was accused of corruption in con- J. Guiteau, whose mind had no doubt been somewhat influenced nexion with the Crédit Mobilier scandal, but the charge was by the abuse lavished upon the president by his party opponents; never proved. A Republican convention in his district demanded and on the 19th of September 1881, he died at Elberon, New his resignation, and re-election seemed impossible; but he Jersey, whither he had been removed on the 6th. He was buried defended himself in two pamphlets, Increase of Salaries" in Cleveland, Ohio, where in 1890 a monument was erected by and “ Review of the Transactions of the Crédit Mobilier Com- popular subscription to his memory. pany," made a village-to-village canvass, and was victorious. In 1858 Garfield had married Miss Lucretia Rudolph, by whom In 1876 Garfield for the eighth time was chosen to represent his he had seven children. His son, HARRY AUGUSTUS GARFIELD district; and afterwards as one of the two representatives of (b. 1863) graduated at Williams College in 1885, practised law in the Republicans in the House, he was a member of the Electoral Cleveland, Obio, in 1888-1903, was professor of politics at Commission which decided the dispute regarding the presidential | Princeton University in 1903-1908, and in 1908 became president election of 1876. When, in 1877, James G. Blaine was made of Williams College. Another son, JAMES RUDOLPH GARFIELD a senator from Maine, the leadership of the House of Repre. (b. 1865), also graduated at Williams College in 1885 and practised sentatives passed to Garfield, and he became the Republican law in Cleveland; he was a Republican member of the Ohio candidate for speaker. But the Democrats had a majority in Senate in 1896-1899, was commissioner of corporations, Departthe House, and he was defeated. Hayes, the new president, ment of Commerce and Labour, in 1903-1907, attracting wide having chosen John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, attention by his reports on certain large industrial organizations, an etíort was made to send Garfield to the United States Senate and was secretary of the interior (1907-1909) in the cabinet of in Sherman's place. But the president needed his services President Roosevelt. in the House, and he was not elected to the Senate until published at Boston, in two volumes, in 1882.
President Garfield's writings, edited by Burke A. Hinsdale, were
(J. B. M¢M.) The time had now come (1880) when the Republican party in nearly all the temperate and tropical seas, and readily recog
GAR-FISH, the name given to a genus of fishes (Belone) found must nominate a candidate for the presidency. General Grant had served two terms (1869–1877), and the unwritten law of nized by their long, slender, conipressed and silvery body, and by custom condemned his being given another. But the “ bosses ".
their jaws being produced into a long, pointed, bony and sharply. of the Republican party in three great States-New York, toothed beak. About fifty species are known from different Pennsylvania and Illinois-were determined that he should be parts of the globe, some attaining to a length of 4 or 5 ft. One renominated. These men and their followers were known as species is common on the British coasts, and is well known by the the " stalwarts.” Opposed to them were two other factions, names of " long-nose,” green-bone,” &c. The last name is one supporting James G. Blaine, of Maine, and the other John given to those fishes on account of the peculiar green colour of Sherman, of Ohio. When the convention met and the balloting their bones, which deters many people from eating them, although began, the contest along these factional lines started in earnest. their flesh is well flavoured and perfectly wholesome. The For eight-end-twenty ballots no change of any consequence was skipper (Scomberesor) and half-bcak (Hemirhamphus), in which noticeable. Though votes were often cast for ten names, there the lower jaw only is prolonged, are fishes nearly akin to the were but two real candidates before the convention, Grant and
ar-pikes. Blaine. That the partisans of neither would yield in favour of
GARGANEY! (North-Italian, Garganello), or SUMMER-TEAL, the other was certain. That the choice therefore rested with the the Anas querquedula and A. circia of Linnaeus (who made, as supporters of the minor candidates was manifest, and with the did Willughby and Ray, two species out of one), and the type of cry “ Anything to beat Grant!” an effort was made to find Stephens's genus Qucrqucdula. This bird is one of the smallest of some man on whom the opposition could unite. Such a man
the Anatidae, and has gained its common English name from was Garfield. His long term of service in the House, his leader being almost exclusively a summer-visitant to England where ship of his party on its floor, his candidacy for the speakership, nowadays it only regularly resorts to breed in some of the Eastand his recent election to the United States Senate, marked him Norfolk Broads, though possibly at one time it was found at the out as the available man. Between the casting of the first and same scason throughout the great Fen-district. Slightly larger the thirty-third ballot, Garfield, who was the leader of Sherman's than the common teal (A.crecca), the male is readily distinguished adherents in the convention, had sometimes received one or iwo therefrom by its peculiarly-coloured head, the sides of which are votes and at other times none. On the thirty-fourth he received nutmcg-brown, closely freckled with short whitish streaks, while seventeen, on the next fifty, and on the next almost the entire a conspicuous white curved line descends backwards from the vote hitherto cast for Blaine and Sherman, and was declared eyes. The upper wing-coverts are bluish grey, the scapulars nominated. During the campaign Garfield was subject to black with a white shaít-stripe, and the wing-spot (speculum) violent personal abuse; the fact that he was alleged to have greyish green bordered above and below by white. The female received $329 from the Crédit Mobilier as a dividend on stock closely resembles the hen teal, but possesses no wing-spot. In led his opponents to raise the campaign cry of “ 329," and this Ireland or Scotland the garganey is very rare, and though it number was placarded in the streets of the cities and printed is recorded from Iceland, more satisfactory evidence of its in flaring type in partisan newspapers. The forged “Morey occurrence there is needed. It has not a high northern range, letter," in which he was made to appear as opposed to the ex
and its appearance in Norway and Sweden is casual. Though it clusion of the Chinese, was widely circulated and injured his breeds in many parts of Europe, in none can it be said to be candidacy in the West. That the charges against Garfield were common; but it ranges far to the eastward in Asia--even to not generally credited, however, is shown by the fact that he Formosa, according to Swinhoe-and yearly visits India in received 214 electoral votes to his opponent's 155. He was
winter in enormous numbers. Those that breed in Norfolk inaugurated on the 4th of March 1881.
