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such it can be called, took the form of being mother and mentor to GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, ÉTIENNE (1772-1844), French her guests, many of whom were indebted to her generosity for naturalist, was the son of Jean Gerard Geoffroy, procurator and substantial help. Although her aim appears to have been to magistrate of Etampes, Seine-et-Oise, where he was born on the have the Encyclopédie in conversation and action around her, she 15th of April 1772. Destined for the church he entered the was extremely displeased with any of her friends who were so college of Navarre, in Paris, where he studied natural philosophy rash as to incur open disgrace. Marmontel lost her favour after under M. J. Brisson; and in 1788 he obtained one of the canonithe official censure of Belisaire, and her advanced views did not cates of the chapter of Sainte Croix at Etampes, and also a prevent her from observing the forms of religion. A devoted benefice. Science, however, offered him a more congenial career, Parisian, Mme Geoffrin rarely left the city, so that her journey to and he gained from his father permission to remain in Paris, and Poland in 1766 to visit the king, Stanislas Poniatowski, whom she to attend the lectures at the Collège de France and the Jardin des had known in his early days in Paris, was a great event in her life. Plantes, on the condition that he should also read law. He Her experiences induced a sensible gratitude that she had been accordingly took up his residence at Cardinal Lemoine's college, born “Française” and “ particulière." In her last illness her and there became the pupil and soon the estecmed associate of daughter, Thérèse, marquise de la Ferté Imbault, excluded her Brisson's friend, the abbé Haüy, the mineralogist. Having, mother's old friends so that she might die as a good Christian, a before the close of the year 1790, taken the degree of bachelor in proceeding wittily described by the old lady: "My daughter is law, he became a student of medicine, and attended the lectures of like Godfrey de Bouillon, she wished to defend my tomb from A. F. de Fourcroy at the Jardin des Plantes, and of L. J. M. the infidels." Mme Geoffrin died in Paris on the 6th of October Daubenton at the Collège de France. His studies at Paris were at 1777
length suddenly interrupted, for, in August 1792, Haüy and the See Correspondance inédite du roi Stanislas Auguste Poniatowski cl other professors of Lemoine's college, as also those of the college de Madame Geoffrin, edited by the comte de Mouy (1875); P. de Ségur, Le Royaume de la rue Saint-Honoré, Madame Geoffrin et sa
of Navarre, were arrested by the revolutionists as priests, and fille (1897): Á. Tornezy, Un Bureau d'espril au XVIIIe siècle: le confined in the prison of St Firmin. Through the influence of salon de lladame Geoffrin (1895); and Janet Aldis, Madame Geoffrin, Daubenton and others Geoffroy on the 14th of August obtained her Salon and her Times, 1750-1777 (1905).
an order for the release Haüy in the name of the Academy; GEOFFROY, ÉTIENNE FRANÇOIS (1672-1731), French still the other professors of the two colleges, save C. F. Lhomond, chemist, born in Paris on the 13th of February 1672, was first who had been rescued by his pupil J. L. Tallien, remained in an apothecary and then practised medicine. After studying at confinement. Geoffroy, foreseeing their certain destruction if Monipellier he accompanied Marshal Tallard on his embassy to they remained in the hands of the revolutionists, determined if London in 1698 and thence travelled to Holland and Italy. possible to secure their liberty by stratagem. By bribing one of Returning to Paris he became professor of chemistry at the the officials at St Firmin, and disguising himself as a commissioner Jardin du Roi and of pharmacy and medicine at the Collège de of prisons, he gained admission to his friends, and entreated them France, and dean of the faculty of medicine. He died in Paris on to effect their escape by following him. All, however, dreading the 6th of January 1731. His name is best known in connexion lest their deliverance should render the doom of their fellowwith his tables of affinities (tables des rapports), which he presented captives the more certain, refused the offer and one priest only, to the French Academy in 1718 and 1720. These were lists, who was unknown to Geoffroy, left the prison. Already on the prepared by collating observations on the actions of substances night of the 2nd of September the massacre of the proscribed had one upon another, showing the varying degrees of affinity exhibited begun, when Geoffroy, yet int nt on saving the life of his friends by analogous bodies for different reagents, and they retained and teachers, repaired to St Firmin. At 4 o'clock on the morning their vogue for the rest of the century, until displaced by the of the 3rd of September, after eight hours' waiting, he by means profounder conceptions introduced by C. L. Berthollet. Another of a ladder assisted the escape of twelve ecclesiastics, not of the of his papers dealt with the delusions of the philosopher's stone, number of his acquaintance, and then the approach of dawn and but nevertheless he believed that iron could be artificially formed the discharge of a gun directed at him warned him, his chief in the combustion of vegetable matter. His Tractatus de materia purpose unaccomplished, to return to his lodgings. Leaving Paris medica, published posthumously in 1741, was long celebrated. he retired to Etampes, where, in consequence of the anxieties of
His brother CLAUDE JOSEPH, known as Geoffroy the younger which he had lately been the prey, and the horrors which he had (1685-1752), was also an apothecary and chemist who, having a witnessed, he was for some time seriously ill. At the beginning considerable knowledge of botany, devoted himself especially to of the winter of 1792 he returned to his studies in Paris, and in the study of the essential oils in plants.
