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A.D. 1126.

name of Jannatabad; it remained so as long as the Mabommedan | Many inscriptions of historical importance have been found in the kings retained their independence. In A.D. 1564 Sulaiman ruins. Kirani, a Pathan adventurer, abandoned it for Tanda, a place See M. Martin (Buchanan Hamilton), Eastern India, vol. iii.(1831):

G. H. Ravenshaw, Gaur (1878): James Fergusson, History of Indian somewhat nearer the Ganges. Gaur was sacked by Sher Shah in 1539, and was occupied by Akbar's general in 1575, when Surveyor, Bengal Circle (1900-1904).

and Eastern Architecture (1876): Reports of the Archaeological Daud Shah, the last of the Afghan dynasty, refused to pay GAUR, the native name of the wild ox, Bos (Bibos) gaurus, homage to the Mogul emperor. This occupation was followed of India, miscalled bison by sportsmen. The gaur, which extends by an outbreak of the plague, which completed the downfall of into Burma and the Malay Peninsula, where it is known as the city, and since then it has been little better than a heap of seladang, is the typical representative of an Indo-Malay group ruins, almost overgrown with jungle.

of wild cattle characterized by the presence of a ridge on the The city in its prime measured 7 m. from north to south, withers, the compressed horns, and the white legs. The gaur, with a breadth of 1 to 2 m With suburbs it covered an area which reaches a height of nearly 6 ft. at the shoulder, is specially of 20 to 30 sq. m., and in the 16th century the Portuguese characterized by the forward curve and great elevation of the historian Faria y Sousa described it as containing 1,200,000 ridge between the horns. The general colour is blackish-grev. inhabitants. The ramparts of this walled city, which was Hill-forests are the resort of this species. surrounded by extensive suburbs, still exist; they were works GAUSS, KARL FRIEDRICH (1777-1855), German matheof vast labour, and were on the average about 40 ft. high, and matician, was born of humble parents at Brunswick on the 30th 180 to 200 it thick at the base. The facing of masonry and the of April 1777, and was indebted for a liberal education to the buildings with which they were covered have now disappeared, notice which his talents procured him from the reigning duke. and the embankments themselves are overgrown with dense His name became widely known by the publication, in his jungle. The western side of the city was washed by the Ganges, wenty-fifth year (1801), of the Disquisitiones arithmeticae. and within the space enclosed by these embankments and the In 1807 he was appointed director of the Göttingen observatory, river stood the city of Gaur proper, with the fort containing an office which he retained to his death: it is said that he never the palace in its souih-west corner. Radiating north, south and slept away from under the roof of his observatory, except on east from the city, other embankments are to be traced running one occasion, when he accepted an invitation from Baron von through the suburbs and extending in certain directions for 30 Humboldt to attend a meeting of natural philosophers at Berlin. or 40 m. Surrounding the palace is an inner embankment of In 189 he published at Hamburg his Theoria molus corporum similar construction to that which surrounds the city, and even coelestium, a work which gave a powerful impulse to the true more overgrown with jungle. A deep moat protects it on the methods of astronomical observation; and his astronomical outside. To the north of the outer enbankment lies the Sagar workings, observations, calculations of orbits of planets and Dighi, a great reservoir, 1600 yds. by 800 yds., dating from comets, &c., are very numerous and valuable. He continued

hislabours in the theory of numbers and other analytical subjects, Fergusson in his History of Eastern Architecture thus describes and communicated a long series of memoirs to the Royal Society the general architectural style of Gaur:-“ It is neither like that of Sciences (Königliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften) at of Delhi por Jaunpore, nor any other style, but one purely local Göttingen. His first memoir on ihe theory of magnetism, and not without considerable merit in itself, its principal Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris ad mensuram absolutam characteristic being heavy short pillars of stone supporting revocala, was published in 1833, and he shortly afterwards pointed arches and vaults in brick-whereas at Jaunpore, for proceeded, in conjunction with Wilhelm Weber, to invent new instance, light pillars carried horizontal architraves and flat apparatus for observing the earth's magnetism and its changes; ceilings.” Owing to the lightness of the small, thin bricks, which the instruments devised by them were the declination instrument were chiefly used in the making of Gaur, its buildings have not and the bifilar magnetometer. With Weber's assistance he well withstood the ravages of time and the weather: while erected in 1833 at Göttingen a magnetic observatory free from much of its enamelled work has been removed for the ornamenta- iron (as Humboldt and F J. D. Arago had previously done on a tion of the surrounding cities of more modern origin. Moreover, smaller scale), where he made magnetic observations, and from the ruins long served as a quarry for the builders of neighbouring this same observatory he sent telegraphic signals to the neighbourtowns and villages, till in 1900 steps were taken for their preserva.ing town, thus showing the practicability of an electromagnetic tion by the government. The finest ruin in Gaur is that of the telegraph. He further instituted an association (Magnetischer Great Golden Mosque, also called Bara Darwaza, or twelve- Vereir), composed at first almost entirely of Germans, whose doored (1526). Anarched corridor running along the whole front continuous observations on fixed term-days extended from of the original building is the principal portion now standing. Holland to Sicily. The volumes of their publication, Resultate There are eleven arches on either side of the corridor and one at

aus den Beobachtungen des magnetischen Vereins, extend from each end of it, from which the mosque probably obtained its 1830 to 1839; and in those for 1838 and 1839 are contained the