arrive somewhat late in spring and make their nests in the vast Unfortunately, the new president was unequal to the task of recd-beds which border the Broads-a situation rarely or never composing the differences in his party. For his secretary of state chosen by the tcal. The labyrinth or bony enlargement of the he chose James G. Blaine, the bitterest political enemy of Senator trachea in the male garganey differs in form from that described Roscoe Conkling (9.8.) the leader of the New York " stalwarts.” in any other drake, being more oval and placed nearly in the Without consulting the New York senators, Garfield appointed 1 The word was introduced by Willughby from Gesner (Orn., lib. William H. Robertson, another political enemy of Conkling's, to iii. p. 127), but, though generally adopted by authors, secms never to the desirable post of Collector of the Port of New York, and variably known in the parts of this island where it is indigenous as
have become other than a book-name in English, the bird being in. thereby destroyed all prospects of party harmony. On the 2nd of “summer-teal."
median line of the windpipe, instead of on one side, as is usually GARIBALDI, GIUSEPPE (1807-1882), Italian patriot, was the case.
born at Nice on the 4th of July 1807. As a youth he fled from GARGANO, MONTE (anc. Garganus Mons), a massive home to escape a clerical education, but afterwards joined his mountainous peninsula projecting E. from the N. coast of Apulia, father in the coasting trade. After joining the “Giovine Italia " Italy, and belonging geologically to the opposite Dalmatian he entered the Sardinian navy, and, with a number of companions coast; it was indeed separated from the rest of Italy by an arm on board the frigate “ Euridice," plotted to seize the vessel and of the sea as late as the Tertiary period. The highest point occupy thc arsenal of Genoa at the moment when Mazzini's (Monte Calvo) is 3465 ft. above sea level. The oak forests Savoy expedition should enter Piedmont. The plot being for which it was renowned in Roman times have entirely discovered, Garibaldi fled, but was condemned to death by disappeared.
default on the 3rd of June 1834. Escaping to South America GARGOYLE, or GURGOYLE (from the Fr. gargouille, originally in 1836, he was given letters of marque by the state of Rio the throat or gullet, cf. Lat. gurgulio, gula, and similar words Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil. After a series derived from root ger, to swallow, the word representing the of victorious engagements he was taken prisoner and subjected to gurgling sound of water; Ital. doccia di grande; Ger. Ausguss), severe torture, which dislocated his limbs. Regaining liberty, he in architecture, the carved termination to a spout which conveys renewed the war against Brazil, and took Porto Allegro. During away the water from the gutters. Gargoyles are mostly grotesque the campaign he met his wife, Anita, who became his inseparable figures. The term is applied more especially to medieval work, companion and mother of three children, Anita, Ricciotti and but throughout all ages some means of throwing the water off the Menotti. Passing into the service of Uruguay, he was sent to roofs, when not conveyed in gutters, has been adopted, and in Corrientes with a small flotilla to oppose Rosas's forces, but Egypt there are gargoyles to eject the water used in the washing was overtaken by Admiral Brown, against whose fleet he fought of the sacred vessels which would seem to have been done on the for three days. When his ammunition was exhausted he burned flat roofs of the temples. In Greek temples the water from the his ships and escaped. Returning to Montevideo, he formed the roof passed through the mouths of lions whose heads were carved Italian Legion, with which he won the battles of Cerro and Sant' or modelled in the marble or terra-cotta cymatium of the cornice. Antonio in the spring of 1846, and assured the freedom of At Pompeii large numbers of terra-cotta gargoyles have been Uruguay. Refusing all honours and recompense, he prepared to found which were modelled in the shape of various animals. return to Italy upon receiving news of the incipient revolutionary