March of the following year Daubenton, through the interest of GEOFFROY, JULIEN LOUIS (1743-1814), French critic, was Bernardin de Saint Pierre, procured him the office of sub-keeper born at Rennes in 1743. He studied in the school of his native and assistant demonstrator of the cabinet of natural history, town and at the Collège Louis le Grand in Paris. He took orders vacant by the resignation of B. G. E. Lacépède. By a law and fulfilled for some time the humble functions of an usher, passed in June 1793, Geoffroy was appointed one of the twelve eventually becoming professor of rhetoric at the Collège Mazarin. professors of the newly constituted museum of natural history, A bad tragedy, Caton, was accepted at the Théâtre Français, but being assigned the chair of zoology. In the same year he was never acted. On the death of Elie Fréron in 1776 the other busicd himself with the formation of a menagerie at that collaborators in the Année lilléraire asked Geoffroy to succeed him, institution. and he conducted the journal until in 1792 it ceased to appear. In 1794 through the introduction of A. H. Tessier be entered Geoffroy was a bitter critic of Voltaire and his followers, and into correspondence with Georges Cuvier, to whom, after the made for himself many enemies. An enthusiastic royalist, perusal of some of his manuscripts, he wrote: “Venez jouer he published with Fréron's brother-in-law, the abbé Thomas parmi nous le rôle de Linné, d'un autre législateur de l'histoire Royou (1741-1792), a journal, L'Ami du roi (1790-1792), naturelle.” Shortly after the appointment of Cuvier as assistant which possibly did more harm than good to the king's cause by its at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geoffroy received him into ill-advised partisanship. During the Terror Geoffroy hid in the his house. The two friends wrote together five memoirs on neighbourhood of Paris, only returning in 1799. An attempt to natural history, one of which, on the classification of mammals, revive the Année littéraire failed, and Geoffroy undertook the puts forward the idea of the subordination of characters upon dramatic feuilleton of the Journal des débats. His scathing which Cuvier based his zoological system. It was in a paper criticisms had a success of notoriety, but their popularity was entitled “ Histoire des Makis, ou singes de Madagascar," written ephemeral, and the publication of them (5 vols., 1819-1820) as in 1795, that Geofíry first gave expression to his views on " the Cours de littéralure dramatique proved a failure. He was also the unity of organic composition,” the influence of which is perauthor of a perfunctory Commentaire on the works of Racine ceptible in all his subsequent writings; nature, he observes, prefixed to Lenormant's edition (1808). He died in Paris on the presents us with only one plan of construction, the same in 27th of February 1814.
principle, but varied in its accessory parts.
In 1798 Geoffroy was chosen a member of the great scientific | GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, ISIDORE (1805-1861), 'French expedition to Egypt, and on the capitulation of Alexandria in zoologist, son of the preceding, was born at Paris on the 16th of August 1801, he took part in resisting the claim made by the December 1805. In his earlier years he showed an aptitude for British general to the collections of the expedition, declaring that, mathematics, but eventually he devoted himself to the study were that demand persisted in, history would have to record of natural history and of medicine, and in 1824 he was appointed that he also had burnt a library in Alexandria. Early in January assistant naturalist to his father. On the occasion of his taking 1802 Geoffroy returned to his accustomed labours in Paris. He the degree of doctor of medicine in September 1829, he read a was elected a member of the academy of sciences of that city thesis entitled Propositions sur la monstruosité, considérée ches in September 1807. In March of the following year the emperor, l'homme et les animaux; and in 1832-1837 was published his who had already recognized his national services by the award great teratological work, Histoire générale el particulière des of the cross of the legion of honour, selected him to visit the anomalics de l'organisation chez l'homme et les animaux, 3 vols. museums of Portugal, for the purpose of procuring collections Svo. with 20 plates. In 1829 he delivered for bis father the second from them, and in the face of considerable opposition from the part of a course of lectures on ornithology, and during the three British he eventually was successful in retaining them as a following years he taught zoology at the Athénée, and teratology permanent possession for his country. In 1809, the year after at the Ecole pratique. He was elected a member of the academy his return to France, he was made professor of zoology at the of sciences at Paris in 1833, was in 1837 appointed to act as faculty of sciences at Paris, and from that period he devoted deputy for his father at the faculty of sciences in Paris, and in himself more exclusively than before to anatomical study. In the following year was sent to Bordcaux to organize a similar 1818 he gave to the world the first part of his celebrated Philo-faculty there. He became successively inspector of the academy sophie anatomique, the second volume of which, published in of Paris (1840), professor of the museum on the retirement of 1822, and subsequent memoirs account for the formation of his father (1841), inspector-general of the university (1844), monstrosities on the principle of arrest of development, and of a member of the royal council for public instruction (1845), and the attraction of similar parts. When, in 1830, Geosiroy pro- on the death of H. M. D. de Blainville, professor of zoology ceeded to apply to the invertebrata his vicws as to the unity of at the faculty of sciences (1850). In 1854 he founded the animal