These arches are surmounted by eleven domes in fair two important memoirs by Gauss, Allgemeine Theorie des Erd. preservation; the mosque had originally thirty-three.

magnetismus, and the Allgemeine Lehrsätze-on the theory of The Small Golden or Eunuch's mosque, in the ancient suburb forces attracting according to the inverse square of the distance. of Firozpur, has fine carving, and is faced with stone fairly well The instruments and methods thus due to him are substantially preserved. The Tantipara mosque (1475-1480) has beautiful those employed in the magnetic observatories throughout the moulding in brick, and the Lotan mosque of the same period world. He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measureis unique in retaining its glazed tiles. The citadel, of the ments of an arc and trigonometrical operations (1821-1848), Mahommedan period, was strongly fortified with a rampart and wrote (1843, 1840) the two memoirs Über Gegenstände der and entered through a magnificent gateway called the Dakhil höheren Geodäsie. Connected with observations in general Darwaza (?1459-1474). At the south-east corner was a palace, we have (1812-1826) the memoir Theoria combinationis observasurrounded by a wall of brick 66 ft, high, of which a part is tionum erroribus minimis obnoxia, with a second part and a standing. Near by were the royal tombs. Within the citadel supplement. Another memoir of applied mathematics is the is the Kadam Rasul mosque (1530), which is still used, and close Dio pirische Untersuchungen (1840). Gauss was well versed in outside is a tall tower called the Firoz Minar (perhaps signifying general literature and the chief languages of modern Europe,

tower of victory "). There are a number of Mahommedan and was a member of nearly all the leading scientific societies buildings on the banks of the Sagar Dighi, including, notably, in Europe. He died at Göttingen on the 23rd of February 1855the tomb of the saint Makhdum Shaikh Akhi Siraj (d. 1357), The centenary of his birth was celebrated (1877) at his native and in the neighbourhood is a burning ghat, traditionally the place, Brunswick. only one allowed to the use of the Hindus by their Mahommedan Gauss's collected works were published by the Royal Society of conquerors, and still greatly venerated and frequented by them. I Göttingen, in 7 vols. 4to (Gött., 1863-1871), edited by E. J. Schering

name.

-(1) the Disquisitiones arithmeticae, (2) Theory of Numbers, (3) His best-known work, entitled La Théopneuslie ou pleine Analysis, (4) Geometry and Method of Least Squares. (5) Mathematical inspiration des saintes écritures, an elaborate defence of the coelestium. Additional volumes have since been published, Funda- doctrine of “plenary inspiration," was originally published in mente der Geometrie usw. (1900), and Geodalische Nachträge zu Paris in 1840, and rapidly gained a wide popularity in France, as Band iv. (1903). They include, besides his various works and also, through translations, in England and America. It was memoirs, notices by him of many of these, and of works of other followed in 1860 by a supplementary treatise on the canon authors in the Göttingen gelehrte Anzeigen, and a considerable amount of previously unpublished matter, Nachlass. Of the memoirs

in pure (Le Conon des saintes écritures ou double point de vue de la science mathematics, comprised for the most part in vols. ii., iii. and iv. et de la foi), which, though also popular, has hardly been so widely (but to these must be added those on Allrections in vol. v.), it may read. be safely said there is not one which has not signally contributed See the article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie (1899). to the progress of the branch of mathematics to which it belongs. or which would not require to be carefully analysed in a history of

GAUTIER, ÉMILE THÉODORĖ LÉON (1832–1897), French the subject., Running through these volumes in order, we have in literary historian, was born at Hâvre on the 8th of August 1832. the second the memoir, Summalio quarundam serierum singularium, He was educated at the École des Chartes, and became succes. of complex numbers of the form a+bi was first introduced into the sively keeper of the archives of the department of Haute-Marne theory of numbers; and included in the Nachlass are some valuable

and of the imperial archives at Paris under the empire. In 1871 tables. That for the conversion of a fraction into decimals (giving he became professor of palaeography at the Ecole des Chartes. the complete period for all the prime numbers up to 997) is a speci: He was elected member of the Academy of Inscriptions in 1887. men of the extraordinary love which Gauss had for long arithmetical and became chief of the historical section of the national archives calculations, and the amount of work gone through in the construction of the table of the number of the classes of binary quadratic in 1893. Léon Gautier rendered great services to the study of forms must also have been tremendous. In vol. iii. we have memoirs early French literature, the most important of his numerous relating to the proof of the theorem that çvery numerical equation works on medieval subjects being a critical text (Tours, 1872) has a real or imaginary root, the memoir on the Hyper geometric with translation and introduction of the Chanson de Roland, and Series, that on Inlerpolation, and the memoir Determinalio attractionis--in which a planetary mass is considered as distributed over