GARHWAL, or GURWAL. 1. A district of British India, in the movement. In October 1847 he wrote to Pius IX., offering his Kumaon division of the United Provinces. It has an area of services to the Church, whose cause he for a moment believed to 5629 sq. m., and consists almost entirely of rugged mountain be that of national liberty. ranges running in all directions, and separated by narrow valleys Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword which in some cases become deep gorges or ravincs. The only at the disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties level portion of the district is a narrow strip of waterless forest with the Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 between the southern slopes of the hills and the fertile plains strong, but shortly after taking the field was obliged, by the of Rohilkhand. The highest mountains are in the north, the defeat of Custozza, to flee to Switzerland. Proceeding thence to principal peaks being Nanda Devi ( 25,661 ft.), Kamet (25,413), Rome, he was entrusted by the Roman republic with the defence Trisul (23,382), Badrinath (23,210), Dunagiri (23,181) and of San Pancrazio against the French, where he gained the victory Kedarnath (22,853). The Alaknanda, one of the main sources of of the 30th of April 1849, remaining all day in the saddle, although the Ganges, receives with its affluents the whole drainage of wounded in the side at the beginning of the fight. From the 3rd district. At Devaprayag the Alaknanda joins the Bhagirathi, of May until the 30th of May he was continuously engaged and thenceforward the united streams bear the name of the against the Bourbon troops at Palestrina, Velletri and elsewhere, Ganges. Cultivation is principally confined to the immediate dispersing an army of 20,000 men with 3000 volunteers. After vicinity of the rivers, which are employed for purposes of irriga- the fall of Rome he left the city at the head of 4000 volunteers, tion. Garhwal originally consisted of 52 petty chieftainships, with the idea of joining the defenders of Venice, and started on each chief with his own independent fortress (garh). Nearly that wonderful retreat through central Italy pursued by the 500 years ago, one of these chiefs, Ajai Pál, reduced all the minor armies of France, Austria, Spain and Naples. By his consummate principalities under his own sway, and founded the Garhwal generalship and the matchless endurance of his men the pursuers kingdom. He and his ancestors ruled over Garhwal and the were evaded and San Marino reached, though with a sadly adjacent state of Tehri, in an uninterrupted line till 1803, when diminished force. Garibaldi and a few followers, including his the Gurkhas invaded Kumaon and Garhwal, driving the Garhwal devoted wife Anita, after vainly attempting to reach Venice, chief into the plains. For twelve years the Gurkhas ruled the where the tricolor still floated, took refuge in the pine forests of country with a rod of iron, until a series of encroachments by Ravenna; the Austrians were seeking him in all directions, and them on British territory led to the war with Nepal in 1814. most of his legionaries were captured and shot. Anita died near At the termination of the campaign, Garhwal and Kumaon were Comacchio, and he himself fled across the peninsula, being assisted converted into British districts, while the Tehri principality by all classes of the people, to Tuscany, whence he escaped to was restored to a son of the former chief. Since annexation, Piedmont and ultimately to America. At New York, in order to Garhwal has rapidly advanced in material prosperity. Pop. carn a living, he became first a chandler, and afterwards a trading (1901) 429,900. Two battalions of the Indian army (the 39th skipper, returning to Italy in 1854 with a small fortune, and Garhwal Rifles) are recruited in the district, which also contains purchasing the island of Caprera, on which he built the house the military cantonment of Lansdowne. Grain and coarse cloth thenceforth his home. On the outbreak of war in 1859 he was are exported, and salt, borax, live stock and wool are imported, placed in command of the Alpine infantry, defcating the the trade with Tibet being considerable. The administrative Austrians at Casale on the 8th of May, crossing the Ticino on the headquarters are at the village of Pauri, but Srinagar is the 23rd of May, and, after a series of victorious fights, liberating largest place. This is an important mart, as is also Kotdwara, Alpine territory as far as the frontier of Tirol. When about to the terminus of a branch of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway enter Austrian territory proper his advance was, however, from Najibabad.
checked by the armistice of Villafranca. 2. A native state, also known as Tehri, after its capital; area Returning to Como to wed the countess Raimondi, by whom 4180 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 268,885. It adjoins the district he had been aided during the campaign, he was apprised, mentioned above, and its topographical features are similar. immediately after the wedding, of certain circumstances which It contains the sources of both the Ganges and the Jumna, caused him at once to abandon that lady and to start for central which are visited by thousands of Hindu pilgrims. The gross Italy. Forbidden to invade the Romagna, he returned inrevenue is about £28,000, of which nearly half is derived from dignantly to Caprera, where with Crispi and Bertani he planned forests. No tribute is paid to the British government.