composition, he found a vigorous opponent in Georges Acclimatization Society of Paris, of which he was president. Cuvier, and the discussion between them, continued up to the He died at Paris on the roth of November 1861. time of the death of the latter, soon attracted the attention of Besides the above-mentioned works, he wrote: Essais de zoologie the scientific throughout Europe. Geofiroy, a synthesist, con- générale (1841); Vie . . d'Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1847); tended, in accordance with his theory of unity of plan in organic Acclimatation el domestication des animaux utiles (1849; 4th ed.. composition, that all animals are formed of the same elements, la viande de cheval (1856); and Histoire naturelle générale des signes in the same number, and with the same connexions: homologous organiques (3 vols., 1854-1862), which was not quite completed. parts, however they differ in form and size, must remain associated He was the author also of various papers on zoology, comparative in the same invariable order. With Goethe he held that there anatomy and palaeontology. is in nature a law of compensation or balancing of growth, so
GEOGRAPHY (Gr. r, carth, and ypá DeLV, to write), the that if one organ take on an excess of development, it is at the exact and organized knowledge of the distribution of phenomena expense of some other part; and he maintained that, since on the surface of the earth. The fundamental basis of geography nature takes no sudden leaps, even organs which are superfluous is the vertical relief of the earth's crust, which controls all in any given species, if they have played an important part in mobile distributions. The grander features of the relief of the other species of the same family, are retained as rudiments, lithosphere or stony crust of the earth control the distribution which testify to the permanence of the general plan of creation. of the hydrosphere or collected waters which gather into the It was his conviction that, owing to the conditions of life, the hollows, filling them up to a height corresponding to the volume, same forms had not been perpetuated since the origin of all and thus producing the important practical division of the things, although it was not his belief that existing species are surface into land and water. The distribution of the mass of becoming modified. Cuvier, who was an analytical observer of the atmosphere over the surface of the earth is also controlled facts, admitted only the prevalence of “ laws of co-existence" by the relief of the crust, its greater or lesser density at the surface or “ harmony" in animal organs, and maintained the absolute corresponding to the lesser or greater elevation of the surface. invariability of species, which he declared had been created the simplicity of the zonal distribution of solar energy on the with a regard to the circumstances in which they were placed, earth's surface, which would characterize a uniform globe, is each organ contrived with a view to the function it had to entirely destroyed by the dissimilar action of land and water fulfil, thus putting, in Geoffroy's considerations, the effect for with regard to radiant heat, and by the influence of crust-forms the cause.
on the direction of the resulting circulation. The insluence of In July 1840 Geoffroy became blind, and some months later physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the hc had a paralytic attack. From that time his strength gradually distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and is it is failed him. He resigned his chair at the muscum in 1841, and less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modificadied at Paris on the 19th of June 1844.
tions of environment consciously produced by human effort. Geoffroy wrote: Catalogue des mammifères du Muséum National Geography is a synthetic science, dependent for the data with d'Histoire Naturelle (1813), not quite completed; Philosophie analo- which it deals on the results of specialized sciences such as mique--t. i., Des organes respiratoires (1818), and t. ii., Des monstruosités humaines (1822); Système dentaire des mammifères et des astronomy, geology, occanography, metcorology, biology and oiseaux (1st pt., 1824): Sur le principe de l'unité de composition anthropology, as well as on topographical description. The organique (1828): Cours de l'histoire naturelle des mammifères physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only (1829); Principes de philosophie zoologique (1830); Etudes progreso so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as sires d'un raluralisté (1835); Fragments biographiques (1837); regards the distribution of phenomena. The distinctive task of naturelle (1838), and other works; also part of the Description de geography as a science is to investigate the control exercised by l'Égyple par la commission des sciences (1821-1830); and, with the crust-forms directly or indirectly upon the various mobile Frédéric Cuvier (1773-1838), a younger brother of G. Cuvier, Histoire distributions. This gives to it unity and definiteness, and renders naturelle des mammifères (4 vols., 1820-1842); besides numerous superfluous the attempts that have been made from time to and electrical fishes, the vertebrate theory of the skull, the opercula time to define the limits which divide geography from geology of fishes, teratology, palaeontology and the influence of surrounding on the one hand and from history on the other. It is essential conditions in modifying animal forms. See Vie, travaux, et doctrine scientifique d'Étienne Geoffroy Saint
to classify the subject matter of geography in such a manner as Hilaire, par son fils M. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (Paris and
to give prominence not only to facts, but lo their mutual relations Strasburg. 1847), to which is appended a list of Geoffroy's works; and their natural and inevitable order. and Joly, in Biog. universelle, t. xvi. (1856).
