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collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation | town. He then returned to London, and though no details are of Chrétien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, available for his biography until the publication of Wine in 1708, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these “ Bleheris" the account he gives in Rörrel Sports (1713), of years wasted in poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail attending on courtiers who were profuse in promises never castle, where the Grailis represented as non-Christian, and presents kepi, may account for his occupations. Among his carly literary features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries. friends were Aaron Hill and Eustace Budgell. In The Present There is good ground for believing that as Grail quester and State of Wit (1711) Gay attempted to give an account of “ all our winner, Gawain preceded alike Perceval and Galahad, and that periodical papers, whether monthly, weekly or diurnal.” He the solution of the mysterious Grail problem is to be sought especially praised the Tetler and the Specialor, and Swift, who rather in the tales connected with the older hero than in those knew nothing of the authorship of the pamphlet, suspected it devoted to the glorification of the younger knights. The explana- to be inspired by Steele and Addison. To Lintot's Miscellany tion of the very perplexing changes which the character of Gawain (1712) Gay contributed " An Epistle to Bernard Lintot," conhas undergone appears to lie in a misunderstanding of the original taining some lines in praise of Pope, and a version of the story of sources of that character. Whether or no Gawain was a sun- Arachne from the sixth book of the Melamor phoses of Ovid. In hero, and he certainly possessed some of the features--we are the same year he was received into the household of the duchess constantly told how his strength waxed with the waxing of the sun of Monmouth as secretary, a connexion which was, however, till noontide, and then gradually decreased; he owned a steed broken before June 1714. known by a definite name le Gringalet; and a light-giving sword, The dedication of his Rural Sporls (1713) to Pope was Escalibur (which, as a rule, is represented as belonging to Gawain, the beginning of a lasting friendship. Gay could have no not to Arthur)--all traits of a sun-hero-he certainly has much in pretensions to rivalry with Pope, who seems never to have common with the primitive Irish hero Cuchullin. The famous tired of helping his friend. In 1713 he produced a comedy, head-cutting challenge, so admirably told in Syr Gawayne and the The Wife of Bath, which was acted only three nights, and The Grene Knighte, was originally connected with the Irish champion. Fan, one of his least successful poems; and in 1714 The Shepherd's Nor was the lady of Gawain's love a mortal maiden, but the Week, a series of six pastorals drawn from English rustic life. queen of the other world. In Irish tradition the other-world is Pope had urged him to undertake this last task in order to often represented as an island, inhabited by women only; and ridicule the Arcadian pastorals of Ambrose Philips, who had been it is this. “ Isle of Maidens ” that Gawain visits in Diu Crone; praised by the Guardian, to the neglect of Pope's claims as the returning therefrom dowered with the gift of eternal youth. first pastoral writer of the age and the true English Theocritus. The Chastel Merveilleus adventure, related at length by Chrétien Gay's pastorals completely achicved this object, but his ludicrous and Wolfram is undoubtedly such an “other-world” story. It pictures of the English swains and their loves were found to be seems probable that it was this connexion which won for Gawain abundantly entertaining on their own account. Gay had just the title of the “ Maidens' Knight,” a title for which no satis- been appointed secretary to the British ambassador to the court factory explanation is ever given. When the source of the name of Hanover through the influence of Jonathan Swist, when the was forgotten its meaning was not unnaturally misinterpreted, death of Queen Anne three months later put an end 10 all his and gained for Gawain the reputation of a facile morality, hopes of official employment. In 1715, probably with some help which was exaggerated by the pious compilers of the later Grail from Pope; he produced What d'ye call it? a dramatic skit on romances into persistent and aggravated wrong-doing; at the contemporary tragedy, with special reference to Otway's Venice same time it is to be noted that Gawain is never like Tristan and Preserved. It left the public so ignorant of its real meaning that Lancelot, the hero of an illicit connexion maintained under Lewis Theobald and Benjamin Griffin (1680–1740) published a circumstances of falsehood and treachery. Gawain, however, Completc Key lo what d'ye call it by way of explanation. In 1716 belonged to the pre-Christian stage of Grail tradition, and it is not appeared his Trivia, or the Art of Walking the Streets of London, a surprising that writers, bent on spiritual edification, found him poem in three books, for which he acknowledged having received somewhat of a stumbling-block. Chaucer, when he spoke of several hints from Swift. It contains graphic and humorous Gawain coming“ again out of faërie,” spoke better than he knew; descriptions of the London of that period. In January 1717 he the home of that very gallant and courteous knight is indeed produced the comedy of Three Hours after Marriage, which was Fairy-land, and the true Gawain-tradition is informed with grossly indecent without being amusing, and was a complete fairy glamour and grace.