the invasion of Sicily. Assured by Sir James Hudson of the sympathy of England, he began active preparations for the Darso, on the 16th at Condino, on the 19th at Ampola, on the expedition to Marsala. At the last moment he hesitated, but 21st at Bezzecca, but, when on the point of attacking Trent, he Crispi succeeded in persuading him to sail from Genoa on the was ordered by General Lamarmora to retire. His famous 5th of May 1860 with two vessels carrying a volunteer corps of reply “ Obbedisco” (“I obey ") has often been cited as a classical 1070 strong. Calling at Talamone to embark arms and money, example of military obedience to a command destructive of a he reached Marsala on the nith of May, and landed under the successful leader's hopes, but documents now published (cf. protection of the British vessels “ Intrepid ” and “ Argus." Corriere della sera, 9th of August 1906) prove beyond doubt that On the 12th of May the dictatorship of Garibaldi was proclaimed Garibaldi had for some days known that the order to evacuate at Salemi, on the 15th of May the Neapolitan troops were routed the Trentino would shortly reach him. The order arrived on the at Calatafimi, on the 25th of May Palermo was taken, and on the 9th of August, whereas Crispi had be sent as early as the 16th 6th of June 20,000 Neapolitan regulars, supported by nine of July to warn Garibaldi that, owing to Prussian opposition, frigates and protected by two forts, were compelled to capitulate. Austria would not cede the Trentino to Italy, and that the Once established at Palermo, Garibaldi organized an army to evacuation was inevitable. Hence Garibaldi's laconic reply. liberate Naples and march upon Rome, a plan opposed by the From the Trentino he returned to Caprera to mature his designs emissaries of Cavour, who desired the immediate annexation of against Rome, which had been evacuated by the French in Sicily to the Italian kingdom. Expelling Lafarina and driving pursuance of the Franco-Italian convention of the 15th of out Depretis, who represented Cavour, Garibaldi routed the September 1864. Gathering volunteers in the autumn of 1867, Neapolitans at Milazzo on the zoth of July. Messina fell on the he prepared to enter papal territory, but was arrested at Sinalunga 20th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria, by the Italian government and conducted to Caprera. Eluding secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was the surveillance of the Italian cruisers, he returned to Florence, fitting out an expedition against the papal states. Cavour, and, with the complicity of the second Rattazzi cabinet, entered however, obliged the expedition to sail for Palermo. Returning Roman territory at Passo Corese on the 23rd of October. Two to Messina, Garibaldi found a letter from Victor Emmanuel II. days later he took Monterotondo, but on the end of November dissuading him from invading the kingdom of Naples. Garibaldi his forces were dispersed at Mentana by French and eapai troops. replied asking "permission to disobey." Next day he crossed Recrossing the Italian froutier, he was arrested at Figline and the Strait, won the battle of Reggio on the 21st of August, taken back to Caprera, where he eked out his slender resources by accepted the capitulation of 9000 Neapolitan troops at San writing several romances. In 1870 he formed a fresh volunteer Giovanni and of 11,000, more at Soveria. The march upon corps and went to the aid of France, descating the German troops Naples became a triumphal progress, which the wiles of Francesco at Chatillon, Autun and Dijon. Elected a member of the II. were powerless to arrest. On the 7th of September Garibaldi Versailles assembly, he resigned his mandate in anger at French entered Naples, while Francesco fled to Gaeta. On the ist | insults, and withdrew to Caprera until, in 1874, he was elected of October he routed the remnant of the Bourbon army 40,000 deputy for Rome. Popular enthusiasm induced the Conservative strong on the Volturno. Meanwhile the Italian troops had Minghetti cabinet to propose that a sum of £40,000 with an occupied the Marches, Umbria and the Abruzzi, a battalion of annual pension of £2000 be conferred upon him as a recompense Bersaglieri reaching the Volturno in time to take part in the for his services, but the proposal, though adopted by parliament battle. Their presence put an end to the plan for the invasion (27th May 1875), was indignantly refused by Garibaldi. Upon the of the papal states, and Garibaldi unwillingly issued a decree for advent of the Left to power, however, he accepted both gift and the plébiscile which was to sanction the incorporation of the Two pension, and worked energetically upon the scheme for the Tiber Sicilies in the Italian realm. On the 7th of November Garibaldi embankment to prevent the flooding of Rome. At the same time accompanied Victor Emmanuel during his solemn entry into he succeeded in obtaining the annulment of his marriage with the Naples, and on the morrow returned to Caprera, after disbanding countess Raimondi (with whom he had neverlived) and contracted his volunteers and recommending their enrolment in the regular another marriage with the mother of his children, Clelia and