The fundamental conception of geography is form, including
the figure of the earth and the varieties of crustal relief. Hence | earth by three arguments, two of which could be tested by obsermathematical geography (sce Map), including cartography as
vation. These were: (1) that the earth must be spherical, because a practical application, comes first. It merges into physical mon centre; (2) that only a sphere could always.thn wa
of the tendency of matter to fall together towards a com
and the gcography, which takes account of the forms of the lithosphere circular shadow on the moon during an eclipse; and (3)
sphere. (geomorphology), and also of the distribution of the hydrosphere that the shifting of the horizon and the appearance of and the rearrangements resulting from the workings of solar new constellations, or the disappearance of familiar stars, as one energy throughout the hydrosphere and atmosphere (oceano- thesis that the earth was a sphere. Aristotle, too, gave greater
travelled from north to south, could only be explained on the hypography and climatology). Next follows the distribution of plants definiteness to the idea of zones conceived by Parmenides, who had and animals (biogeography), and finally the distribution of pictured a torrid zone uninhabitable by reason of heat, two frigid mankind and the various artificial boundaries and redistributions zones uninhabitable by reason of cold, and two intermediate temper(anthropogeography). The applications of anthropogeography zone as extending from the tropic to the arctic circle, but there is
ate zones fit for human occupation. Aristotle defin the temperate to human uşes give rise to political and commercial geography, some uncertainty as to the precise meaning he gave to the term in the elucidation of which all the earlier departments or stages
"arctic circle." Soon after his time, however, this conception was have to be considered, together with historical and other purely çlearly established, and with so large a generalization the mental
horizon was widened to conceive of a geography, which was a science. human conditions. The evolutionary idea has revolutionized
Aristotle had himself shown that in the southern temperate zone and unified geography as it did biology, breaking down the old winds similar to those of the northern temperate zone should blow, hard-and-fast partitions between the various departments, and but from the opposite direction. substituting the study of the nature and influence of actual While the theory of the sphere was being elaborated the efforts of terrestrial environments for the earlier motive, the discovery the outline and configuration of the oekumene, or habitable
practical geographers were steadily directed towards ascertaining and exploration of new lands.
Fitlag the world, the only portion of the terrestrial surface known
oekumeae HISTORY OF GEOGRAPHICAL THEORY
to the ancients and to the medieval peoples, and still to the
retaining a shadow of its old monopoly of geographical sphere. The earliest conceptions of the earth, like those held by the primi- attention in its modern name of the "Old World." The tive peoples of the present day, are difficult to discover and almost fitting of the oekumene to the sphere was the second theoretica! impossible fully to grasp. Early generalizations, as far as they were problem. The circular outline had given way in geographical made from known facts, were usually expressed in symbolic language, opinion to the elliptical with the long axis lying east and west, and and for our present purpose it is not profitable to speculate on the Aristotle was inclined to view it as a very long and relatively narrow underlying truths which may sometimes be suspected in the old band almost encircling the globe in the temperate zone. mythological cosmogonics.
ment as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East The first definite geographical theories to affect the western world Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult were those evolved, or at least first expressed, by the Grecks. to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution Early
The earliest theoretical problem of geography was the of animals as a problem of geography:
Pythagoras had speculated as to the existence of antipodes, but is a flat disk, circular or elliptical in outline, had in the it was not until the first approximately accurate measurements of time of Homer acquired a special definiteness by the the globe and estimates of the length and breadth of the
Problem introduction of the idea of the occan river bounding the whole, an oekumene were made by Eratosthenes (c. 250 B.C.) that of the application of imperfectly understood observations. Thales of the fact that, as then known, it occupied less than a quarter Antipodes.