Les Épopées françaises (3 vols., 1866-1867; 2nd ed., 5 vols., 1878 its orbit according io the time in which each portion of the orbit is 1897, including a Bibliographie des chansons de gesle). He died in described, and the question (having an implied rescrence to the theory Paris on the 25th of August 1897. of secular perturbations) is to find the attraction of such a ring. In the solution the value of an elliptic function is found by means of miscellaneous writer, was born at Tarbes on the 31st of August

GAUTIER, THÉOPHILE (1811-1872), French poet and the arithmetico-geometrical mean. searches on this subject, and also researches (unfortunately very 1811. He was educated at the grammar school of that town, and fragmentary) on the lemniscate-function, &c., showing that Gauss afterwards at the Collège Charlemagne in Paris, but was almost as was, even before 1800, in possession of many of the discoveries which much in the studios. He very early devoted himself to the study have made the names of N. H. Abel and K. G. J. Jacobi illustrious. In vol. iv. we have the memoir Allgemeine Auflösung, on the graphical of the older French literature, especially that of the 16th and the representation of one surface upon another, and the Disquisitiones carly part of the 17th century. This study qualified him well to generales circa superficies curvas. (An account of the treatment of take part in the Romantic movement, and enabled him to surfaces which he originated in this paper will be found in the article SURFACE ) And in vol. v. we have a memoir On the Attraction literary essays which, when barely eighteen years old, he put into

astonish Sainte-Beuve by the phraseology and style of some Homogeneous Ellipsoids, and the already mentioned memoir Allgemeine Lehrsätze, on the theory of forces attracting according to the the critic's hands. In consequence of this introduction he at inverse square of the distance.

(A. CA.) once came under the influence of the great Romantic cénocle, lo

which, as to Victor Hugo in particular, he was also introduced by GAUSSEN, FRANÇOIS SAMUEL ROBERT LOUIS (1790 his gifted but ill-starred schoolmate Gérard de Nerval. With 1863), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Geneva on the 25th of Gérard, Petrus Borel, Corot, and many other less known painters August 1790. His father, Georg Markus Gaussen, a nember of and poets whose personalities he has delightfully sketched in the the council of two hundred, was descended from an old Languedoc articles collected under the titles of Histoire du Romantisme, &c, family which had been scattered at the time of the religious he formed a minor romantic clique who were distinguished for a persecutions in France. At the close of his university career at time by the most extravagant eccentricity. A flaming crimson Geneva, Louis was in 1816 appointed pastor of the Swiss Reformed waistcoat and a great mass of waving hair were the outward Church at Satigny near Geneva, where he formed intimate rela- signs which qualified Gautier for a chief rank among the enthusitions with J. E. Cellerier, who had preceded him in the pastorate, astic devotees who attended the rehearsals of Hernani with red and also with the members of the dissenting congregation at tickets marked “ Hierro," performed mocking dances round the Bourg-de-Four, which, together with the Eglise du témoignage, bust of Racine, and were ai all times ready to exchange word or had been formed under the influence of the preaching of James blow with the perruques and grisâtres of the classical party In and Robert Haldane in 1817. The Swiss revival was distasteful Gautier's case these ireaks were not inconsistent with real genius to the pastors of Geneva (Vénérable Compagnie des Pasteurs), and and real devotion to sound ideals of literature He began (like on the 7th of May 1817 they passed an ordinance hostile to it. Thackeray, to whom he presents in other ways some striking As a protest against this ordinance, in 1819 Gaussen published in points of resemblance) as an artist, but soon found that his true conjunction with Cellérier a French translation of the Second powers lay in another direction. Helvetic Confession, with a preface expounding the views he had His first considerable poem, Albertus (1830), displayed a good reached upon the nature, use and necessity of confessions of deal of the extravagant character which accompanied rather than faith, and in 1830, for having discarded the official catechism of marked the movement, but also gave evidence of uncommon his church as being insufficiently explicit on the divinity of command both of language and imagery, and in particular of a Christ, original sin and the doctrines of grace, he was censured descriptive power hardly 10 be excelled. The promise thus and suspended by his ecclesiastical superiors. In the following given was more than fulfilled in his subsequent poetry, which, in year he took part in the formation of a Société Évangélique consequence of its small bulk, may well be noticed at once and by (Evangelische Gesellschafl). When this society contemplared, anticipation. The Comédie de la mort, which appeared soon after among other objects, the establishment of a new theological (1832), is one of the most remarkable of French poems, and college, be was finally deprived of his charge. After some time though never widely read has received the suffrage of every devoted to travel in Italy and England, he returned to Geneva competent reader. Minor poems of various dates, published in and ministered to an independent congregation until 1834, when 1840, display an almost unequalled command over poeucal form, he joined Merle d'Aubigné as professor of systematic theology in an advance even over Albertus in vigour, wealth and appropriatethe college which he had helped to found. This post he continued ness of diction, and abundance of the special poetical essence. to occupy until 1857, when he retired from the active duties of All these good gists reached their climax in the Émaux et tamécs, the chair. He died at Les Grottes, Geneva, on the 18th of June first published in 1856, and again, with additions, just before the