Manlio. In 1880 he went to Milan for the inauguration of the Indignation at the cession of Nice to France and at the neglect Mentana monument, and in 1882 visited Naples and Palermo, of his followers by the Italian government induced him to return but was prevented by illness from being present at the booth to political life. Elected deputy in 1861, his anger against anniversary of the Sicilian Vespers. On the 2nd of June 1882 Cavour found violent expression. Bixio attempted to reconcile his death at Caprera plunged Italy into mourning, them, but the publication by Cialdini of a letter against Garibaldi See Garibaldi, Epistolario, cd. E. E. Ximenes (2 vols., Milan, 1885), provoked a hostility which, but for the intervention of the king, by A. Werner, with supplement by J. W. Nario in vol. iii. of 1888
and Memorie autografiche (11th ed., Florence, 1902; Eng. translation would have led to a duel between Cialdini and Garibaldi. Return- ed.): Giuseppe Guerzoni, Garibaldi (2 vols., Florence, 1882); Jessie ing to Caprera, Garibaldi awaited events. Cavour's successor, White Mario, Garibaldi e i suoi tempi (Milan, 1884); G. M. Trevelyan, Ricasoli, enrolled the Garibaldians in the regular army; Rattazzi, Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic (London, 1907), which who succeeded Ricasoli, urged Garibaldi to undertake an ex
contains an excellent 'sketch of Garibaldi's early carcer, of the events pedition in aid of the Hungarians, but Garibaldi, finding his leading up to the proclamation of the Roman Republic, and a
picturesque, detailed and authoritative account of the defence of followers ill-disposed towards the idea, decided to turn his arms
Rome and of Garibaldi's flight, with a very full bibliography; also against Rome. On the 29th of June 1862 he landed at Palermo Trevelyan's Garibaldi and the Thousand (1909). (H, W. S.) and gathered an army under the banner“ Roma o morte." GARIN LE LOHERAIN, French epic hero. The 12th century Rattazzi, frightened at the prospect of an attack upon Rome, chanson de geste of Garin le Loherain is one of the fiercest and proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily, sent the feet to Messina, and most sanguinary narratives left by the trouvères. This local instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi. Circumventing the cycle of Lorraine, which is completed by Hervis de Metz, Girbers Italian troops, Garibaldi entered Catania, crossed to Melito with de Metz, Anséis, fils de Girbert and Yon, is obviously based on 3000 men on the 25th of August, but was taken prisoner and history, and the failure absolutely to identify the events recorded wounded by Cialdini's forces at Aspromonte on the 27th of does not deprive the poems of their value as a picture of the August. Liberated by an amnesty, Garibaldi returned once savage feudal wars of the urth and 12th centuries. The episodes more to Caprera amidst general sympathy.
are evolved naturally and the usual devices adopted by the In the spring of 1864 he went to London, where he was accorded trouvères to reconcile their inconsistencies are absent. Neverthean enthusiastic reception and given the freedom of the city. less no satisfactory historical explanation of the story has yet From England he returned again to Caprera. On the outbreak of been offered. It has been suggested by a recent critic (F. war in 1866 he assumed command of a volunteer army and, aster Settegast, Quellenstudien zur gallo-romanischen Epik, 1904) that the defeat of the Italian troops at Custozza, took the offensive these poems resume historical traditions going back to the in order to cover Brescia. On the 3rd of July he defeated the Vandal irruption of 408 and the battle fought by the Romans Austrians at Monte Saello, on the 7th at Lodrone, on the 10th at I and the West Goths against the Huns in 451. The cycle relates
three wars against hosts of heathen invaders. In the first of Ecclesiae "is“ Epithalamium beatae Mariae Virginis,"contained these Charles Martel and his faithful vassal Hervis of Metz fight in the same MS. Among his other works are his “ Dictionarius," by an extraordinary anachronism against the Vandals, who have a Latin vocabulary, printed by T. Wright in the Library of National destroyed Reims and besieged other cities. They are defeated in Antiquities (vol. i., 1857); Compendium totius grammatices a great battle near Troyes. In the second Hervis is besieged in printed at Deventer, 1489; two metrical treatises, entitled Metz by the “ Hongres." He sends first for help to Pippin, who Synonyma and Equivoca, frequently printed at the close of the defers his assistance by the advice of the traitor Hardré. Hervis 15th century. then transfers his allegiance to Anséis of Cologne, by whose help catalogue;"J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina mediae et infimae
For further bibliographical information see the British Museum the invaders are repulsed, though Hervis himself is slain.
vol. iii. (1754); G. Brunet, Manuel du libraire, &c. third Thierry, king of Moriane' sends to Pippin for help against Sce also Histoire litt. de la France, vols. viii., xxi., xxiii. and xxx.; four Saracen kings. He is delivered by a Frankish host, but the prefaces to the editions by T. Wright mentioned above; P. falls in the battle. Hervis of Metz was the son of a citizen to Meyer, La Chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois, vol. ii. pp. whom the duke of Lorraine had married his daughter Aelis, and et du XIIIe siècles (Leipzig, 1867); the article by C. L. Kingsford in
xx-xxiii. (Paris, 1875); Dr A. Scheler, Lexicographie latine du XI) his sons Garin and Begue are the heroes of the chanson which the Dict. Nat. Biog., giving a list also of the works on alchemy, gives its name to the cycle. The dying king Thierry had desired mathematics and music, fightly or wrongly ascribed to him;). É. that his daughter Blanchefleur should marry Garin, but when Sandys, Hist. of Class. Schol. i. (1906) 549.
(E. G.) Garin prefers his suit at the court of Pippin, Fromont of Bordeaux GARLIC (0. Eng. sárleác, i.e. “spear-leek "; Gr. OKópodov; puts himself forward as his rival and Hardré, Fromont's father, is Lat. allium; Ital. aglio; Fr. ail; Ger. Knoblauch), Allium slain by Garin. The rest of the poem is taken up with the war salidum, a bulbous perennial plant of the natural order Liliaceae, that ensues between the Lorrainers and the men of Bordeaux. indigenous apparently to south-west Siberia. It has long, They finally submit their differences to the king, only to begin narrow, flat, obscurely keeled leaves, a deciduous spat he, and a their disputes once more. Blanchefleur becomes the wife of globose umbel of whitish flowers, among which are small bulbils. Pippin, while Garin remains her faithful servant. One of the The bulb, which is the only part eaten, has membranous scales, most famous passages of the poem is the assassination of Begue in the axils of which are 10 or 12 cloves, or smaller bulbs. From by a nephew of Fromont, and Garin, after laying waste his these new bulbs can be procured by planting out in February or enemy's territory, is himself slain. The remaining songs con
March. The bulbs are best preserved hung in a dry place. If of tinue the feud between the two families. According to Paulin fair size, twenty of them weigh about 1 lb. To prevent the plant Paris, the family of Bordeaux represents the early dukes of from running to leaf, Pliny (Nal. Hist. xix. 34) advises to bend Aquitaine, the last of whom, Waisar (745-768) was dispossessed the stalk downward and cover with earth; seeding, he observes, and slain by Pippin the Short, king of the Franks; but the may be prevented by twisting the stalk. trouvères had in mind no doubt the wars which marked the end of
Garlic is cultivated in the same manner as the shallot (q.v.). the Carolingian dynasty:
It is stated to have been grown in England before the year 1548. See Li Romans de Garin le Loherain, ed. P. Paris (Paris, 1833): The percentage composition of the bulbs is given by E. Solly Hist. litt. de la France, vol. xxii. (1852): J. M. Ludlow, Popular (Trans. Horl. Soc. Lond., new ser., iii. p. 60) as water 84:09, Epics of the Middle Ages (London and Cambridge, 1865); F: Lot, organic matter 13.38, and inorganic matter 1.53-—that of the Études d'histoire du moyen âge (Paris, 1896); F. Settegast, Quellen- leaves being water 87.14, organic matter 11:27 and inorganic studien zur gallo-romanischen Epik (Leipzig, 1904). A complete edition of the cycle was undertaken by E. Stengel, the first volume of matter 1:59. The bulb has a strong and characteristic odour which, Hervis de Mes(Gesellschaft für roman. Lit., Dresden), appeared and an acrid taste, and yields an offensively smelling oil, essence
of garlic, identical with allyl sulphide (C3H5),S (sce Hofmann GARLAND, JOHN (fl. 1202-1252), Latin grammarian, known and Cahours, Journ. Chem. Soc. X. p. 320). This; when garlic as Johannes Garlandius, or, more commonly, Johannes de has been eaten, is evolved by the excretory organs, the activity Garlandia, was born in England, though most of his life was
of which it promotes. From the earliest times garlic has been spent in France. John Bale in his Calelogus, and John Pits, used as an article of dict. It formed part of the food of the following Bale, placed him among the writers of the nth century. Israelites in Egypt (Numb. xi. 5) and of the labourers employed The main facts of his life, however, are stated in a long poem De by Cheops in the construction of his pyramid, and is still grown in triumphis ecclesiae contained in Cotton MS. Claudius A x in the Egypt, where, however, the Syrian is the kind most esteemed British Museum, and edited by Thomas Wright for the Roxburghe (sce Rawlinson's Herodotus, ii. 125). It was largely consumed by Club in 1856. Garland narrates the history of his time from the the ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors and rural classes point of view of the victories gained by the church over heretics (cf. Virg. Ed. ii. 1), and, as Pliny tells us (N.H. xix. 32), by at home and infidels abroad. He studied at Oxford under a
the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the rustic's theriac certain John of London, whom it is difficult to distinguish from (sec F. Adams's Poulus Acgincta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, others of the same name; but he must have been in Paris in or
a writer of the 12th century (sce Wright's edition of his works, before 1202, for he mentions as one of his teachers Alain de Lisle, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative of the heat of the sun who died in that year or the next. Garland was one of the pro- l in field labour. “ The people in places where the simoon is sessors chosen in 1229 for the new university of Toulouse, and frequent,” says Mountstuart Elphinstone (An Account of the remained in the south during the Albigensian crusade, of which Kingdom of Caubul, p. 140, 1815), “ eat garlic, and rub their lips he gives a detailed account in books iv.-vi. In 1232 or 1233 the and noses with it, when they go out in the heat of the summer, hatred of the people made further residence in Toulouse unsafe
to prevent their suffering by the simoon.” “O dura messorum for the professors of the university, who had been installed by the ilia,” exclaims Horace ( Epod. iii.), as he records his detestation Catholic party. Garland was one of the first to fly, and the rest
of the popular esculent, to smell of which was accounted a sign of his life was spent in Paris, where he finished his poem in 1252. of vulgarity (cf. Shakespeare, Coriol. iv. 6, and Mcas. for Meas. Garland's grammatical works were much used in England, and iii. 2). In England garlic is seldom used except as a scasoning, were often printed by Richard Pynson and Wynkyn dc Worde. but in the southern countries of Europe it is a common ingredient He was also a voluminous Latin poet. Works on mathematics in dishes, and is largely consumed by the agricultural population. and music have also been assigned to him, but the ascription may Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at have arisen from confusion of his works with those of Gerlandus, cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, a canon of Besançon in the 12th century. The treatise on Arcoidaluovias); and according to Pliny garlic and onions alchemy, Compendium alchimiae, often printed under his name, was by a 14th-century writer named Martin Ortolan, or Lortholain. The inhabitants of Pelusium in lower Egypt, who worshipped the
were invocated as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. The best known of his poems beside the De Triumphis onion, are said to have held both it and garlic in aversion as food. 'i.e. Maurienne, now a district and diocese (St Jean de Maurienne) Garlic possesses stimulant and stomachic properties, and was of of Savoy
old, as still sometimes now, employed as a medicinal remedy.
Pliny (N.H. xx. 23) gives an exceedingly long list of complaints way to do his utmost to prevent its execution. Subsequently, in which it was considered beneficial. Dr T. Sydenham valued after his trial, Garnet said he could not certainly affirm” that it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen Greenway intended to relate the matter to him in confession. (Mal. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it Garnet's conduct in now keeping the plot a secret has been a alone. In the United States the bulb is given in doses of 1-2 matter of considerable controversy not only between Roman drachms in cases of bronchiectasis and phthisis pulmonalis. Catholics and Protestants, but amongst Roman Catholic writers Garlic may also be prescribed as an extract consisting of the themselves. Father Martin del Rio, a Jesuit, writing in 1600, inspissated juice, in doses of 5-10 grains, and as the syrupus discusses the exact case of the revelation of a plot in confession. allii aceticus, in doses of 1-4 drachms. This last preparation has Almost all the learned doctors, he says, declare that the confessor recently been much extolled in the treatment of pulmonary may reveal it, but he adds," the contrary opinion is the safer and tuberculosis or phthisis.
better doctrine, and more consistent with religion and with the The wild "crow garlic" and "ficld garlic ” of Britain are the reverence due to the holy rite of confession." According to species Allium vincale and A. oleraceum respectively.
Bellarmine, Garnet's zealous friend and defender, “If the person GARNET, or GARNETT, HENRY (1555-1606), English Jesuit, consessing be concealed, it is lawsul for a priest to break the seal son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was edu- of confession in order to avert a great calamity"; but he justifies cated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. Garnet's silence by insisting that it was not lawful to disclose a Having become a Roman Catholic, he went to Italy, joined the treasonable secret io a heretical king. According to Garnet's own Society of Jesus in 1575, and acquired under Bellarmine and opinion a priest cognizant of treason against the state" is bound others a reputation for varied learning. In 1586 he joined the to find all lawful means to discover it sulvo sigillo confessionis." mission in England, becoming superior of the province on the In this connexion it is worth pointing out that Garnet had not imprisonment of William Weston in the following year. In the thought it his duty to disclose the treasonable intrigue with the dispute between the Jesuits and the secular clergy known as the king of Spain in 1602, though there was no pretence in this case “ Wisbech Stirs ” (1595-1590) he zealously supported Weston that he was restricted by the seal of confession, and his inactivity in his resistance to any compromise with the civil government. now tells greatly in his disfavour; for, allowing even that he His antagonism to the secular clergy was also shown later, when was bound by confessional secrecy from taking action on Green. in 1603 he, with other Jesuits, was the means of betraying to way's information, he had still Catesby's earlier revelations to the government the “Bye Plot," contrived by William Watson, act upon. He appears to have taken no steps whatever to prevent a secular priest. In 1598 he was professed of the four vows. the crime, beyond writing to Rome in vague terms that “he
Garnet supervised the Jesuit mission for eighteen years with feared some particular desperate courses,” which aroused no conspicuous success. His life was one of concealment and dis- suspicions in that quarter. At the same time he wrote to Father guises; a price was put on his head; but he was fearless and Parsons on the 4th of September that “ as far as he could now see indefatigable in carrying on his propaganda and in ministering the minds of the Catholics were quieted.” to the scattered Catholics, even in their prisons. The result was His movements immediately prior to the attempt were that he gained many converts, while the number of Jesuits in certainly suspicious. In September, shortly before the expected England increased during his tenure of office from three to forty meeting of parliament on the 3rd of October, Garnet organized a It is, however, in connexion with the Gunpowder Plot that he is pilgrimage to St Winifred's Well in Flintshire, which started best remembered. His part in this, for which he suficred death, from Gothurst (now Gayhurst), Sir Everard Digby's house in needs discussion in greater detail.
Buckinghamshire, included Rokewood, and stopped at the In 1602 Garnet received briefs from Pope Clement VIII. houses of John Grant and Robert Winter, three others of the directing that no person unfavourable to the Catholic religion conspirators. During the pilgrimage Garnet asked for the should be allowed to succeed to the throne. About the same time prayers of the company" for some good success for the Catholic he was consulted by Catesby, Tresham and Winter, all afterwards cause at the beginning of parliament." After his return he went involved in the Gunpowder Plot, on the subject of the mission to on the 29th of October to Coughton in Warwickshire, near which be sent to Spain to induce Philip III. to invade England. Accord place it had been settled the conspirators were to assemble after ing to his own statement he disapproved, but he gave Winter a the explosion. On the 6th of November, Bates, Catesby's recommendation to Father Creswell, an influential person at servant and one of the conspirators, brought him a letter with the Madrid. Moreover, in May 1605 he gave introductions to Guy news of the failure of the plot and desiring advice.
On the 30th Fawkes when he went to Flanders, and to Sir Edmund Baynham Garnet addressed a letter to the government in which he prowhen he went to Rome (see GUNPOWDER PLOT). The prepara-tested his innocence with the most solemn oaths, “ as one who tions for the plot had now been actively going forward since the hopeth for everlasting salvation.” beginning of 1604, and on the oth of June 1605 Garnet was It was not till the 4th of December, however, that Garnet and asked by Catesby whether it was lawsul to enter upon any Greenway were, by the confession of Bates, implicated in the undertaking which should involve the destruction of the innocent plot; and on the same day Garnet removed from Coughton 10 together with the guilty, to which Garnet answered in the Hindlip Hall, near Worcester, a house furnished with cleverly. affirmative, giving as an illustration the fate of persons besieged contrived hiding-places for the use of the proscribed priests. in a town in time of war. Afterwards, feeling alarmed, according Here he remained some time in concealment in company with to his own accounts, he admonished Catesby against intending the another priest, Oldcorne alias Hall, but at last on the 30th of death of “not only innocents but friends and necessary persons January 1606, unable to bear the close confinement any longer, for a commonwealth," and showed him a letter from the pope ihey surrendered and were taken up to London, being well forbidding rebellion. According to Sir Everard Digby, however, treated during the journey by Salisbury's express orders. He was Garnet, when asked ihe meaning of the brief, replied" that they examined by the council on the 13th of February and frequently were not (meaning the priests) to undertake or procure stirs, but questioned during the following days, but refused to incriminate yet they would not hinder any, neither was it the pope's mind himself, and a threat to inflict torture had no effect upon his they should, that should be undertaken for Catholic good. ... resolution. Subsequently Garnet and Oldcorne having been This answer, with Mr Catesby's proceedings with him and me, placed in adjoining rooms and enabled to communicate with one gave me absolute belief that the matter in general was approved, another, their conversations were overheard on several separate though every particular was not known.” Both men were en- occasions and considerable information obtained. Garnet at deavouring to exculpate themselves, and therefore both state. first denied all speech with Oldcorne, but subsequently on the 8th ments are subject to suspicion. A few days later, according to of March confessed his connexion with the plot. He was tried at Garnet, the Jesuit, Oswald Tesemond, known as Greenway, the Guildhall on the 28th. informed him of the whole plot" by way of confession," when, Garnet was clearly guilty of misprision of treason, i.e. of having as he declares, he expressed horror at the design and urged Green. I concealed his knowledge of the crime, an offence which exposed