Miletus is claimed as the first exponent of the idea of a of the surface of the sphere was clearly recognized. It was of Homer. spherical earth; but, although this does not appear to be natural, if not strictly logical, that the ocean river should be extended
warranted, his disciple Anaximander (c. 580 B.C.) put from a narrow stream to a world-embracing sea, and here again forward the theory that the carth had the figure of a solid body Greek theory, or rather fancy, gave its modern name to the greatest hanging freely in the centre of the hollow sphere of the starry heavens.
feature of the globe. The old instinctive idea of symmetry must The Pythagorean school of philosophers adopted the theory of a often have suggested other ockumene balancing the known world spherical carth, but from metaphysical rather than scientific reasons; in the other quarters of the globe. The Stoic philosophers, especially their convincing argument was that a sphere being the most perfect Crates of Mallus, arguing from the love of nature for life, placed an solid figure was the only one worthy to circumscribe the dwelling; ockumcne in cach quarter of the sphere, the three unknown world place of man. The division of the sphere into parallel zones and islands being those of the Antoeci, Perioeci and Antipodes. This some of the consequences of this generalization seem to have pre- was a theory not only attractive to the philosophical mind, but sented themselves to Parmenides (c. 450 B.C.); but these ideas did minently adapted to promote exploration. It had its opponents, not influence the lonian school of philosophers, who in their treat- however, for Herodotus showed that sea-basins existed cut off from ment of geography preferred to deal with facts demonstrable by the ocean, and it is still a matter of controversy how far the preHecataeus, travel rather than with speculations. Thus Hecataeus, Ptolemaic gcographers believed in a water-connexion between the claimed by H. F. Tozer as the father of geography on
Atlantic and Indian oceans. It is quite clear that Pomponius Mela account of his periodos, or general treatise on the earth, did not (c. A.D. 40), following Strabo, held that the southern temperate zone advance beyond the primitive conception of a circular disk. He contained a habitable land, which he designated by the name systematized the form of the land within the ring of occan-the Antichthones. oikovuern, or habitable world-by recognizing two continents: Aristotle left no work on geography, so that it is impossible to Europe to the north, and Asia to the south of the midland sca. know what facts he associated with the science of the earth's surface. Herodotus. Herodotus, equally, oblivious of the sphere, criticized and the word geography did not appear before Aristotle, Aristotle's ridiculed the circular outline of the oekumene, which he the first use of it being in the lepi koouww, which is one
geoknow to be longer from cast to west than it was broad from north to of the writings doubtfully ascribed to him, and H. Berger
graphkal south. He also pointed out reasons for accepting a division of the considers that the expression was introduced by Eratos. views. land into three continents-Europe, Asia and Africa. Beyond the thenes. Aristotle was certainly conversant with many limits of his personal travels Herodotus applied the characteristically facts, such as the formation of deltas, coast-erosion, and to a certain Greek theory of symmetry to complete, in the unknown, outlines extent the dependence of plants and animals on their physical
of lands and rivers analogous to those which had been surroundings. He formed a comprehensive thcory of the variations
explored. Symmetry was in fact the first geographical of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the neces. metry.
theory, and the effect of Herodotus's hypothesis that the sit” of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though,
Nile must flow from west to east before turning north in like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea order to balance the Danube running from west to east before turning through crevices in the rocks, losing its dissolved salts in the process. south lingered in the maps of Africa down to the time of Mungo He speculated on the differences in ihe character of races of mankind Park.
living in different climates, and corrclated the political forms of To Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) must be given the distinction of sound communities with their situation on a scashore, or in the neighbour. ing scientific geography. He demonstrated the sphericity of the hood of natural strongholds.
Strabo (c. 50 B.C.-A.D. 24) followed Eratosthenes rather than 'A concise sketch of the whole history of geographical method or Aristotle, but with sympathies which went out more to the human theory as distinguished from the history of geographical discovery interests than the mathematical basis of geography. He Strabo. (see later section of this article) is only to be found in the introduction compiled a very remarkable work dealing in large measure to H. Wagner's Lehrbuch der Geographie, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1900), from personal travel, with the countries surrounding the Mediter; which is in every way the most complete treatise on the principles of
He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed geography.
in succeeding ages by the compilers of “political geographies" a History of Ancient Geography (Cambridge, 1897), p. 70.
* Sce J. L. Myres, "An Attempt to reconstruct the Maps used by * Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig. Herodotus," Geographical Journal, vui. (1896), p. 605.
1891), Abt. 3. p. 60.
The idea of sym.
dealing less with theories than with facts, and illustrating rather than, of countries, and into the manners and costumes of the various formulating the principles of the science.
peoples. Thus early commenced the separation between what were Claudius Ptolemaeus (c. A.D. 159) concentrated in his writings the long called mathematical and political geography, the one subject final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across appealing inainly to mathematicians, the other to historians.
the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries the rapidly accumulating Ptolemy.