failure. There is no doubt that in this piece he had assistance See Syr Gawayne, the English poems relative to that hero, edited from Pope and Arbuthnot, but they were glad enough to have it by Sir Frederick Madden for the Bannatyne Club, 1839 (out of print assumed that Gay was the sole author. and difficult to procure); Histoire littéraire de la France, vol. xxx.; introduction and summary of episodic “Gawain"

Gay had numerous patrons, and in 1720 he published Poems

poems by Gaston Paris; The Legend of Sir Gawain, by Jessie L. Weston, mm

on Several Occasions by subscription, realizing (1000 or more. Library, vol. vii.; The Legend of Sir Perceval, by Jessie L. Weston, In that year James Craggs, the secretary of state, presented Grimm Library, vol. xvii.; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," him with some South Sea stock. Gay, disregarding the prudent “Sir Gawain at the Grail Castle " and " Sir Gawain and the Lady of advice of Pope and other of his friends, invested his all in South Lys," vols. i., vi and vii. of Arthurian Romances (Nutt).

Sea stock, and, holding on to the end, he lost everything. The GAWLER, a town of Gawler county, South Australia, on the shock is said to have made him dangerously ill. As a matter of Para river, 24. m. by rail N.E. of Adelaide. It is one of the most fact Gay had always been a spoilt child, who expected everything thriving places in the colony, being the centre of a large wheai- to be done for him. His friends did not fail him at this juncture. growing district; it has also engineering works, soundries, four- He had patrons in William Pulteney, afterwards earl of Bath, mills, breweries and saw-mills, while gold, silver, copper and in the third carl of Burlington, who constantly entertained him lead are found in the neighbouring hills. The inhabitants of the at Chiswick or at Burlington House, and in the third earl of town and its extensive suburbs number about 7000; though the Queensberry. He was a frequent visitor with Pope, and received population of the town itself in 1901 was 1996.

unvarying kindness from Congreve and Arbuthnot." In 1724 GAY, JOHN (1685-1732), English poet, was baptized on the he produced a tragedy called The Caplives. In 1727 he wrote 16th of September 168 at Barnstaple, where his family had for Prince William, afterwards duke of Cumberland, bis famous long been settled. He was educated at the grammar school of the Filly-one Fables in Verse, for which he naturally hoped to gain town under Robert Luck, who had published some Latin and some preferment, although he has much to say in them of the English poems. On leaving school he was apprenticed to a silk servility of courtiers and the vanily of court honours. He was mercer in London, but being weary, according to Dr Johnson, offered the situation of gentleman-usher to the Princess Louisa, " of either the restraint or the servility of his occupation," he who was still a child. He refused this offer, which all his friends soon returned to Barnstaple, where he spent some time with his seem to have regarded, for no very obvious reason, as an indignity. uncle, the Rev. Jobn Hanmer, the Nonconformist minister of the As the Fables were written for the amusement of one royal child,

court.

there would appear to have been a measure of reason in giving | Madame de Staël's novel, Delphine; and in the same year she him a sinecure in the service of another. His friends thought published anonymously her first novel Laure d'Estell. Léonie him unjustly neglected by the court, but he had already received de Montbreuse, which appeared in 1813, is considered by Sainte(1722) a sinecure as lottery commissioner with a salary of £150 Beuve her best work; but Anatole (1815), the romance of a a year, and from 1722 to 1729 he had lodgings in the palace at deaf-mute, has perhaps a higher reputation. Among her other Whitehall. He had never rendered any special services to the works, Salons célèbres (2 vols., 1837) may be especially mentioned,

Madame Gay wrote several comedies and opera libretti which He certainly did nothing to conciliate the favour of the govern- met with considerable success. She was also an accomplished ment by his next production, the Beggars' Opera, a lyrical musician, and composed both the words and music of a number drama produced on the 29th of January 1728 by Rich, in which of songs. She died in Paris on the 5th of March 1852. For an Sir Robert Walpole was caricatured. This famous piece, which account of her daughter, Delphine Gay, Madame de Girardin, was said to have made“ Rich gay and Gay rich," was an innova- see GIRARDIN. tion in many respects, and for a time it drove Italian opera off See her own Souvenirs d'une vieille femme (1834); also Théophile the English stage. Under cover of the thieves and highwaymen Gautier, Portraits contemporains; and Sainte-Beuve, Causcries du who figured in it was disguised a satire on society, for Gay made lundi, vol. vi. it plain that in describing the moral code of his characters he had GAY, WALTER (1856– ), American artist, was born at in mind the corruptions of the governing class. Part of the Hingham, Massachusetts, on the 22nd of January 1856. In success of the Beggars' Opera may have been due to the acting 1876 he became a pupil of Léon Bonnat in Paris. He received of Lavinia Fenton, afterwards duchess of Bolton, in the part of an honourable mention in the Salon of 1885; a gold medal in Polly Peachum. The play ran for sixty-two nights, though the 1888, and similar awards at Vienna (1894), Antwerp (1895), representations, four of which were “benefits ” of the author, Berlin (1896) and Munich (1897). He became an officer of the were not, as has sometimes been stated, consecutive. Swist is Legion of Honour and a member of the Sociсty of Secession, said to have suggested the subject, and Pope and Arbuthnot Munich. Works by him are in the Luxembourg, the Tate were constantly consulted while the work was in progress, but Gallery (London), and the Boston and Metropolitan (New York) Gay must be regarded as the sole author. He wrote a sequel, Museums of Art. His compositions are mainly figure subjects Polly, the representation of which was forbidden by the lord portraying French peasant lise. chamberlain, no doubt through the influence of Walpole. This GAYA, a city and district of British India, in the Patna act of "oppression " caused no loss to Gay. It proved an division of Bengal. The city is situated 85 m. S. of Patna by excellent advertisement for Polly, which was published by sub-rail. Pop. (1901) 71,288. It consists of two distinct parts; scription in 1729, and brought its author more than £1000. The adjoining each other; the part containing the residences of the duchess of Queensberry was dismissed from court for enlisting priests is Gaya proper; and the other, which is the business subscribers in the palace. The duke of Queensberry gave him a quarter, is called Sahibganj. The civil offices and residences of home, and the duchess continued her affectionate patronage the European inhabitants are situated here. Gaya derives its until Gay's death, which took place on the 4th of December sanctity from incidents in the life of Buddha. But a local

He was buried in Westminster Abbey. The epitaph legend also exists concerning a pagan monster of great sanctity, on his tomb is by Pope, and is followed by Gay's own mocking named Gaya, who by long penance had become holy, so that all couplet:

who saw or touched him were saved from perdition. Yama, the "Life is a jest, and all things show it,

lord of hell, appealed to the gods, who induced Gaya to lie down I thought so once, and now I know it."

in order that his body might be a place of sacrifice; and once Acis and Galatea, an English pastoral opera, the music of which down, Yama placed a large stone on him to keep him there. The was written by Handel, was produced at the Haymarket in tricked demon struggled violently, and, in order to pacify him, 1732. The profits of his posthumous opera of Achilles (1733), and Vishnu promised that the gods should take up their permanent a new volume of Pables (1738) went to his two sisters, who residence in him, and that any one who made a pilgrimage to the inherited from him a fortune of £6000. He left two other pieces, spot where he lay should be delivered from the terrors of the The Distressed Wife (1743), a comedy, and The Rehcarsal al Hindu placc of torment. This may possibly be a Brahmanic Goalham (1754), a farce. The Fables, slight as they may appear, rendering of Buddha's life and work. There are sorty-five sacred cost him more labour than any of his other works. The narratives spots (of which the temple of Vishnupada is the chief) in and are in nearly every case original, and are told in clear and lively around the city, and these are visited by thousands of pilgrims verse. The moral which rounds off each little story is never annually. During the Mutiny the large store of treasure here was strained. They are masterpieces in their kind, and the very conveyed safely to Calcutta by Mr A. Money. The city contains numerous editions of them prove their popularity. They have a government high school and an hospital, with a Lady Elgin been translated into Latin, French and Italian, Urdu and branch for women. Bengali.

The DISTRICT OF GAYA comprises an area of 4712 sq. m. See his Poetical Works (1893) in the Muses' Library, with an intro- Generally speaking, it consists of a level plain, with a ridge of duction by Mr Joho Underhill; also Samuel Johnson's Lites of the prettily wooded hills along the southern boundary, whence the Textbibliothck II.); and an article by Austin Dobson in vol. 21 of country falls with a gentle slope towards the Ganges. Rocky the Dictionary of National Biography; Gay's Chair (1820), edited

hills occasionally occur, cither detached or in groups,

the loftiest by Henry Lee, a fellow-townsman, contained a biographical sketch being Maher hill about 12 m. S.E. of Gaya city, with an elevation by his nephew, the Rev. Joseph Baller.

of 1620 ft. above sea-level. The eastern part of the district is GAY, MARIE FRANÇOISE SOPHIE (1776-1852), French highly cultivated; the portions to the north and west are less author, was born in Paris on the ist of July 1776. Madame fertile; while in the south the country is thinly peopled and Gay was the daughter of M. Nichault de la Valette and of consists of hills, the jungles on which are full of wild animals. Francesca Peretti, an Italian lady. In 1793 she was married The principal river is the Son, which marks the boundary between to M. Liottier, an exchange broker, but she was divorced from Gaya and Shahabad, navigable by small boats throughout the him in 1799, and shortly afterwards was married to M. Gay, year, and by craft of 20-tons burden in the rainy season. Other receiver-general of the department of the Roër or Ruhr. This rivers are the Punpun, Phalgu and Jamuna. Two branches of union brought her into intimate relations with many distinguished the Son canal system, the eastern main canal and the Patna personages; and her salon came to be frequented by all the canal, intersect the district. In 1901 the population was distinguished littérateurs, musicians, actors and painters of the 2,059,933, showing a decrease of 3% in the decade. Among the time, whom she attracted by her beauty, her vivacity and her higher castes there is an unusually large proportion of Brahmans, many amiable qualities. Her first literary production was a

a circumstance due to the number of sacred places which the letter written in 1802 to the Journal de Paris. in defence of I district contains. The Gayawals, or priests in charge of the holy

1732.

200 B.C.

gaur.

places, are held in high esteem by the pilgrims; but they are not | and after its close lived chiefly by his pen. He died in New pure Brahmans, and are looked down upon by those who are. Orleans on the nith c. February 1895. He is best known as the They live an idle and dissolute life, but are very wealthy, from historian of Louisiana. He wrotc Histoire de la Louisiane (1847); contributions extorted from the pilgrims. Buddh Gaya, about Romance of the History of Louisiana (1848); Louisiana: ils 6 m. S. of Gaya city, is one of the holiest sites of Buddhism, as Colonial History and Romance (1851), reprinted in A History of containing the tree under which Sakyamuni attained enlighten-Louisiana; History of Louisiana: the Spanish Domination ment. In addition to many ruins and sculptures, there is a (1854); Philip II. of Spain (1866); and A History of Louisiana temple restored by the government in 1881. Another place oi (4 vols., 1866), the last being a republication and continuation religious interest is a temple of great antiquity, which crowns the of his earlier works in this field, the whole comprehending the highest peak of the Barabar hills, and at which a religious fair is history of Louisiana from its earliest discovery to 1861. He held each September, attended by 10,000 to 20,0000 pilgrims.wrote also several dramas and romances, the best of the latter At the foot of the hill are numerous rock caves excavated about being Fernando de Lemos (1872).

The opium poppy is largely cultivated. There are a GAY-LUSSAC, JOSEPH LOUIS (1778–1850), French chemist number of lac factories. Manufactures consist of common brass and physicist, was born at St Léonard, in the department of utensils, black stone ornaments, pottery, tussur-silk and cotton Haute Vienne, on the 6th of December 1778. He was the elder cloth. Formerly paper-making was an important manufac- son of Antoine Gay, procureur du roi and judge at Pont-deture in the district, but it has entirely died out. The chief Noblac, who assumed the name Lussac froin a small property he exports are food grains, oil seeds, indigo, crude opium (sent to had in the neighbourhood of St Léonard. Young Gay-Lussac Patna for manufacture), salt petre, sugar, blankets, brass utensils, received his early education at home under the direction of the &c. The imports are salt, piece goods, cotton, timber bamboos, abbé Bourdieux and other masters, and in 1794 was sent to Paris to tobacco, lac, iron, spices and fruits. The district is traversed by prepare for the Ecole Polytechnique, into which he was admitted four branches of the East Indian railway. In 1901 it suffered at the end of 1797 after a brilliant examination. Three years later severely from the plague.

he was transferred to the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, and See District Gazelleer (1906); Sir A. Cunningham, Mohabodhi shortly afterwards was assigned to C. L. Berthollet, who wanted (1892).

an able student to help in his researches. The new assistant GAYAL, a domesticated ox allied to the Gaur, but dis- scarcely came up to expectations in respect of confirming certain tinguished, among other features, by the more conical and theoretical views of his master's by the experiments set him to straighter horns, and the straight line between them. Gayal that end, and appears to have stated the discrepancy without are kept by the natives of the hill-districts of Assam and parts reserve; but Berthollet nevertheless quickly recognized the of Tenasserim and Upper Burma. Although it has received ability displayed, and showed his appreciation not only by desiring a distinct name, Bos (Bibos) frontalis, there can be little doubt to be Gay-Lussac's“ father in science," but also by making him in that the gayal is merely a domesticated breed of the gaur, many 1807 an original member of the Société d'Arcueil. In 1802 he was gayal-skulls showing characters approximating to those of the appointed demonstrator to A. F. Fourcroy at the Ecole Poly

technique, where subsequently (1809) he became professor of GAYANGOS Y ARCE, PASCUAL DE (1809-1897), Spanish chemistry, and from 1808 to 1832 he was professor of physics at scholar and Orientalist, was born at Seville on the 21st of June the Sorbonne, a post which he only resigned for the chair of 1809. At the age of thirteen he was sent to be educated at chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes. In 1831 he was elected to Pont-le-Voy near Blois, and in 1828 began the study of Arabic represent Haute Vienne in the chamber of deputies, and in 1839 under Silvestre de Sacy. After a visit to England, where he he entered the chamber of peers. He died in Paris on the oth of married, he obtained a post in the Spanish treasury, and was May 1850. transferred to the foreign office as translator in 1833. In 1836 he Gay-Lussac's earlier researches were mostly physical in returned to England, wrote extensively in English periodicals, and character and referred mainly to the properties of gases, vapourtranslated Almakkari's Hislory of the Mahommcdan Dynasties in tensions, hygrometry, capillarity, &c. In his first memoir (Ann. Spain (1840-1843) for the Royal Asiatic Society. In England he de Chimie, 1802) he showed that different gases are dilated in also made the acquaintance of Ticknor, to whom he was very the same proportion when heated from o° to 100°C. Apparently serviceable. In 1843 he returned to Spain as professor of Arabic he did not know of Dalton's experiments on the same point, at the university of Madrid, which post he held until 1881, when which indeed were far from accurate; but in a note he explained he was made director of public instruction. This office he re- that “ le cit. Charles avait remarqué depuis 15 ans la même signed upon being elected senator for the district of Huelva. propriété dans ces gaz; mais n'ayant jamais publié ses résultats, His latter years were spent in cataloguing the Spanish manu- c'est par le plus grand hasard que je les ai connus." In conscripts in the British Museum; he had previously continued sequence of his candour in thus rescuing from oblivion the Bergenroth's catalogue of the manuscripts relating to England observation which his fellow-citizen did not think worth publishin the Simancas archives. His best-known original work is hising, his name is sometimes dissociated from this law, which instead dissertation on Spanish romances of chivalry in Rivadeneyra's is known as that of Charles. In 1804 he had an opportunity Biblioteca de autores españoles. He died in London on the 4th of prosecuting his researches on air in somewhat unusual condiof October 1897.

tions, for the French Academy, desirous of securing some observaGAYARRÉ, CHARLES ÉTIENNE ARTHUR (1805-1895), tions on the force of terrestrial magnetism at great elevations American historian, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on the above the earth, through Berthollet and J. E. Chaptal obtained 9th of January 1805. After studying at the Collège d'Orléans he the use of the balloon which had been employed in Egypt, and began, in 1826, to study law in Philadelphia, and three years later entrusted the task to him and J. B. Biot. In their first ascent was admitted to the bar. In 1830 he was elected a member of the from the garden of the Conservatoire des Arts on the 24th of House of Representatives of Louisiana, in 1831 was appointed August 1804 an altitude of 4000 metres (about 13,000 ft.) was deputy attorney-general of his state, in 1833 became presiding attained. But this elevation was not considered sufficient judge of the city court of New Orleans, and in 1834 was elected by Gay-Lussac, who therefore made a second ascent by himself as a Jackson Democrat to the United States Senate. On account on the 16th of September, when the balloon rose 7016 metres of ill-health, however, he immediately resigned without taking his (about 23,000 ft.) above sea-level. At this height, with the seat, and for the next eight years travelled in Europe and collected thermometer marking o} degrees below freezing, he remained historical material from the French and the Spanish archives. for a considerable time, making observations not only on In 1844-1845 and in 1856–1857 he was again a member of the magnetism, but also on the temperature and humidity of the air, state House of Representatives, and from 1845 to 1853 was and collecting several samples of air at different heights. The secretary of state of Louisiana. He supported the Southern magnetic observations, though imperíect, led him to the conConfederacy during the Civil War, in which he lost a large fortune, I clusion that the magnetic effect at all attainable elevations above the earth's surface remains constant; and on analysing the and the prussiates (cyanides) as compounds of the radicle with samples of air he could find no difference of composition at metals. The proof that pruşsic acid contains hydrogen but no different heights. (For an account of both ascents sec Journ. oxygen was a most important support to the hydrogen-acid de phys. for 1804.) On the ist of October in the same year, in theory, and completed the downfall of Lavoisier's oxygen theory; conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt, he read a paper on while the isolation of cyanogen was of equal importance for the eudiometric analysis (Ann. de Chim., 1805), which contained the subsequent era of compound radicles in organic chemistry. germ of his most important generalization, the authors noting After this research Gay-Lussac's attention began to be disthat when oxygen and hydrogen combine together by volume, tracted from purely scientific investigation. He had now secured it is in the proportion of one volume of the former to two volumes a leading if not the foremost place among the chemists of the of the latter But his law of combination by volumes was not French capital, and the demand for his services as adviser in enunciated in its general form until after his return from a scientific technical problems and matters of practical interest made great journey through Switzerland, Italy and Germany, on which with inroads on his available time. He had been a member of the Humboldt he started from Paris in March 1805. This journey consultative committee on arts and manufactures since 1805; was interrupted in the spring of 1806 by the news of the death he was attached to the “ administration des poudres et salpêtres" of M. J. Brisson, and Gay-Lussac hurried back to Paris in the in 1818, and in 1829 he received the lucrative post of assayer to hope, which was gratified, that he would be elected to the seat the mint. In these new fields he displayed the powers so conthus vacated in the Academy. In 1807 an account of the spicuous in his scientific inquiries, and he was now to introduce magnetic observations made during the tour with Humboldt and establish scientific accuracy where previously there had been was published in the first volume of the Mémoires d'Arcueil, and merely practical approximations. His services to industry inthe second volume, published in 1809, contained the important cluded his improvements in the processes for the manufacture memoir on gaseous combination (read to the Société Philo- of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of mathique on the last day of 1808), in which he pointed out that estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the gases combining with each other in volume do so in the simplest volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for proportions-1 to 1, 1 to 2, 1 to 3—and that the volume of the estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution compound formed bears a simple ratio to that of the constituents. of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal

About this time Gay-Lussac's work, although he by no means alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by entirely abandoned physical questions, became of a more chemical the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying character; and in three instances it brought him into direct silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which rivalry with Sir Humphry Davy. In the first case Davy's was published in 1833. Among his research work of this period preparation of potassium and sodium by the electric current may be mentioned the improvements in organic analysis and the spurred on Gay-Lussac and his collaborator L. J. Thénard, who investigation of fulminic acid made with the help of Liebig, who had no battery at their disposal, to search for a chemical method gained the privilege of admission to his private laboratory in of obtaining those metals, and by the action of red-hot iron on 1823-1824. fused potash-a method of which Davy admitted the advantages Gay-Lussac was patient, persevering, accurate to punctilious--they succeeded in 1808 in preparing potassium, going on to ness, perhaps a little cold and reserved, and not unaware of his make a full study of its properties and to use it, as Davy also great ability. But he was also bold and energetic, not only in did, for the reduction of boron from boracic acid in 1809. The his work but also in support and defence of his friends. His second concerned the nature of oxymuriatic acid ” (chlorine). early childish adventures, as told by Arago, herald the fearless While admitting the possibility that it was an elementary body, aeronaut and the undaunted investigator of volcanic eruptions after many experiments they finally declared it to be a compound (Vesuvius was in full cruption when he visited it during his (Mém. d'Arcueil, 1809). Davy, on the other hand, could see no tour in 1805); and the endurance he exhibited under the laborareason to suppose it contained oxygen, as they surmised, and tory accidents that befell him shows the power of will with which ultimately they had to accept his view of its elementary character. he would face the prospect of becoming blind and useless for the The third case roused most feeling of all. Davy, passing through prosecution of the science which was his very life, and of which he Paris on his way to Italy at the end of 1813, obtained a few was one of the most distinguished ornaments. Only at the very fragments of iodine, which had been discovered by Bernard end, when the disease from which he was suffering left him no hope, Courtois (1777–1838) in 1811, and after a brief examination by did he complain with some bitterness of the hardship of leaving the aid of his limited portable laboratory perceived its analogy this world where the many discoveries being made pointed to to chlorine and inferred it to be an element. Gay-Lussac, it is yet greater discoveries to come. said, was nettled at the idea of a foreigner making such a dis- The most complete list of Gay-Lussac's papers is contained in covery in Paris, and vigorously took up the study of the new the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific papers, which enumerates substance, the result being the elaborate“ Mémoire sur l'iode,” Weiter and Liebig. Many of them were published in the Annales de

148, exclusive of others written jointly with Humboldt, Thénard, which appeared in the Ann. de chim. in 1814. He too saw its chimie, which alter it changed its title to Annales de chimie el resemblance to chlorine, and was obliged to agree with Davy's physique he edited, with Arago, up to nearly the end of his life; but opinion as to its simple nature, though not without some hesita- some are to be found in the Mémoires d'Arcueil and the Comples tion, due doubtless to his previous declaration about chlorine. rendus, and in the Recherches physiques et chimiques, published

. Davy on his side seems to have felt that the French chemist was

GAZA, THEODORUS (c. 1400-1475), one of the Greek scholars competing with him, not altogether fairly, in trying to appropriate who were the leaders of the revival of learning in the 15th century, the honour of discovering the character of the substance and of

was born at Thessalonica. On the capture of his native city by its compound, hydriodic acid.

the Turks in 1430 he fled to Italy. During a three years' residence In 1810 he published a paper which contains some classic in Mantua he rapidly acquired a competent knowledge of Latin experiments on fermentation, a subject to which he returned under the teaching of Vittorino da Feltre, supporting himself in a second paper published in 1815. At the same time he was meanwhile by giving lessons in Greek, and by copying manuscripts working with Thénard at the improvement of the methods of

of the ancient classics.' In 1447 he became professor of Greek organic analysis, and by combustion with oxidizing agents, in the newly founded university of Ferrara, to which students first potassium chlorate and subsequently copper oxide, he in great numbers from all parts of Italy were soon attracted determined the composition of a number of organic substances. by his fame as a teacher. He had taken some part in the councils But his last great piece of pure research was on prussic acid. which were held in Siena (1423), Ferrara (1438), and Florence In a note published in 1811 he described the physical properties (1439), with the object of bringing about a reconciliation between of this acid, but he said nothing about its chemical composition

1 According to Voigt. Gaza came to Italy some ten years later from till 1815, when he described cyanogen as a compound radicle, Constantinople, where he had been a teacher or hold some clerical, prussic acid as a compound of that radicle with hydrogen alone, office.

the Greek and Latin Churches; and in 1450, at the invitation of the rock; of these there are more than twenty-an unusual Pope Nicholas V., he went to Rome, where he was for some years number for a Syrian town. The land for the 3 m. between employed by his patron in making Latin translations from Gaza and the sea consists principally of sand dunes. There is Aristotle and other Greek authors. After the death of Nicholas no naturai harbour, but traces of ruins near the shore mark the (1455), being unable to make a living at Rome, Gaza removed site of the old Maiuma Gazae or Port of Gaza, now called el to Naples, where he enjoyed the patronage of Alphonso the Mineh, which in the sth century was a separate town and episcopal Magnanimous for two years (1456-1458). Shortly afterwards he see, under the title Constantia or Limena Gaza. Háshem, an was appointed by Cardinal Bessarion to a benefice in Calabria, ancestor of Mahomet, lies buried in the town. On the east are where the later years of his lisc were spent, and where he died remains of a race-course, the corners marked by granite shafts about 1475.

Gaza stood high in the opinion of most of his with Greek inscriptions on them. To the south is a remarkable learned contemporaries, but still higher in that of the scholarshill, quite isolated and bare, with a small mosque and a graveof the succeeding generation. His Greek grammar (in four yard. It is called el Muntār," the watch tower," and is supposed books), written in Greek, first printed at Venice in 1495, and to be the mountain “ before (or facing) Hebron,” to which afterwards partially translated by Erasmus in 1521, although Samson carried the gates of Gaza (Judg. xvi. 3). The bazaars in many respects defective, especially in its syntax, was for a of Gaza are considered good. An extensive pottery exists in long time the leading text-book. His translations into Latin the town, and black earthenware peculiar to the place is manuwere very numerous, including the Problemata, De partibus iactured there. The climate is dry and comparatively healthy, animalium and De generalione animalium of Aristotle; the but the summer temperature often exceeds 110° Fahr. The Hisloria plantarum of Theophrastus; the Problemata of Alexander surrounding country is partly cornland, partly waste, and is Aphrodisias; the De instruendis aciebus of Aelian; the De inhabited by wandering Arabs. The prosperity of Ghuzzeh compositione verborum of Dionysius of Halicarnassus; and some has partially revived through the growing irade in barley, of of the Homilies of John Chrysostom. He also turned into Greek which the average annual export to Great Britain for 1897–1899 Cicero's De seneclule and Somnium Scipionis-with much success, was over 30,000 tons. The dress of the people is Egyptian in the opinion of Erasmus; with more elegance than exactitude, rather than Syrian. Gaza is an episcopal see both of the Greck according to the colder judgment of modern scholars. He was and the Armenian church. The Church Missionary Society the author also of two small treatises entitled De mensibus and maintains a mission, with schools for both sexes, and a hospital. De origine Turcarum.

GAZALAND, a district of Portuguese East Africa, extending See G. Voigt, Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Allerlums

north from the Komati or Manhissa river, Delagoa Bay, to the (1893), and article by C. F. Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Pungwe river. It is a well-watered, fertile country. Gazaland Encyklopädie. For a complete list of his works, see Fabricius, is one of the chief recruiting grounds for negro labour in the Bibliotheca Graeca (ed. Harles), X.

Transvaal gold mines. The country derives its name from a GAZA (or ‘Azzah, mod. Ghuszel), the most southerly of the Swazi chief named Gaza, a contemporary of Chaka, the Zulu five princely Philistine cities, situated near the sea, at the point king. Resugees from various clans oppressed by Dingaan where the old trade routes from Egypt, Arabia and Peira to (Chaka's successor) were welded into one tribe by Gaza's son Syria met. It was always a strong border fortress and a place Manikusa, who took the name of Sotshangana, his followers of commercial importance, in many respects the southern being known generally as Matshangana. A section of them was counterpart of Damascus. The earliest notice of it is in the called Maviti or Landeens (i.e. couriers), a designation which Tell el-Amarna tablets, in a letter from the local governor, who persists as a tribal name. Between 1833 and 1836 Manikusa then held it for Egypt, with which country it always stood in made himseli master of the country as far north as the Zambezi close connexion. It never passed for long into Israelite hands, and captured the Portuguese posts at Delagoa Bay, Inhambane, though subject for a while to Hezekiah of Judah; from him it Sofala and Sena, killing nearly all the inhabitants. The Portu: passed to Assyria. In Amos i. 6 the city is denounced for giving guese rcoccupied their posts, but held them with great difficulty, up Hebrew slaves to Edom. To Herodotus (iii. 5.) the place while in the interior the Matshangana continued their ravages secmed as important as Sardis. The city withstood Alexander unchecked, depopulating large regions. Manikusa died about the Great for five months (332 B.C.), and in 96 B.C. was razed to 1860, and his son Umzila, receiving some help from the Portuguese the ground by Alexander Jannaeus. It was rebuilt by Aulus at Delagoa Bay in a struggle against a brother for the chieftain. Gabinius, 57 B.C., but on a new site; the old site was remembered ship, ceded to them the territory south of the Manhissa river. and spoken of as “Old" Desert Gaza ": compare Acts North of thal stream as far as the Zambezi and inland to the viii. 26. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Gaza was a thriving continental plateau Umzila established liimself in independence, Greek city, with good schools and famous temples, especially a position he maintained till his death (c. 1884). His chief one to the local god Marna (i.e. “Lord” or “ Our Lord "). A rival was a Goanese named Gouveia, who came to Africa about statue of this god has been found near Gaza; it much resembles 1850. Having obtained possession of a prazo in the Gorongoza the Greek representation of Zeus. The struggle with Christianity district, he ruled there as a scudal lord while acknowledging here was long and intense. Egyptian monks gradually won over himself a Portuguese subject. Gouveia recovered from the Matthe country folk, and in 402, under the influence of Theodosius shangana and other troublers of the peace much of the country and Porphyry the local bishop, the Marncion was destroyed in the Zambezi valley, and was appointed by the Portuguese and the cross made politically supreme. In the 5th and 6th captain-general of a large region. From 1868 onward the country centuries Gaza was held in high repute as a place of learning. began to be better known. Probably the first European to But after it passed into Moslem hands (635) it gradually lost penetrate any distance inland from the Sofala coast since the all save commercial importance, and even the Crusaders did Portuguese gold-scekers of the 16th century was St Vincent W. little to revive its old military glory. It finally was captured Erskine, who explored the region between the Limpopo and by the Moslems in 1244. Napoleon captured it in 1799. Pungwe (1868–1875). Portugal's hold on the coast had been

The modern town (pop. 16,000) is divided into four quarters, more firmly established at the time of Umzila's death, and one of which is built on a low hill. A magnificent grove of very Gungunyana, his successor, was claimed as a vassal, while efforts ancient olives forms an avenue 4 m. long to the north. There were made to open up the interior. This led in 1890–1891 to are many losty minarets in various parts of the town, and a collisions on the borderland of the plateau with the newly fine mosque built of ancient materials. A 12th century church established British South Africa Company, and to the arrest towards ihe south side of the hill has also been converted into by the company's agents of Gouveia, who was, however, set at a mosque. On the cast is shown the tomb of Samson (an liberty and returned to Mozambique via Cape Town. An offer erroncous tradition dating back to the middle ages). The ancient made by Gungunyana (1891) to come under British protection walls are now covered up bcncath green mounds of rubbish. was not accepted. In 1892 Gouveia was killed in a war with a The water-supply is from wells sunk through the sandy soil to native chicí. Gurgunyana maintained his independence until

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