poet's death in 1872. These poems are in their own way such as

1863

But

cannot be surpassed. Gautier's poetical work contains in little in favour of "philosophic" treatment, comment upon him has an expression of his literary peculiarities. There are, in addition sometimes been unfavourable. But this injustice will, beyond to the peculiarities of style and diction already noticed, an extra- all question, be redressed again. He was neither immoral, ordinary feeling and affection for beauty in art and nature, and a irreligious nor unduly subservient to despotism, but morals, strange indifference to anything beyond this range, which has religion and politics (to which we may add science and material doubtless injured the popularity of his work.

progress) were matters of no interest to him. He was to all But it was not, after all, as a poet that Gautier was to achieve intents a humanist, as the word was understood in the 15th either profit or fame. For the theatre, he had but little gift, and century. But he was a humorist as well, and this combination, his dramatic efforts (if we except certain masques or ballets in joined to his singularly kindly and genial nature, saved him which his exuberant and graceful fancy came into play) are by from some dangers and depravations as well as some absurdities far his weakest. It was otherwise with his prose fiction. His to which the humanist temper is exposed. As time goes on it first novel of any size, and in many respects his most remarkable may be predicted that, though Gautier may not be widely read, work, was Mudemoiselle de Maupin (1835). Unfortunately this yet his writings will never cease to be full of indescribable charm book, while it establishes his literary reputation on an imperish- and of very definite instruction to men of letters. Besides those able basis, was unfitted by its subject, and in parts by its treat- of his works which have been already cited, we may notice Une ment, for general perusal, and created, even in France, a prejudice Larme du diable (1839), a charming mixture of humour and tenderagainst its author which he was very far from really deserving. ness; Les Grotesques (1844), a volume of early criticisms on some During the years from 1833 onwards, his fertility in novels and oddities of 17th-century literature; Coprices el zigzags (1845), tales was very great. Les Jeunes-France (1833), which may rank miscellanies dealing in part with English lise; Voyage en Espagne as a sort of prose Albertus in some ways, displays the follies of the (1845), Constantinople (1854), Voyage en Russie (1866), brilliant youthful Romantics in a vein of humorous and at the same time volumes of travel; Ménagerie intime (1869) and Tablcaux de half-pathetic satire. Fortunio (1838) perhaps belongs to the same siège (1872), his two latest works, which display his incomparable class. Jellalura, written somewhat later, is less extravagant and style in its quietest but not least happy form. more pathetic. A crowd of minor tales display the highest

There is no complete edition of Gautier's works, and the vicomte literary qualities, and rank with Mérimée's at the head of all

Spoelberch de Lovenjoul's Histoire des autres de Théophile Gautier

(1887) shows how formidable such an undertaking would be. contemporary works of the class. First of all must be mentioned

since his death numerous further collections of articles have been the ghost-story of La Morte amoureuse, a gem of the most perfect made: Fusains et eaux-fortes and Tableaux à la plume (1880); workmanship. For many years Gautier continued to write L'Orient (2 vols., 1881); Les Vacances du lundi (new ed., 1888);

La Nature chez elle (new ed., 1891). In 1879 his son-in-law, E. novels. La Belle Jenny (1864) is a not very successful attempt to draw on his English experience, but the earlier Afililona (1847) is

Bergerat, who had married his younger daughter Estelle (the elder,

Mme Judith Gautier--herself a writer of distinction--was at one a most charming picture of Spanish lifc. In. Spirile (1866) hetime Mme Carulle Mendès), issued a biography, Théophile Gaulier, endeavoured to enlist the fancy of the day for supernatural which has been often reprinted. With it should be compared Maxime manifestations, and a Roman de la momie (1856) is a learned study du Camp's volume in the Grands Ecrivains français (1890) and the

numerous references in the Journal des Goncourt. Critical eulogies, of ancient Egyptian ways. His most remarkable effort in this

from Sainte-Beuve (repeatedly in the Causeries) and Baudelaire (two kind, towards the end of his life, was Le Capitaine Fracasse (1863), articles in L'Art romanlique) downwards, are numerous. The chief à novel, partly of the picaresque school, partly of that which of the decriers is Émile Faguet in his Études littéraires sur le XIX Dumas was to make popular, projected nearly thirty years earlier,

In 1902 and 1903 there appeared two respectable acadenric

(G. SA.) and before Dumas himself had taken to the style. This book cloges by H. Menal and H. Potez.

GAUTIER D'ARRAS, French Irouvère, flourished in the second contains some of the finest instances of his literary power. Yet neither in poems nor in novels did the main occupation

liall of the 12th century. Nothing is known of his biography of Gautier as a literary man consist. He was early drawn to except what may be gleaned from his works. He dedicated his the more lucrative task of feuilleton-writing, and for more than

romance of Eracle to Theobald V., count of Blois (d. 1191); thirty years he was among the most expert and successful among his other patrons were Marie, countess of Champagne, practitioners of this art. Soon after the publication of Made

daughter of Louis VII. and Eleanor of Guienne and Baldwin IV.,

count of Hainaut. Érade, the hero of which becomes emperor moiselle de Maupin, in which he had not been too polite to journalism, he became irrevocably a journalist. He was actually of Constantinople as Heraclius, is purely a roman d'aventures the editor of L'Arlisle for a time: but his chief newspaper

and enjoyed great popularity. His second romance, Ne et connexions were with La Presse from 1836 10 1854 and with the Galeron, dedicated to Beatrix, the second wife of Frederick

Barbarossa, treats of a similar situation to that outlined in the Moniteur later. His work was mainly theatrical and art criticism. The rest of his life was spent either at Paris or in travels of lay of Eliduc " by Marie de France.

See the Eutres de Gautier d'Arras, ed. E. Löseth (2 vols., Paris, considerable extent to Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, 1890): Hist, lill. de la France, vol. xxii. (1852); A. Dinaux, Les England, Algeria and Russia, all undertaken with a more or less Trouvères (1833-1843), vol. iii. definite purpose of book-making. Having absolutely no political GAUZE, a light, transparent fabric, originally of silk, and opinions, he had no difficulty in accepting the Second Empire, now sometimes made of linen or cotton, woven in an open manner and received from it considerable favours, in return for which, with very fine yarn. It is said to have been originally made at however, he in no way prostituted his pen, but remained a Gaza in Palestine, whence the name. Some of the gauzes from literary man pure and simple. He died on the 23rd of December eastern Asia were brocaded with flowers of gold or silver. In 1872.

the weaving of gauze the warp threads, in addition to being Accounts of his travels, criticisms of the theatrical and literary crossed as in plain weaving, are twisted in pairs from left to works of the day, obituary notices of his contemporaries and right and from right to left alternately, after each shot of west, above all, art criticism occupied him in turn. It has sometimes thereby keeping the west threads at equal distances apart, and been deplored that this engagement in journalism should have retaining them in their parallel position. The textures are diverted Gautier from the performance of more capital work in woven either plain, striped or figured; and the material receives literature. Perhaps, however, this regret springs from a certain many designations, according to its appearance and the purposes misconception. Gautier's power was literary power pure and to which it is devoted. A thin cotton fabric, woven in the same simple, and it is as evident in his slightest sketches and criticisms way, is known as leno, to distinguish it from muslin made by as in Émaux el camécs or La Morle amourcuse. On the other hand, plain weaving. Silk gauze was a prominent and extensive his weakness, if he had a weakness, lay in his almost total in industry in the west of Scotland during the second half of the difference to the matters which usually supply subjects for art 18th century, but on the introduction of cotton-weaving it and therefore for literature. He has thus been accused of " lack greatly declined. In addition to its use for dress purposes silk of ideas " by those who have not cleared their own minds of cant; gauze is much employed for bolting or sifting flour and other and in the recent set-back of the critical current against form and I fnely ground substances. The term gauze is applied generally

siècle,

to transparent fabrics of whatever fibre made, and to the fine witnessed there became the almost exclusive subject of his woven wire-cloth used in safety-lamps, sieves, window-blinds, &c. drawings, as powerful, as impressive as ever, but better calculated

GAVARNI, the name by which SULPICE GUILLAUME CHEVALIER to be appreciated by cultivated minds than by the public, which (1801-1866), French caricaturist, is known. He is said to have had in sormer years granted him so wide a popularity. Most of taken the nom de plume from the place where he made his first these last compositions appeared in the weekly paper L'Illustrapublished sketch. He was born in Paris of poor parents, and tion. In 1857 he published in one volume the series entitled started in life as a workman in an engine-building factory. Al Masques et visages (1 vol. 12mo), and in 1869, about two years the same time he attended the free school of drawing. In his after his death, his last artistic work, Les Douze Mois (1 vol. fol.), first attempts to turn his abilities to some account he met with was given to the world. Gavarni was much engaged, during the many disappointments, but was at last entrusted with the last period of his life, in scientific pursuits, and this fact must drawing of some illustrations for a journal of fashion. Gavarni perhaps be connected with the great change wbich then took was then thirty-four years of age. His sharp and witty pencil place in his manner as an artist. He sent several communications gave to these generally commonplace and unartistic figures a to the Académie des Sciences, and till his death on the 23rd of life-likeness and an expression which soon won for him a name November 1866 he was eagerly interested in the question of in fashionable circles. Gradually he gave greater attention to aerial navigation. It is said that he made experiments on a large this more congenial work, and finally ceased working as an scale with a view to find the means of directing balloons; but engineer to become the director of the journal Les Gens du monde. it seems that he was not so successful in this line as his fellowHis ambition rising in proportion to his success, Gavarni from artist, the caricaturist and photographer, Nadar. this time followed the real bent of his inclination, and began a Gavarni's Euvres choisies were edited in 1845 (4 vols. 4to) with series of lithographed sketches, in which he portrayed the most letterpress by J. Janin, Th. Gautier and Balzac, followed in 1850 striking characteristics, foibles and vices of ihe various classes by two other volumes named Perles el parures; and some essays in

prose and in verse written by him were collected by one of his bioof French society. The letterpress explanations attached to his graphers, Ch. Yriarte, and published in 1869. See also E. and J. de drawings were always short, but were forcible and highly Goncourt, Gavarni, l'homme el l'euvre (1873. 8vo). J. Claterie has humorous, if sometimes trivial, and were admirably adapted also devoted to the great French caricaturist a curious and interest, to the particular subjects. The different stages through which ing essay. A catalogue raisonné of Gavarni's works was published Gavarni's talent passed, always elevating and refining itself, by J. Armelhault and E. Bocher (Paris, 1873, 8vo). are well worth being noted. At first he confined himself to the

GAVAZZI, ALESSANDRO (1809-1889), Italian preacher and study of Parisian manners, more especially those of the Parisian patriot, was born at Bologna on the 21st of March 1809. He youth. Tothis vein belong Les Lorciles, Les Actrices, Les Coulisses, at first became a monk (1825), and attached himself to the Les Fashionables, Les Gentilshommes bourgeois, Les Artistes, Les Barnabites at Naples, where he afterwards (1829) acted as Débardeurs, Clicky, Les Étudiants de Paris, Les Baliverneries professor of rhetoric. In 1840, having already expressed liberal parisiennes, Les Plaisirs champêtres, Les Bals masqués, Le Carnaval, views, he was removed to Rome to fill a subordinate position. Les Souvenirs du carnaval, Les Souvenirs du bal Chicard, La Vie Leaving his own country after the capture of Rome by the des jeunes hommes, Les Palois de Paris. He had now ceased to French, be carried on a vigorous campaign against priests and be director of Les Gens du monde; but he was engaged as ordinary Jesuits in England, Scotland and North America, partly by caricaturist of Le Charivari, and, whilst making the fortune

means of a periodical, the Gavazzi Free Word. While in England of the paper, he made his own. His name was exceedingly he gradually went over (1855) to the Evangelical church, and popular, and his illustrations for books were eagerly sought for became head and organizer of the Italian Protestants in London. by publishers. Le Juif errant, by Eugène Sue (1843, 4 vols. Returning to Italy in 1860, he served as army-chaplain with 8vo), the French translation of Hoffman's tales (1843, 8vo), the Garibaldi. In 1870 he became head of the Free Church (Chiesa first collective edition of Balzac's works (Paris, Houssiaux, 1850, libera) of Italy, united the scattered Congregations into the 20 vols. 8vo), Le Diable d Paris (1844-1846, 2 vols. 4to), Les Unione delle Chiese libere in Italia,” and in 1875 founded in Français peints par eux-mêmes (1840-1843, 9 vols. Svo), the

Rome the theological college of the Free Church, in which he collection of Physiologies published by Aubert in 38 vols. 18mo

himself taught dogmatics, apologetics and polemics. He died (1840-1842),—all owed a great part of their success at the time, in Rome on the 9th of January 1889. and are still sought for, on account of the clever and telling Priest in Absolution (1877): My Recollections of the Last Four Popes,

Amongst his publications are No Union with Rome (1871): The sketches contributed by Gavarni. A single frontispiece or &c., in answer to Cardinal Wiseman (1858); Oralions, 2 decades vignette was sometimes enough to secure the sale of a new book. (1851). Always desiring to enlarge the field of his observations, Gavarni GAVELKIND,' a peculiar system of tenure associated chiefly 600n abandoned his once favourite topics. He no longer limited with the county of Kent, but found also in other parts of England. himself to such types as the lorelle and the Parisian student, In Kent all land is presumed to be holden by this tenure until or to the description of the noisy and popular pleasures of the the contrary is proved, but some lands have been disgavelled capital, but turned his mirror to the grotesque sides of family by particular statutes. It is more correctly described as socage life and of humanity at large. Les Enfants lerribles, Les Parents tenure, subject to the custom of gavelkind. The chief peculiariterribles, Les Fourberies des femmes, La Politique des femmes, Les ties of the custom are the following. (1) A tenant can alienate Maris vengés, Les Nuances du sentiment, Les Rêves, Les Petits Jeux his lands by feoffment at fifteen years of age. (2) There is no de société, Les Petits Malheurs du bonheur, Les Impressions de lescheat on attainder for felony, or as it is expressed in the old menage, Les Interjections, Les Traductions en langue vulgaire, Les rhymePropos de Thomas Vireloque, &c., were composed at this time,

“The father to the bough, and are his most elevated productions. But whilst showing the

The son to the plough.' same power of irony as his former works, enhanced by a deeper (3) Generally the tenant could always dispose of his lands by insight into human nature, they generally bear the stamp of a will. (4) In case of intestacy the estate descends not to the eldest bitter and even sometimes gloomy philosophy. This tendency son but to all the sons (or, in the case of deceased sons, their was still more strengthened by a visit to England in 1849. He representatives) in equal shares. “Every son is as great a returned from London deeply impressed with the scenes of misery gentleman as the eldest son is.” It is to this remarkable peculiand degradation which he had observed among the lower classes arity that gavelkind no doubt owes its local popularity. Though of that city. In the midst of the cheerful atmosphere of Paris he 1 This word is generally taken to represent in 0. Eng. gafolgec ynd, had been struck chiefly by the ridiculous aspects of vulgarity from gafol, payment, tribute, and gec ynd, species, kind, and origin. and vice, and he had laughed at them. But the debasement of ally to have meant tenure by payment of rent or non-military serhuman nature which he saw in London appears to have affected vices, cl. gafol-land, and thence to have been applied to the particular him so forcibly ibat from that time the cheerful caricaturist derived from the Teutonic root seen in "

custom attached to such tenure in Kent. Gafol apparently is

to give "; the Med. never laughed or made others laugh again. What he had | Lat. gabulum, gablum gives the Fr. gabelle, tax.

CESSION.

females claiming in their own right are postponed to males, mother's side, the most famous hero of Arthurian romance. yet by representation they may inherit together with them. The first mention of his name is in a passage of William of Malmes. (5) A wife is dowable of one-half, instead of one-third of the land. bury, recording the discovery of his tomb in the province of Ros (6) A widower may be tenant by courtesy, without having had in Wales. He is there described as “Walwen qui fuit houd any issue, of one-half, but only so long as he remains unmarried. degener Arturis ex sorore nepos." Here he is said to have reigned An act of 18 1, for commuting manorial rights in respect of lands over Galloway; and there is certainly some connexion, the of copyhold and customary tenure, contained a clause specially character of which is now not easy to determine, between the exempting from the operation of the act " the custom of gavelkind two. In the later Historia of Goeffrey of Monmouth, and its as the same now exists and prevails in the county of Kent.” French translation by Wace, Gawain plays an important and Gavelkind is one of the most interesting examples of the "pseudo-historic " rôle. On the receipt by Arthur of the customary law of England; it was, previous to the Conquest, insulting message of the Roman emperor, demanding tribute, the general custom of the realm, but was then superseded by it is he who is despatched as ambassador to the enemy's camp, the feudal law of primogeniture. Its survival in this instance in where his arrogant and insulting behaviour brings about the one part of the country is regarded as a concession extorted outbreak of hostilities. On receipt of the tidings of Mordred's from the Conqueror by the superior bravery of the men of Kent. treachery, Gawain accompanies Arthur to England, and is slain Irish gavelkind was a species of tribal succession, by which the in the battle which ensues on their landing. Wace, however, land, instead of being divided at the death of the holder amongst evidently knew more of Gawain than he has included in his his sons, was thrown again into the common stock, and redivided translation, for he speaks of him as among the surviving members of the sept. The equal division

Ļi quens Walwains amongst children of an inheritance in land is of common occur

Qui tant su preudom de ses mains (11. 9057-58). rence outside the United Kingdom and is discussed under Suc- and later on says

Prous fu et de mult grant mesure, Sce INHERITANCE: TENURE. Also Robinson, On Gavelkind; Digby,

D'orgoil et de forfait n'ot qure History of the Law of Real Property: Pollock and Maitland, History

Plus vaut faire qu'il ne dist of English Low; Challis, Real Property.

Et plus doner qu'il ne pramist (10. 106-109). GAVESTON, PIERS (d. 1312), earl of Cornwall, favourite of and was brought up at the court of Edward I. as companion fessor Maynadier has well remarked,“ previous to the appearance the English king Edward II., was the son of a Gascon knight, The English Arthurian pocms regard him as the type and model of

chivalrous courtesy, “the fine father of nurture," and as Proto his son, the future king. Strong, talented and ambitious, of Malory's compilation it was Gawain rather than Arthur, who Gaveston gained great influence over young Edward, and early in 1307 he was banished from England by the king; but he

was the typical English hero." It is thus rather surprising to returned after the death of Edward I. a few months later, and find that in the earliest preserved MSS. of Arthurian romance, i.e. at once became the chief adviser of Edward II. Made earl of in the poems of Chrétien de Troyes, Gawain, though generally Cornwall, he received both lands and money from the king, and placed first in the list of knights, is by no means the hero par added to his wealth and position by marrying Edward's niece, excellence, . The latter part of the Perceval is indeed devoted to the Margaret, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester (d! recital of his adventures at the Chastel Merveilleus, but of none of 1295). He was regent of the kingdom during the king's short Chrétien's poems is he the protagonist. The anonymous author absence in France in 1308, and took a very prominent part at

of the Chevalier d l'epée indeed makes this apparent neglect of Edward's coronation in February of this year. These proceedings Gawain a ground of reproach against Chrétien. At the same time aroused the anger and jealousy of the barons, and their wrath

the majority of the short episodic poems connected with the cycle was diminished neither by Gaveston's superior skill at the have Gawain for their hero. In the earlier form of the prose tournament, nor by his haughty and arrogant behaviour to

romances, e.g. in the Merlin proper, Gawain is a dominant themselves. They demanded his banishment; and the king, personality, his feats rivalling in importance those ascribed to forced to assent, sent his favourite to Ireland as lieutenant, | Arthur, but in the later forms such as the Merlin continuations, where he remained for about a year. Returning to England in

the Tristan, and the final Lancelot compilation, his character and July 1309, Edward persuaded some of the barons to sanction this position bave undergone a complete change, he is represented as proceeding; but as Gaveston was more insolent than ever the cruel, cowardly and treacherous, and of indifferent moral old jealousies soon broke out afresh. In 1311 the king was

character. Most unfortunately our English version of the forced to agree to the election of the “ordainers," and the

romances, Malory's Morle Arthur, being derived from these later ordinances they drew up provided inter alia for the perpetual forms (though his treatment of Gawain is by no means uniformly banishment of his favourite. Gaveston then retired to Flanders, consistent), this unfavourable aspect is that under which the hero but returned secretly to England at the end of 1311. Soon he has become known to the modern reader. Tennyson, who only was publicly restored by Edward, and the barons had taken up by exaggeration, largely contributed to this misunderstanding.

knew the Arthurian story through the medium of Malory, has, arms. Deserted by the king he surrendered to Aymer de Valence, Morris, in The Defence of Guinevere, speaks of“ gloomy Gawain"; earl of Pembroke (d. 1324), at Scarborough in May 1312, and was taken to Deddington in Oxfordshire, where he was seized by Guy perhaps the most absurdly misleading epithet which could possibly de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d. 1315). Conveyed to Warwick have been applied to the “ gay, gratious, and gude“ knight of castle he was beheaded on Blacklow Hill near Warwick on the early English tradition. 19th of June 1312. Gaveston, whose body was buried in 1315 origin of whose character was frankly admitted by the late M.

The truth appears to be that Gawain, the Celtic and mythic at King's Langley, leit an only daughter. See W. Stubbs, Constilulional History, vol. ii. (Oxford, 1896); and

Gaston Paris, belongs to the very earliest stage of Arthurian Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I. and Edward II., edited by W. tradition, long antedating the crystallization of such tradition into Stubbs. Rolls series (London, 1882-1883).

literary form. He was certainly known in Italy at a very early GAVOTTE (a French word adopted from the Provençal gavolo), date; Professor Rajna has found the names of Arthur and properly the dance of the Gavots or natives of Gap, a district Gawain in charters of the early 12th century, the bearers of those in the Upper Alps, in the old province of Dauphiné. It is a names being then grown to manhood; and Gawain is figured in dance of a brisk and lively character, somewhat resembling the architrave of the north doorway of Modena cathedral, a 12ththe minuet, but quicker and less stately (sce DANCE); hence century building. Recent discoveries have made it practically also the use of this name for a corresponding form of musical certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a colleccomposition.

tion of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of GAWAIN (Fr. Walwain (Brul), Gauvain, Gougain; Lat. Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Walganus, Walwanus; Dutch, Walwein, Welsh, Gwalchmei), Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of son of King Loth of Orkney and nephew to Arthur on his I which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleberis; fragments of this

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