to form the starting point of the science in modern times. store of facts as to the extent, outline and mountain and river His geography was based_more immediately on the work of his systems of the lands of the earth were put in order by the generation predecessor, Marinus of Tyre, and on that of Hipparchus, the of cartographers of which Mercator was the chief; but the writings follower and critic of Eratosthenes. It was the ambition of Ptolemy of Apian and Münster held the field for a hundred years without a to describe and represent accurately the surface of the oekumene, serious rival, unless the many annotated editions of Ptolemy might for which purpose he took immense trouble to collect all existing be so considered. Meanwhile the new facts were the subject of determinations of the latitude of places, all estimates of longitude, original study by philosophers and by practical men without reference and to make every possible rectification in the estimates of distances to classical' traditions. Bacon argued keenly on geographical by land or sca. His work was mainly cartographical in its aim, matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned and theory was as far as possible excluded.The symmetrically upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South placed hypothetical islands in the great continuousoccan
disappeared, America and Africa. and the ockumene acquired a new form by the representation of the Philip Cluver's Introductio in geographiam universam tam velerem Indian Ocean as a larger Mediterrancan completely cut off by land quam novam was published in 1624. Geography he defined as from the Atlantic. The lerra incognita uniting Africa and Farther the description of the whole carth, so far as it is known Asia was an unfortunate hypothesis which helped to retard explora- to us.". It is distinguished from cosmography by dealing
Cluverlus. tion. Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description with the earth alone, not with the universe, and from chorography of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while choro; and topography by dealing with the whole carth, not with a country graphy signified the fuller description of a particular region. and or a place. The first book, of fourteen short chapters, is concerned io pography the very detailed description of a smaller locality. He with the general properties of the globe; thc remaining six books introduced the simile that gcography represented an artist's sketch treat in considerable detail of the countries of Europe and of the of a whole portrait, while chorography corresponded to the careful other continents. Each country is described with particular regard and detailed drawing of an eye or an car.'
to its people as well as to its surface, and the prominence given to The Caliph al-Mamūn (c. A.D. 815), the son and successor of the human element is of special interest. Hārūn al-Rashid, caused an Arabic version of Ptolemy's great A little-known book which appears to have escaped the attention astronomical work Úvrais deyiorn) to be made, which is known of most writers on the history of modern gcography was published as the Almagest, the word being nothing more than the Gr. veriorn at Oxford in 1625 by Nathanael Carpenter, follow of with the Arabic article al prefixed. The geography of Ptolemy was Exeter College, with the title Geographie delineated forth Carpenter. also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers. The in Two Bookes, containing the Sphericall and Topicall parls thereof. Arab astronomers measured a degree on the plains of Mesopotamia, It is discursive in its style and verbose; but, considering the period thereby deducing a fair approximation to the size of the carth. at which it appeared, it is remarkable for the strong common sense The caliph's librarian, Abu Jatar Muhammad Ben Musa, wrote a displayed by the author, his comparative freedom from prejudice, geographical work, now unfortunately lost, entitled Rasm el Arsi (“ A and his firm application of the methods of scientific reasoning to Description of the World"), which is often referred to by subsequent the interpretation of phenomena... Basing his work on the principles writers as having been composed on the model of that of Ptolemy. of Ptolemy, he brings together illustrations from the most recent
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christen- travellers, and does not hesitate to take as illustrative examples dom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of the familiar city of Oxford and his native county of Devon. "He
Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam. The verbal inter- divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of Geography pretation of Scripture led Lactantius (c. A.D. 320), and which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Parl, or the
Other ecclesiastics to denounce the spherical theory of the description of the physical relations of parts of the carth's surface, middle
earth as herctical. The wretched subterfuge of Cosmas preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers
(c. A.D. 550) to explain the phenomena of the apparent-into general and special. It is distinguished from other English movements of the sun by means of an earth modelled on the plan geographical books of the period by confining attention to the of the Jewish Tabernacle gave place ultimately to the wheel-maps principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the -the T in an 0-which reverted to the primitive ignorance of the world. times of Homer and Hecatacus.?
A much more important work in the history of geographical The journey of Marco Polo, the increasing trade to the East and method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German the voyages of the Arabs in the Indian Ocean prepared the way for medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twenty: the reacceptance of Ptolemy's ideas when the sealed books of the eight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
Varegius. Greek original were translated into Latin by Angelus in 1410. Although for a time it was lost sight of on the continent, Sir Isaac
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Newton thought so highly of this book that he prepared an annotated Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward edition which was published in Cambridge in 1672, with the addition
voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the of the plates which had been planned by Varenius, but not produced Revival of
crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of hy the original publishers. The reason why this great man took geography. scientific geography than the laborious feeling out of the so much care in correcting and publishing our author was, because coast-line of Africa. But not until the voyage of Magellan shook | he thought him necessary to be read by his audience, the young the scales from the eyes of Europe did modern geography begin to gentlemen of Cambridge, while he was delivering lectures on the same advance. Discovery had outrun theory; the rush of new facts subject from the Lucasian Chair," : The treatise of Varenius is a made Ptolemy practically obsolete in a generation, after having been model of logical arrangement and terse cxpression; it is a work of the fount and origin of all gcography for a millennium.
