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child Maria, who helps Telmo to create the atmosphere of impend- GARRETTING, properly GALLETTING, a term in architecture ing disaster; while the episodes, particularly those of the return for the process in which the "gallets” or small splinters of stone of D. João and the death of Maria, are full of power, and the are inserted in the joints of coarse masonry to protect the language is Portuguese of the best.

mortar joints; they are stuck in while the mortar is wet. Entering parliament in 1837, Garrett soon made his mark as GARRICK, DAVID (1717-1779), English actor and theatrical an oratór. In that year he delivered many notable discourses in manager, was descended from a good French Protestant family defence of liberal ideas. He also brought in a literary copyright named Garric or Garrique of Bordeaux, which had settled in bill, which, when it became law in 1851, served as a precedent for England on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. His father, similar legislation in England and Prussia. In 1840 he made his Captain Peter Garrick, who had married Arabella Clough, the famous speech known as Porto Pyreu, in which he skilfully turned daughter of a vicar choral of Lichfield ca the well-known anecdote of the “mad Athenian " against his cruiting expedition when his famous third son was born at Hereopponents. While attending with assiduity to his duties as a ford on the 19th of February 1717. Captain Garrick, who had deputy, he wrote, about this time, the drama D. Filippa de made his home at Lichfield, where he had a large family, in 1731 Vilhena, founded on an incident in the revolution of 1640, for rejoined his regiment at Gibraltar. This kept him absent from representation by the pupils of the conservatoire, and the home for many years, during which letters were written to him session of 1841 saw another of his oratorical triumphs in his by“ little Davy,” acquainting him with the doings at Lichfield. speech against the law of tithes. In July 1843 an excursion to When the boy was about eleven years old he paid a short visit Santarem resulted in his prose masterpiece Viagens na minha to Lisbon where his uncle David had settled as a wine merchant. terra, at once a novel and a miscellany of literary, political and On his father's return from Gibraltar, David, who had previously philosophic criticism, written without plan or method, easy, been educated at the grammar school of Lichfield, was, largely by jovial and epigrammatic. He took no part in the civil war that the advice of Gilbert Walmesley, registrar of the ecclesiastical followed the revolution of Maria da Fonte, but continued his court, sent with his brother George to the “academy"at Edial just literary labours, producing in 1848 the comedy A Sobrinha do opened in June or July 1736 by Samuel Johnson, the senior by Marquez, dealing with the times of Pombal, and in 1849 an seven years of David, who was then nineteen. This seminary historical memoir on Mousinho da Silveira. He spent much of was, however, closed in about six months, and on the end of the year 1850 in finishing his Romanceiro, a collection of folk- March 1736/7 both Johnson and Garrick left Lichfield for poetry of which he was the first to perceive the value; and in London-Johnson, as he afterwards said, “with twopence June 1851 he was created a viscount. In the following December halfpenny in his pocket,” and Garrick “ with three-halfpence in he drew up the additional act to the constitutional charter, and his.” Johnson, whose chief asset was the M$. tragedy of Irene, his draft was approved by the ministers at a cabinet meeting in was at first the host of his former pupil, who, however, before the his house. Further, he initiated the Conselho Ultramarino; and end of the year took up his residence at Rochester with John the Law of the Misericordias, with its preamble, published in 1852, Colson (afterwards Lucasian professor at Cambridge). Captain was entirely from his pen. In the same year he became for a Garrick died about a month after David's arrival in London. short time minister of foreign affairs. In 1853 he brought out Soon afterwards, his uncle, the wine merchant at Lisbon, having Folhas Cahidas, a collection of short poems ablaze with passion left David a sum of £1000, he and his brother entered into and exquisite in form, of which his friend Herculano said: partnership as wine merchants in London and Lichfield, David “if Camoens had written love verses at Garrett's age, he could taking up the London business. The concern was not prosperous not have equalled him." His final literary work was a novel, though Samuel Foote's assertion that he had known Garrick Helena, which he left unfinished, and on the roth of February with three quarts of vinegar in the cellar calling himself a wine 1854 he made his last notable specch in the House. He died on merchant need not be taken literally-and before the end of 1741 the gth of December 1854, and on the 3rd of May 1903 his re- he had spent nearly half of his capital. mains were translated to the national pantheon, the Jeronymos His passion for the stage completely engrossed him ; he tried at Belem, where they rest near to those of Camoens. As poet, his hand both at dramatic criticism and at dramatic authorship. novelist, journalist, orator and dramatist, he deserves the remark His first dramatic piece, Lethe, or Acsop in the Shades, which he of Rebello da Silva:“Garrett was not a man of letters only but was thirty-seven years later to read from a splendidly bound an entire literature in himself.

transcript to King George III. and Queen Charlotte, was played Besides his strong religious faith, Garrett was endowed with a at Drury Lane on the 15th of April 1740; and he became a welldeep sensibility, a creative imagination, rare taste and a singular known frequenter of theatrical circles. His first appearance on capacity for sympathy. Thus, though a learned man and an able the stage was made in March 1741, incognilo, as harlequin at jurist, he was bound to be first and always an artist. His artistic Goodman's Fields, Yates, who was ill, having allowed him to take temperament explains his many-sided activity, his expansive his place during a few scenes of the pantomime entitled Harlequin kindliness, his seductive charm, especially for women, his patriot- Student, or The Fall of Pantomime with the Restoration of the ism, his aristocratic pretensions, his huge vanity and dandyism, Drama. Garrick subsequently accompanied a party of players and the ingenuousness that absolves him from many faults in an from the same theatre to Ipswich, where he played his first part irregular lifc. From his rich artistic nature sprang his profound, as an actor under the name of Lyddal, in the character of Aboan sincere, sensual and melancholy lyrics, the variety and perfection in Southerne's Oroonoko). His success in this and other parts of his scenic creations, the splendour of his eloquence, the truth of determined his future career. On the 19th of October 1741 he his comic vein, the clegance of his lighter compositions. Two made his appearance at Goodman's Fields as Richard III. and books stand out in bold relief from among his writings: Folhas gained the most enthusiastic applause. Among the audience Cahidas, and that tragedy of fatality and pity, Frei Luiz de was Macklin, whose performance of Shylock, early in the same Sousa, with its gallery of noble figures incarnating the truest year, had pointed the way along which Garrick was so rapidly to realism in an almost perfect prose form. The complete collection pass in triumph. On the morrow the latter wrote to his brother of his works comprises twenty-four volumes and there are several at Lichfield, proposing to make arrangements for his withdrawal editions.

from the partnership, which, after much distressful complaint on AUTHORITIES.-Gomes de Amorim, Garrett, memorias biographicas the part of his family, met by him with the utmost consideration (3 vols., Lisbon, 1881-1888); D. Romero Ortiz, La Litteratura Portuguesa en el siglo XIX (Madrid, 1869), pp. 165-221; Dr

were ultimately carried into effect. Meanwhile, each night had Thcophilo Braga, Garrell e o romantismo (Oporto, 1904). and Garrell added to his popularity on the stage. The town, as Gray (who, e os iramas romanticos (Oporto, 1905), with a full bibliography: like Horace Walpole, at first held out against the furore) declared, Innocencio da Silva, Diccionario bibliographico Portuguez, vol. iii. was “horn-mad”about him. Before his Richard had exhausted pp. 309-316, and vol. x. pp. 180-185. Sce, Revue encyclopédique its original effect, he won new applause as Aboan, and soon Garrett. Frei Luiz de Sousa was translated by Edgar Prestage under afterwards as Lear and as Pierre in Ctway's Venice Preserved, the title Brother Luiz de Sousa (London, 1909).

(E. PR.) as well as in several comic characters (including that of Bayes), Glover (" Leonidas ") attended every performance; the duke of bright and luminous, and clearly destined to dispel the barbarisms Argyll, Lords Cobham and Lyttelton, Pitt, and several other of a tasteless age, too long superstitiously devoted to the illusions members of parliament testified their admiration. Within the of imposing declamation." Garrick's French descent and his first six months of his theatrical career he acted in eighteen education may have contributed to give him the vivacity and characters of all kinds, and from the end of December he appeared versatility which distinguished him as an actor; and nature had in his own name. Pope went to sec him three times during his given him an eye, if not a stature, to command, and a mimic first performances, and pronounced that "that young man power of wonderful variety. The list of his characters in tragedy, never had his equal as an actor, and he will never have a rival.” comedy and farce is large, and would be extraordinary for a Before next spring he had supped with “ the great Mr Murray, modern actor of high rank; it includes not less than seventeen counsellor,” and was engaged to do so with Mr Pope through Shakespearian parts. As a manager, though he committed some Murray's introduction, while he was dining with Halifax, Sand- grievous blunders, he did good service to the theatre and signally wich and Chesterfield. “ There was a dozen dukes of a night at advanced the popularity of Shakespeare's plays, of which not Goodman's Fields," writes Horace Walpole. Garrick's farce of less than twenty-four were produced at Drury Lane under his The Lying Valet, in which he performed the part of Sharp, was at management. Many of these were not pure Shakespeare; and this time brought out with so much success that he ventured to he is credited with the addition of a dying speech to the text of send a copy to his brother.

Macbeth. On the other hand, Tate Wilkinson says that Garrick's His fortune was now made, and while the managers of Covent production of Hamlet in 1773 was well received at Drury Lane Garden and Drury Lane resorted to the law to make Giffard, the even by the galleries, “though without their favourite acquaintmanager of Goodman's Fields, close his little theatre, Garrick ances the gravediggers.” Among his published adaptations are was engaged by Fleetwood for Drury Lane for the season of 1742. an opera, The Fairies (from Midsummer Night's Dream) (1755); In June of that year he went over to Dublin, where he found the an opera The Tempest (1756); Catherine and Petruchio (1758); same homage paid to his talents as he had received from his own Florize and Perdila (1762). But not every generation has the countrymen. He was accompanied by Margaret (Peg) Woffing- same notions of the way in which Shakespeare is best honoured. ton, of whom he had been for some time a fervent admirer. Few sins of omission can be charged against Garrick as a (His claim to the authorship of the song to Lovely Peggy is manager, but he refused Home's Douglas, and made the wrong still sub judice. There remains some obscurity as to the end of choice between False Delicacy and The Good Natur'd Man. their liaison.) From September 1742 to April 1745 he played at For the rest, he purified the stage of much of its grossness, and Drury Lane, after which he again went over to Dublin, Here introduced a relative correctness of costume and decoration he remained during the whole season, as joint-manager with unknown before. To the study of English dramatic literature he Sheridan, in the direction and profits of the Theatre Royal in rendered an important service by bequeathing his then unrivalled Smock Alley. In 1746–1747 he fulfilled a short engagement with collection of plays to the British Museum. Rich at Covent Garden, his last series of performances under a After escaping from the chains of his passion for the beautiful management not his own. With the close of that season Fleet- but reckless Mrs Woffington, Garrick had in 1749 married wood's patent for the management of Drury Lane expired, and Mademoiselle Violette (Eva Maria Veigel), a German lady who Garrick, in conjunction with Lacy, purchased the property of the had attracted admiration at Florence or at Vienna as a dancer, theatre, together with the renewal of the patent; contributing and had come to England early in 1746, where her modest grace £8000 as two-thirds of the purchase-money. In September 1747 and the rumours which surrounded her created a surore, and where it was sened with a strong company of actors, Johnson's she found enthusiastic patrons in the earl and countess of Burling. prologue being spoken by Garrick, while the epilogue, written by ton. Garrick, who called her “ the best of women and wives,” him, was spoken by Mrs Woffington. The negotiations involved lived most happily with her in his villa at Hampton; acquired by Garrick in a bitter quarrel with Macklin, who appears to have had him in 1754, whither he was glad to escape from his house in a real grievance in the matter. Garrick took no part himself till Southampton Street. To this period belongs Garrick's quarrel his performance of Archer in the Bcaux' Stralagem, a month after with Barry, the only actor who even temporarily rivalled him in the opening. For a time at least the drama's patrons" were the favour of the public. In 1763 Garrick and his wife visited content with the higher entertainment furnished them; in the Paris, where they were cordially received and made the acquaintend Garrick had to“ please" them, like most other managers, by ance of Diderot and others at the house of the baron d'Holbach. gratifying their love of show. Garrick was surrounded by many It was about this time that Grimm extolled Garrick as the first players of eminence, and he had the art, as he was told by Mrs and only actor who came up to the demands of his imagination; Clive, “of contradicting the proverb that one cannot make and it was in a reply to a pamphlet occasioned by Garrick's visit bricks without straw, by doing what is infinitely more difficult, that Diderot first gave expression to the views expounded in his making actors and actresses without genius.” He had to en- Paradoxe sur le comédien. After some months spent in Italy, counter very serious opposition from the old actors whom he had where Garrick sell scriously ill, they returned to Paris in the distanced, and with the younger actors and actresses he was autumn of 1764 and made more friends, reaching London in April involved in frequent quarrels. But to none of them or their 1765. Their union was childless, and Mrs Garrick survived her fellows did he, so far as it appears, show that jealousy of real husband until 1822. Her portrait by Hogarth is at Windsor merit from which so many great actors have been unable to remain Castle. free. For the present he was able to hold his own against all Garrick practically ceased to act in 1766, but he continued the competition. The naturalness of his acting fascinated those who, management of Drury Lane, and in 1769 organized the Shakelike Partridge in Tom Jones, listened to nature's voice, and speare celebrations at Stratford-on-Avon, an undertaking which justified the preference of more conscious critics. To be" pleased ended in dismal failure, though he composed an “Ode upon with nature was, as Churchill wrote, in the Rosciod (1761),' dedicating a building and erecting a Statue to Shakespeare ” on to be pleased with Garrick. For the stately declamation, the the occasion. (See, inter alia, Gurrick's Vagary, or England Run sonorous, and beyond a doubt impressive, chant of Quin and his Mad; with parliculars of the Stratford Jubilce, 1769.). Of his best fellows, Garrick substituted rapid changes of passion and humour supporters on the stage, Mrs Cibber, with whom he had been in both voice and gesture, which held his audiences spellbound. reconciled, died in 1766, and Mrs (Kitty) Clive retired in 1769; " It seemed," wrote Richard Cumberland, “as is a whole century but Garrick contrived to maintain the success of his theatre. had been stepped over in the passage of a single scene; old He sold his share in the property in 1776 for £35,000, and took things were done away, and a new order at once brought forward, leave of the stage by playing a round of his favourite characters-

Hamlet, Lear, Richard and Benedick, among Shakespearian In the subsequent A pology addressed to the Critical Reviewers, Churchill revenged himself for the slight which he supposed Carrick parts; Lusignan in Zara, Aaron Hill's adaptation of Voltaire's to have put upon him, by some spiteful lines, which, however, Zaire; and Kitely in his own adaptation of Ben Jonson's Every Garrick requited by good-humoured kindness.

Man in his Humour; Archer in Farquhar's Beaux' Stralagem; Abel Drugger in Ben Jonson's Alchemist; Sir John Brute in acted by Sothern, and later associated with Sir Charles Wyndham, Vanbrugh's Provoked Wise ;-Leon in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and

is of course mere fiction. have a Wife. He ended the series, as Tate Wilkinson says,

As to the portraits of Garrick, see W. T. Lawrence in The

Connoisseur (April 1905). That by Gainsborough at Stratford-on“in full glory "with“ the youthful Don Felix "in Mrs Centlivre's Avon was preferred by Mrs Garrick to all others. Several remain Wonder on the 10th of June 1776. He died in London on the from the hand of Hogartii, including the famous picture of Garrick 20th of January 1779. He was buried in Westminster Abbey at

as Richard Ill. The portraits by Reynolds include the celebrated

Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy." Zoffany's are portraits the foot of Shakespeare's statue with imposing solemnities. An in character. Roubiliac's statue of Shakespeare, for which Carrick elegy on his death was published by William Tasker, poet and sat, and for which he paid the sculptor three hundred guineas, was physiognomist, in the same year.

originally placed in a small temple at Hampton, and is now in the

entrance hall at the British Museum. In person, Garrick was a little below middle height; in his

(R. CA.; A. W. W.) later years he secms to have inclined to stouiness. The extra- GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD (1805-1879), the American ordinary mobility of his whole person, and his power of as it were anti-slavery leader, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, transforming himself at will, are allested by many anecdotes and U.S.A., on the 10th of December 1805. His parents were from descriptions, but the piercing power of his cyc must have been his the British province of New Brunswick. The father, Abijah, a most irresistible feature.

sca-caplain, went away from home when William was a child, Johnson, of whose various and often merely churlish remarks and it is not known whether he died at sea or on land. The on Garrick and his doings many are scattered through the pages mother, whose maiden name was Lloyd, is said to have been a of Boswell, spoke warmly of the clegance and sprighuiness of his woman of high character, charming in person and eminent for friend's conversation, as well as of his liberality and kindness of picty. She died in 1823. William had a taste for books, and heart; while to the great actor's art he paid the exquisite tribuic made the most of his limited opportunities. His mother first set of describing Garrick's sudden death as having “cclipsed the him to learn the trade of a shoemaker, first at Newburyport, and gaiety of nations, and impoverished the public stock of harmless then, after 1815, at Baltimore, Maryland, and, when she found pleasure.” But the most discriminating character of Garrick, that this did not suit him, let him try his hand at cabinet-making slightly tinged with satire, is that drawn by Goldsmith in his (at Haverhill, Mass.). But this pleased him no better. In poem of Retaliation. Beyond a doubt he was not without a October 1818, when he was in his fourteenth year, he was made certain moral timidity contrasting strangely with his cager more than content by being indentured to Ephraim W. Allen, temperament and alertness of intellect; but, though he was not proprietor of the Newburyport Herald, to learn the trade of a cast in a heroic mould, he must have been one of the most printer. He soon became an expert compositor, and after a lime amiable of men. Garrick was often happy in his epigrams and began to write anonymously for the Herald. His communications occasional verse, including his numerous prologues and epilogues. won the commendation of the cditor, who had not at first the He had the good taste to recognize, and the spirit to make slightest suspicion that he was the author. He also wrote for public his recognition of, the excellence of Gray's odes at a time other papers with equal success. A series of political essays, when they were either ridiculed or neglected. His dramatic written by him for the Salem Gazette, was copied by a prominent pieces, The Lying Valel, adapted from Motteux's Novelly Lethc Philadelphia journal, the editor of which attributed them to the (1740), The Guardian, Linco's Travels (1767), Miss in her Teens Hon. Timothy Pickering, a distinguished statesman of Massa(1747), Irish Widow, &c., and his alterations and adaptations of chusetts. His skill as a printer won for him the position of foreold plays, which together fill four volumes, evinced his knowledge man, while his ability as a writer was so marked that the editor of of stage effect and his appreciation of lively dialogue and action; the Herald, when temporarily called away from his post, left the but he cannot be said to have added one new or original character paper in his charge. to the drama. He was joint author with Colman of The Clan- The printing-office was for him, what it has been for many destine Marriage (1766), in which he is said to have written his another poor boy, no mean substitute for the academy and for the famous part of Lord Ogleby. The excellent farce, High Life college. He was full of enthusiasm for liberty; the struggle of below Slairs, appears to have been wrongly attributed to Garrick, the Grecks to throw off the Turkish yoke enlisted his warmest and to be by James Townley. His Dramatic Works (1798) till sympathy, and at one time he seriously thought of entering the three, his Poetic (1735) iwo volumes.

West Point Academy and fitting himself for a soldier's career. Garrick's Private Correspondence (published in 1831-1832 His apprenticeship ended in 1826, when he began the publication with a short memoir by Boaden, in 2 vols. 4to), which includes of a new paper (actually the old one under a new name), the Free his extensive Forcign Correspondence with distinguished French Press, in his native place. The paper, whose motto was

Our men and women, and the notices of him in the memoirs of Country, our Whole Country, and nothing but our Country," was Cumberland, Hannah More and Madame D'Arblay, and above full of spirit and intellectual force, but Newburyport was a sleepy all in Boswell's Life of Johnson, bear testimony to his many place and the enterprise failed. Garrison then went to Boston, attractive qualities as a companion and to his fidelity as a friend. where, after working for a time as a journeyman printer, he

BIBLIOGRAPHY.-A collection of unprinted Garrick letters is in became the editor of the National Philanthropise, the first journal the Forster library at South Kensington. A list of publications of established in America to promote the cause of total abstinence all kinds for and against Garrick will be found in R. Lowe's Bibliographical History of English Theatrical Lilerature (1887). The earlier from intoxicating liquors. His work in this paper was highly biographies of Garrick are by Arthur Murphy (2 vols., 1801) and by appreciated by the friends of temperance, but a change in the the boukseller Tom Davies (2 vols., 4th

ed., 1805), the latter a work proprietorship led io his withdrawal before the end of the year. of some merit, but occasionally inaccurate and confused as to dates: In 1828 he was induced to establish the Journal of the Times at and a searching if not altogether sympathetic survey of his verses is furnished by Joseph Knight's valuable Life (1894). A memoir of Bennington, Vermont, to support the re-election of John Quincy Garrick is included in a volume of French Alemoirs of Mlle Clairon Adams to the presidency of the United States. The new paper, and others, published by Levain (H. L. Cain) at Paris in 1846; and though attractive in many ways, and full of force and fire, was an Italian Biografia di Davide Garrick was published by C. Blasis at Milan in 1840. Mr Percy Fitzgerald's Life (2' vols., 1868; new edition,

too far ahead of public sentiment on moral questions to win a 1899) is full and spirited, and has been reprinted, with additions, large support. In Boston he had met Benjamin Lundy (9.0.), who among Sir Theodore Martin's Monographs (1906). A delightful had for years been preaching the abolition of slavery. Garrison essay on Garrick appeared in the Quarterly Review (July 1868), had been deeply moved by Lundy's appcals, and after going to directing attention to the admirable criticisms of Garrick's acting Vermont he showed the deepest interest in the slavery question, in 1775. in the letters of G. C. Lichtenberg (Verm. Schrisien, iii., Göttingen, 1801). See also for a very valuable survey of Garrick's Lundy was then publishing in Baltimore a small monthly paper, labours as an actor, with a bibliography, C. Gachde, David Garrick entitled The Genius of Universal Emancipation, and he resolved als Shakespeare-Darsteller, &c. (Berlin, 1904). Mrs Parsons' Garrick,

to go to Bennington and invite Garrison to join him in the editorand his Circle and Some un published Correspondence of David Garrick, ed. G. P. Baker (Boston, Mass., 1907), are interesting additions to ship. With this object in view he walked from Boston to the literature of the subject. There is also a Life by James Smyth, Bennington, through the frost and snow of a New England winter, David Garrick (1887). T. W. Robertson's play David Garrick, first a distance of 125 m. His mission was successful. Garrison was deeply impressed by the good Quaker's zeal and devotion, and he means of lectures in some of the principal cities and towns of the resolved to join him and devote himself thereafter to the work of North. It was an up-hill work. Contempt for the negro and abolishing slavery.

indifference to his wrongs were almost universal. In Boston, In pursuance of this plan he went to Baltimore in the autumn then a great cotton mart, he tried in vain to procure a church or of 1829, and thenceforth the Genius was published weekly, vestry for the delivery of his lectures, and thereupon announced in under the joint cditorship of the two men. It was understood, one of the daily journals that if some suitable place was not however, that Garrison would do most of the editorial work, promptly offered he would speak on the common. A body of while Lundy would spend most of his time in lecturing and infidels under the leadership of Abner Kneeland (1774-1844), procuring subscribers. On one point the two editors differed who had previously been in turn a Baptist minister and the editor radically, Lundy being the advocate of gradual and Garrison of of a Universalist magazine, proffered him the use of their small immediate emancipation. The former was possessed with the hall; and, no other place being accessible, he accepted it gratefully, idea that the negroes, on being emancipated, must be colonized and delivered therein (in October 1830) thrce lectures, in which somewhere beyond the limits of the United States; the latter he unfolded his principles and plans. He visited privately many held that they should be emancipated on the soil of the country, of the leading citizens of the city, statesmen, divines and with all the rights of freemen. In view of this difference it was merchants, and besought them to take the lead in a national agreed that each should speak on his own individual responsibility movement against slavery; but they all with one consent made in the paper, appending his initial to each of his articles for the excuse, some of them listening to his plea with manifest im. information of the reader. It deserves mention here that Garrison patience. He was disappointed, but not disheartened. His was then in utter ignorance of the change previously wrought in conviction of the righteousness of his cause, of the evils and the opinions of English abolitionists by Elizabeth Heyrick's dangers of slavery, and of the absolute necessity of the contempamphlet in favour of immediate, in distinction from gradual plated movement, was intensified by opposition, and he resolved emancipation. The sinfulness of slavery being admitted, the to go forward, trusting in God for success. duty of immediate emancipation to his clear ethical instinct was On the ist of January 1831, without a dollar of capital, and perfectly manifest. He saw that it would be idle to expose and without a single subscriber, he and his partner Isaac Knapp denounce the evils of slavery, while responsibility for the system (1804-1843) issued the first number of the Liberator, avowing their was placed upon former generations, and the duty of abolishing determination to print it as long as they could subsist on bread it transferred to an indefinite future. His demand for immediate and water, or their hands obtain employment.” Its motto was, emancipation fell like a tocsin upon the ears of slaveholders. “Our country is the world--our countrymen are mankind "; and For general talk about the evils of slavery they cared little, but the editor, in his address to the public, uttered the words which this assertion that every slave was entitled to instant freedom have become memorable as embodying the whole purpose and filled them with alarm and roused them to anger, for they saw spirit of his life: “ I am in earnest-I will not equivocate, I will that, if the conscience of the nation were to respond to the not excuse I will not retreat a single inch-and I will be proposition, the system must inevitably fall. The Genius, now heard.” Help came but slowly. For many months Garrison that it had become a vehicle for this dangerous doctrine, was a and his brave partner, who died long before the end of the paper to be feared and intensely hated. Baltimore was then one conflict, made their bed on the floor of the room,“ dark, unof the centres of the domestic slave trade, and upon this traffic furnished and mcan,” in which they printed their paper, and Garrison heaped the strongest denunciations. A vessel owned in where Mayor Harrison Gray Otis of Boston, in compliance with Newburyport having laken a cargo of slaves from Baltimore to the request of Governor Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina, New Orleans, he characterized the transaction as an act of “ ferreted them out " in "an obscure hole," "their only visible “ domestic piracy," and avowed his purpose to “ cover with auxiliary a negro boy.” But the paper founded under such thick infamy” those engaged therein. He was thereupon inauspicious circumstances exerted a mighty influence, and lived prosecuted for libel by the owner of the vessel, fined $50, mulcted to record not only President Lincoln's proclamation of emancipain costs, and, in default of payment, committed to gaol. His tion, but the adoption of an amendment to the constitution of the imprisonment created much excitement, and in some quarters, United States for ever prohibiting slavery: It was the beginning in spite of the pro-slavery spirit of the time, was a subject of and the nucleus of an agitation that eventually pervaded and indignant comment in public as well as private. The excitement filled every part of the country. Other newspapers were afterwas sed by the publication of two or three striking sonnets, wards established upon the same principles; anti-slavery instinct with the spirit of liberty, which Garrison inscribed on the societies, founded upon the doctrine of immediate emancipation, walls of his cell. One of these, Freedom of Mind, is remarkable sprang up on every hand; the agitation was carried into political for freshness of thought and terseness of expression.

parties, into the press, and into legislative and ecclesiastical John G. Whittier, the Quaker poet, interceded with Henry assemblies; until in 1861 the Southern states, taking alarm from Clay to pay Garrison's fine and thus release him from prison. the election of a president known to be at heart opposed to To the credit of the slaveholding statesman it must be said that slavery though pledged to enforce all the constitutional safehe responded favourably, but before he had time for the requisite guards of the system, seceded from the Union and set up a preliminaries Arthur Tappan, a philanthropic merchant of New separate government. York, contributed the necessary sum and set the prisoner free Garrison sought the abolition of slavery by moral means alone. after an incarceration of seven wecks. The partnership between He knew that the national government had no power over the Garrison and Lundy was then dissolved by mutual consent, and system in any state, though it could abolish it at the national the former resolved to establish a paper of his own, in which, capital, and prohibit it in the territories. He thought it should upon his sole responsibility, he could advocate the doctrine of bring its moral influence to bear in favour of abolition; but immediate emancipation and oppose the scheme of African neither he nor his associates ever asked Congress to exercise any colonization. He was sure, after his experiences at Baltimore, unconstitutional power. His idea was to combine the moral that a movement against slavery resting upon any less radical influence of the North, and pour it through every open channel foundation than this would be ineffcctual. He first proposed to upon the South. To this end he made his appeal to the Northern establish his paper at Washington, in the midst of slavery, but on churches and pulpits, beseeching them to bring the power of returning to New England and observing the state of public Christianity to bear against the slave system, and advocate the opinion there, he came to the conclusion that little could be done rights of the slaves to immediate and unconditional freedom. at the South while the non-slaveholding North was lending her He was a man of peace, hating war not less than he did slavery; influence, through political, commercial, religious and social but he warned his countrymen that if they refused to abolish channels, for the sustenance of slavery. He determined, therefore, slavery by moral power a retributive war must sooner or later to publish his paper in Boston, and, having issued his prospectus, ensue. The conflict was irrepressible. Slavery must be overset himself to the task of awakening an interest in the subject by 'thrown, if not by peaceful means, then in blood. The first society organized under Garrison's auspices, and in accordance with his standards of his time he was decidedly heterodox, though he had principles, was the New England Anti-Slavery Society, which an intensely religious nature and was far from being an infidel, adopted its constitution in January 1832. In the spring of this as he was often charged with being. He was, moreover, not only year Garrison issued his Thoughts on African Colonization, in a non-resistant but also an opponent of all political systems which he showed by ample citations from official documents that based on force. “As to the governments of this world,” he the American Colonization Society was organized in the interest of said," whatever their titles or forms we shall endeavour to prove slavery, and that in offering itself to the people of the North as that in their essential elements, as at present administered, practical remedy for that system it was guilty of deception. they are all anti-Christ; that they can never by human wisdom His book, aided by others taking substantially the same view, be brought into conformity with the will of God; that they smote the society with a paralysis from which it never recovered. cannot be maintained except by naval and military power to Agents of the American Colonization Sociсty in England having carry them into effect; that all their penal enactments, being succeeded in deceiving leading Abolitionists there as to its a dead letter without any army to carry them into effect, are character and tendency, Garrison was deputed by the New virtually written in human blood; and that the followers of England Anti-Slavery Society to visit England for the purpose of Jesus should instinctively shun their stations of honor, power, counteracting their influence. He went in the spring of 1833, and emolument-at the same time 'submitting to every when he was but twenty-seven years of age, and was received ordinance of man for the Lord's sake' and offering no physical with great cordiality by British Abolitionists, some of whom had resistance to any of their mandates, however unjustortyrannical.” heard of his bold assaults upon American slavery, and had seen a These views were very distasteful to many, who, morcover, felt few numbers of the Libcrator. The struggle for emancipation in that Garrison greatly injured abolitionism by causing it to be the West Indies was then at the point of culmination; the leaders associated in men's minds with these unpopular views on other of the cause, from all parts of the kingdom, were assembled in subjects. The dissentients from his opinions determined to London, and Garrison was at once admitted to their councils and form an anti-slavery political party, while he believed in working treated with distinguished consideration. He took home with by moral rather than political party instrumentalities. These him a

“protest " against the American Colonization Society, differences led to the organization of a new National Antisigned by Wilberforce, Zachary Macaulay, Samuel Gurney, Slavery Society in 1840, and to the formation of the “ Liberty William Evans, S. Lushington, T.Fowell Buxton, James Cropper, Party" (9.0.) in politics. (See BIRNEY, JAMES G.) The two Daniei O'Connell and others, in which they declared their de- societies sent thcir delegates to the World's Anti-Slavery Conliberale judgment that “its precepts were delusive," and "its vention in London in 1840, and Garrison refused to take his seat real effects of the most dangerous nature." He also received in that body, because the women delegates from the United assurances of the cordial sympathy of British Abolitionists with States were excluded. The discussions of the next few years him in his efforts to abolish American slavery. He gained a served to make clearer than before the practical workings of the hearing before a large popular assembly in London, and won the constitution of the United States as a shield and support of confidence of those whom he addressed by hisevident earnestness, slavery; and Garrison, after a long and painful reflection, came sincerity and ability.

to the conclusion that its pro-slavery clauses were immoral, and Garrison's visit to England enraged the pro-slavery people that it was therefore wrong to take an oath for its support. The and press of the United States at the outset, and when he re- Southern states had greatly enlarged representation in Congress turned home in September with the “protest" against the on account of their slaves, and the national government was Colonization Society, and announced that he had engaged the constitutionally bound to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves, services of George Thompson as a lecturer against American and to suppress every attempt on their part to gain their freeslavery, there were fresh outbursts of rage on every hand. The dom by force. In view of these provisions, Garrison, adopting a American Anti-Slavery Society was organized in December of bold scriptural figure of specch, denounced the constitution as that year (1833), putting forth a masterly declaration of its a covenant with death and an agreement with hell," and chose principles and purposes from the pen of Garrison. This added as his motto, “No union with slaveholders." fresh fuel to the public excitement, and when Thompson came One class of Abolitionists sought to evade the difficulty by over in the next spring, the hostility to the cause began to mani- strained interpretations of the clauses referred to, while others, fest itself in mobs organized to suppress the discussion of the admitting that they were immoral, felt themselves obliged, slavery question. Now began what Harriet Martineau called notwithstanding, to support the constitution in order to avoid " the martyr age in America.” In the autumn of 1835 Thompson what they thought would be still greater evils. The American was compelled, in order to save his life, to embark secretly for Anti-Slavery Society, of which Garrison was the president England. Just before his departure the announcement that from 1843*to the day of emancipation, was during all this period he would address the Woman's Anti-Slavery Society of Boston the nucleus of an intense and powerful moral agitation, which created "a mob of gentlemen of property and standing," from was greatly valued by many of the most faithful workers in the which, if he had been present, he could hardly have escaped with field of politics, who respected Garrison for his fidelity to his his life. The whole city was in an uproar. Garrison, almost convictions. On the other hand, he always had the highest denuded of his clothing, was dragged through the streets with a respect for every earnest and faithful opponent of slavery, rope by infuriated men. He was rescued with great difficulty, however far their special views might differ. When in 1861 the and consigned to the gaol for safety, until he could be secretly Southern states seceded from the Union and took up arms against removed from the city.

it, he saw clearly that slavery would perish in the struggle, that Anti-slavery societies were greatly multiplied throughout the the constitution would be purged of its pro-slavery clauses, and North, and many men of influence, both in the church and in that the Union henceforth would rest upon the sure foundations the state, were won to the cause. Garrison, true to his original of liberty, justice and equality to all men. He therefore ceased purpose, never faltered or turned back. The Abolitionists of from that hour to advocate disunion, and devoted himself to ihe United States were a united body until 1839-1840, when the task of preparing the way for and hastening on the inevitable divisions sprang up among them. Garrison countenanced the event. His services at this period were recognized and honoured activity of women in the cause, even to the extent of allowing by President Lincoln and others in authority, and the whole them to vote and speak in the anti-slavery societies, and country knew that the agitation which made the abolition of appointing them as lecturing agents; moreover, he believed slavery feasible and necessary was largely due to his uncomproin the political equality of the sexes, to which a strong party was mising spirit and indomitable courage. opposed upon social and religious grounds. Then there were In 1865 at the close of the war, he declared that, slavery being some who ihought Garrison dealt too severely with the churches abolished, his career as an abolitionist was ended. He counselled and pulpits for their complicity with slavery, and who accused a dissolution of the American Anti-Slavery Society, insisting him of a want of religious orthodoxy; indeed, according to the I that it had become functus officiis, and that whatever needed

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