science and of genius;
one of the few of that age which can still be The earliest evidence of the reincarnation of a sound theoretical studied with profit. The English translation renders the definition geography is to be found in the text-books by Peter Apian and thus: “ Geography is that part of mixed mathematics which explains
Sebastian Münster. Apian in his Cosmographicus liber, the state of the earth and of its parts, depending on quantity, viz. Apianus.
published in 1524, and subsequently edited and added to its figure, place, magnitude and motion, with the celestial appearby Gemma Frisius under the title of Cosmographia, based the whole ances, &c. By some it is taken in too limited a sense, for å bare science on mathematics and measurement. He followed Ptolemy description of the several countries; and by others too extensively, closely, enlarging on his distinction between geography and choro- who along with such a description would have their political congraphy, and expressing the artistic analogy in a rough diagram. stitution. This slender distinction was made much of by most subsequent Varenius was reluctant to include the human side of geography in writers until Nathanael Carpenter in 1625 pointed out that the his system, and only allowed it as a concession to custom, and in difference between geography and chorography was simply one of order to attract readers by imparting interest to the sterner details degree, not of kind.
of the science. His division of geography was into two parts--(i.) Sebastian Münster, on the other hand, in his Cosmographia General or universal, dealing with
the carth in general, and explaining universalis of 1544. paid no regard to the mathematical basis of its properties without regard to particular countries; and (ii.) Special
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described or particular, dealing with cach country in turn from the chorographi. Müaster.
the world according to its different political divisions, cal or topographical point of view.. General geography was divided and entered with great zest into the question of the productions into---(1) the Absolule part, dealing with the form, dimensions, Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), position
and substance of the
carth, the distribution of land and
water, mountains, woods and deserts, hydrography (including all Möller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and the waters of the earth) and the atmosphere; (2) the Relative part, Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der. Griechen including the celestial properties, i.e. latitude, climate zones, longi. (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek tude, &c.; and (3) the Comparative part, which “considers the geographers
* The period of the carly middle ages is dealt with in Beazley's From translator's preface to the English version by Mr Dugdale Dawn of Modern Geography (London: part i., 1897; part ii., 1901; (1733). entitled A Complete System of General Geography, revised part ü., 1906); see also Winstedt, Cosmos Indicopleusies (1910). by Dr Peter Shaw (London, 1756).
as & natural
particulars arising from comparing one part with another"; but prepare the way for Humboldt. The theory of geography was under this head the questions discussed were longitude, the situation advanced by Humboldt mainly by his insistence on the great and distances of places, and navigation. Varenius does not trcat principle of the unity of nature. He brought all the “observable of special geography, but gives a scheme for it under three heads-things," which the cager collectors of the previous century had been (1) 'Terrestrial, including position, outline, boundaries, mountains, heaping together regardless of order or system, into relation with the mines, woods and deserts, waters, fertility and fruits, and living vertical relics and the horizontal forms of the earth's surface. Thus creatures; (2), Celestial, including appearance of the heavens and he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive the climate; (3) Hieman, but this was added out of deference to and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on popular usage.
man himself. This was no new idea; it had been familiar for This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book- centuries in a less definite form, deduced from a priori considerations, translated into English, Dutch and French-was the unchallenged and so far as regards the influence of surrounding circumstances standard for more than a century. The framework was capable of upon man, Kant had already given it full expression. Humboldt's accommodating itself to new facts, and was indeed far in advance
trations and the remarkable power of his personality of the knowledge of the period. The method included a recognition enabled him to enforce these principles in a way that produced of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of an immediate and lasting effect. Theireatises on physical geography their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the latter written relief of the land was fairly recognized.
for the cighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the The physical side of geography continued to be claborated after effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work. Varenius's methods, while the historical side was devcloped separ. Humboldt's contemporary, Carl Ritter (1779-1859), extended and ately. Both branches, although enriched by new facts, remained disseminated the same views, and in his interpretation of "Comstationary so far as method is concerned until nearly the end of the parative Geography" he laid stress on the importance of 18th century. The compilation of "geography books" by unin- forming conclusions, not from the study of one region by structed writers led to the pernicious habit, which is not yet wholly itsell, but from the comparison of the phenomena of many places. pages of concentrated information, and expanding the particular movements, Ritter was led deeper and deeper into the study of history overcome, of reducing the general or physical" part' to a few Impressed by the influence of terrestrial relief and climate on human
political" part by including unrevised travellers' stories and and archaeology: His monumental Vergleichende Geographie, which uncritical descriptions of the various countries of the world. Such was to have made the whole world its theme, died out in a wilderness books were in fact not geography, but merely compressed travel. of detail in twenty-one volumes before it had covered more of the
The next marked advance in the theory of geography may be earth's surface than Asia and a portion of Alrica. Some of his taken as the nearly simultancous studies of the physical carth followers showed a tendency to look on geography rather as an
carried out by the Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergnian, auxiliary to history than as a study of intrinsic worth. Bergman.
acting under the impulse of Linnacus, and by the German During the rapid development of physical geography many philosopher, Immanuel Kant. Bergman's Physical Description of branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the the Earth was published in Swedish in 1766, and translated into cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of English in 1772 and into German in 1774. It is a plain, straight. Linnacus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been
Geography forward description of the globe, and of the various phenomena so much advanced by the labours of specialists that of the surface, dealing only with definitely ascertained lacts in the thcir connexion was apt to be forgotten. Thus gcology, scicace. natural order of their relationships, but avoiding any systematic meteorology, oceanography and anthropology developed classification or even definitions of terms.
into distinct sciences. The absurd attempt was, and sometimes The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geocriticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged graphy; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed
the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of
fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences. Political richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant geography has been too often looked on from both sides as a mere brought his logical powers to bear upon them. Kant's lectures on
of guide-book knowledge, useful in the schoolroom, a poor physical geography were delivered in the university of Konigsberg relation of physical geography that it was rarely necessary to from 1765 onwards. Geography appealed to him as a valuable recognize. educational discipline, the joint foundation with anthropology of The science of geography. passed on from antiquity by Ptolemy. that "knowledge of the world " which was the result of reason re-established by Varenius and Newton, and systematized by Kant, and experience. In this connexion he divided the communication included within itself definite aspects of all those terrestrial phenoof experience from one person to another into two categories--the mena which are now treated exhaustively under the heads of geology, narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both meteorology, occanography and anthropology: and the inclusion history and geography being vicwed as descriptions, the former a of the requisite portions of the perfected results of these sciences in description in order of time, the latter a description in order of geography is simply the gathering in of fruit matured from the seed
scattered by gcography itselí. Physical geography he viewed as a summary of nature, the basis The study of geography was advanced by improvements in carto not only of history but also " all the other possible geographies," graphy (see Mar), not only in the methods of survey and projecof which he enumerates five, viz. (1) Mathematical geography, which tion, but in the representation of the third dimension by means deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place of contour lines introduced by Philippe Buache in 1737, and the in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the more remarkable because less obvious invention of isotherms different customs and characters of mankind according to the region introduced by Humboldt in 1817.. they inhabit: (3) Polilical geography, the divisions according to
argument from design " had been a favourite form of their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing reasoning amongst Christian theologians, and, as worked out by with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological l'alcy in his Natural Theology, it served the useful purpose The teleo gcography, or the distribution of religions. Here there is a clear and of emphasizing the fitness which exists between all the logkal are formal statement of the interaction and causal relation of all the inhabitants of the carth and their physical environment. phenomena of distribution on the earth's surface, including the in: It was held that the carth had been created so as to fit
geography. Huence of physical geography upon the various activities of mankind the wants of man in every particular. This argument was from the lowest to the highest. Notwithstanding the form of this tacitly accepted or explicitly avowed by almost every writer on the classification, Kant himself treats mathematical geography as pre- theory of geography, and Carl Ritter distinctly recognized and liminary to, and therefore not dependent on, physical geography. adopted it as the unifying principle of his system. As a student of Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, nature, however, he did not fail to see, and as professor of geography which has to do with the carth and all that belongs to it-water, air he always taught, that man was in very large measure conditioned and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of by his physical environment. The apparent opposition of the the earth-mankind, animals, plants and minerals. Particular observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon importance is given to the vertical relief of the land, on which the the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as insiruvarious branches of human geography are shown to depend. ments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for
Alexander von Humboldi (1769-1859) was the first modern geo- supplying the requirements of man. This was the central theme of grapher to become a great traveller, and thus to acquire an extensive Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and
stock of first-hand information on which an improved the consequent servour with which he pursued his mission goes far
system of geography might be founded. The impulse to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany. given to the study of natural history by the example of Linnacus; The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's" Physical the results brought back by Sir Joseph Banks, Dr Solander and the Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the two Forsters, who accompanied Cook in his voyages of discovery: unifying principle in geography. The conception of the
The theory the studies of De Saussure in the Alps, and the lists of desiderata development of the plan of the earth from the first in physical geography drawn up by that investigator, combined to cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long tioa ia
gcological periods, the guiding power of environment on
geography. Printed in Schriften zur physischen Geographie, vol. vi. of the circulation of water and of air
, on the distribution Schubert's edition of the collected works of Kant (Leipzig, 1839). 1 of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give First published with notes by Rink in 1802.
to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness