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estates into the three new kingdoms of Karthlinia, Kakhetia | armata, which are certainly Annelids; the Sipunculoidea (9.0.) or and Imeretia. On the other hand, both the Laz of Lazistan Gephyrea achaela, an independent group, certainly coelomate, and the Svanetian present such serious structural and verbal but of doubtíul affinity; the Prio puloidea (9.0.), equally of differences from the common type that they seem to stand doubtful affinity; and the Phoronidea (9.v.), which are alınost rather in the relation of sister tongues than of dialects to the certainly Hemichordata. Georgian proper. All derive obviously from a common source, GERA, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Reussbut have been developed independently of each other. The Schleiz (called also Reuss younger line), situated in a valley Tush or Mosok appears to be fundamentally a Kistinian or on the banks of the White Elsier, 45 m. S.S.W. of Leipzig on Chechen idiom affected by Georgian influences.
the railway to Probst zella. Pop. (1885) 34,152; (1905) 47,455. The Bible is said to have been translated into Georgian as It has been mostly rebuilt since a great fire in 1780, and the streels early as the 5th century. The extant version, however, dates are in general wide and straight, and contain many handsome only from the 8th century, and is attributed to St Euthymius. houses. There are three Evangelical churches and one Roman But even so, it is far the most ancient work known to exist in Catholic. Among other noteworthy buildings are the handsome the language. Next in importance is, perhaps, the curious town-hall (1576, afterwards restored) and the theatre (1902). Its poem entitled The Amours of Turiel and Nestan Darejan, or The educational establishments include a gymnasium, a commercial man clothed in the panther's skin, attributed to Rustevel, who and a weaving school. The castle of Osterstein, the residence lived during the prosperous reign of Queen Thamar (11th of the princes of Reuss, dates from the 9th century, but has been century). . Other noteworthy compositions are the national epics almost entirely rebuilt in modern times. Gera is noted for its of the Baramiani and the Rostomiani, and the prose romances industrial activity. Its industries include wool-weaving and of l'isramiani and Darejaniani, the former by Sarg of Thmogvi, spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and the latter by Mosi of Khoni. Apart from these, the great bulk silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather of Georgian literature consists of ecclesiastical writings, hymns and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening. sacred and profane, national codes and chronicles.
Gera (in ancient chronicles Gercha) was raised to the rank of BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The standard authority on the history is M. F.
a town in the uth century, at which time it belonged to the Brosset's translation of the Georgian chronicles under the title of Histoire de la Géorgie (5 vols., St Petersburg, 1849-1858); but com
counts of Groitch. In the 12th century it came into the possespare also Khakanov, Histoire de Géorgie (Paris, 1900). See further sion of the lords of Reuss. It was stormed and sacked by the A. Leist, Das georgische Volk (Dresden, 1903); M. de Villeneuve, Bohemians in 1450, was two-thirds burned down by the Swedes La Géorgie (Paris, 1870): 0. Wardrop, The Kingdom of Georgia in 1639 during the Thirty Ycars' War, and suffered afterwards (London, 1888); and Langlois, Numismatique géorgienne. (Paris, from great conflagrations in 1686 and 1780, being in the latter 1860). For the philology see Zagarelli, Examen de la littérature relative à la grammaire géorgienne (1873); Friedrich Müller, Grund. year almost completely destroyed. riss der Sprachwissenschafi (1887). iii. 2; Leist, Georgische Dichter GERALDTON, a town in the district of Victoria, West Australia, (1887); Erskert, Sprachen des kaukasischen Stammes (1895). For on Champion Bay, 306 m. by rail N.W. of Perth. Pop. (1901) other points as to anthropology, Michel Smirnow's paper in Revue
It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, an important d'anthropologie (April 15. 1878); Chantre, Recherches anthropologiques 2593. dans le Caucase (1885-1887); and Erckert, Der Kaukasus und seine
seaport carrying on a considerable trade with the surrounding Volker (1887).
gold-fields and agricultural districts, the centre of a considerable GEORGIAN BAY, the N.E. section of Lake Huron, separated railway system and an increasingly popular scaside resort. from it by Manitoulin Island and the peninsula comprising The harbour is safe and extensive, having a pier affording the counties of Grey and Bruce, Ontario. It is about 100 m. accommodation for large steamers. The chief exports are gold, long and 50 m. wide, and is said to contain 30,000 islands. It copper, lead, wool and sandalwood. receives numerous rivers draining a large extent of country; of GÉRANDO, MARIE JOSEPH DE (1772-1842), French these the chief are the French river draining Lake Nipissing, philosopher, was born at Lyons on the 29th of February 1772. the Maganatawan draining a number of small lakes, the Muskoka When the city was besieged in 1793 by the armies of the Republic, draining the Muskoka chain of lakes (Muskoka, Rosseau, Joseph, de Gérando took up arms, was made prisoner and with difficulty &c.) and the Severn draining Lake Simcoe. Into its southern escaped with his life. He took refuge in Switzerland, whence he extremity, known as Nottawasaga Bay, flows the river of the afterwards fled to Naples. In 1796 the establishment of the
The Trent valley canal connects Georgian Bay Directory allowed him to return to France. At the age of twentywith the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario, and a canal system five he enlisted as a private in a cavalry regiment. About this has long been projected to Montreal by way of the French and time the Institute proposed as a subject for an essay this question, Ollawa rivers and Lake Nipissing.
-"What is the influence of symbols on the faculty of thought ?", GEORGSWALDE, a town of Bohemia, Austria, 115 m. N.E. De Gérando gained the prize, and heard of his success after the of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 8131, including Neu-Georgswalde, battle of Zürich, in which he had distinguished himself. This Wiesenthal and Philippsdorf, which form together a single literary triumph was the first step in his upward career. In commune. Georgswalde is one of the oldest industrial places 1799 he was altached to the ministry of the interior by Lucien of Bohemia, and together with the neighbouring town of Rum- Bonaparte; in 1804 he became general secretary under Chanburg is the principal centre of the linen industry. The village pagny; in 1805 he accompanied Napoleon into Italy; in 1808 of Philippsdorf, now incorporated with Georgswalde, has become he was nominated master of requests; in 1811 he received the since 1866 a famous place of pilgrimage, owing to the miracles title of councillor of state; and in the following year he was attributed to an image of the Virgin, placed now in a magnificent appointed governor of Catalonia. On the overthrow of the new church (1885).
empire, de Gérando was allowed to retain this office; but having GEPHYREA, the name used for several groups of worm-like been sent during the hundred days into the department of the animals with certain resemblances but of doubtful affinity. In Moselle to organize the defence of that district, he was punished the article “ Annelida " in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia, at the second Restoration by a few months of neglect. He W. C. McIntosh followed the accepted view in associating was soon aster, however, readmitted into the council of state, in this group the Echiuridae, Sipunculidae and Prio pulidae. where he distinguished himself by the prudence and conciliatory E. Ray Lankester, in the preface to the English translation of tendency of his views. In 1819 he opened at the law-school of C. Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy (1878), added the Phoro- Paris a class of public and administrative law, which in 1822 nidae to these forms. Afterwards the same author (article was suppressed by government, but was reopened six years “ Zoology,” Ency. Bril., 9th ed.) recognized that the Phoronidae later under the Martignac ministry. In 1837 he was made a had other affinities, and placed the other "gephyreans" in baron. He died at Paris on the oth of November 1842. association with the Polyzoa as the two classes of a phylum De Gérando's best-known work is his Histoire comparée des Podaxonia. In the present state of knowledge the old group systèmes de philosophie relalivement aux principes des connais. Gephyrca is broken up into Echiuroidea (2.0.) or Gepkyrea | sances humaines (Paris, 1804, 3 vols.). The germ of this work
had already appeared in the author's Mémoire de la génération the regular alternation of successive whorls; the outer whorl des connaissances humaines (Berlin, 1802), which was crowned of stamens arises in course of development before the inner, so by the Academy of Berlin. In it de Gérando, after a rapid that there is no question of subsequent displacement. There review of ancient and modern speculations on the origin of our are five, or sometimes fewer, carpels, which unite to form an ideas, singles out the theory of primary ideas, which he endeavours ovary with as many chambers, in each of which are one or two, to combat under all its forms. The latter half of the work, rarely more, pendulous anatropous ovules, attached to the devoted to the analysis of the intellectual faculties, is intended central column in such a way thai the micropyle points outwards to show how all human knowledge is the result of experience; and the raphe is turned towards the placenta. The long beak-like and reflection is assumed as the source of our ideas of substance, style divides at the top into a corresponding number of slender of unity and of identity. It is divided into two parts, the first stigmas. of which is purely historical, and devoted to an exposition of The larger-flowered species of Geranium are markedly protanvarious philosophical systems; in the second, which comprises drous, the outer stamens, inner stamens and stigmas becoming fourteen chapters of the entire work, the distinctive characters functional in succession. For instance, in meadow crane’s-bill, and value of these systems are compared and discussed. In G. pratense, each whorl of stamens ripens in turn, becoming spite of the disadvantage that it is impossible to separate erect and shedding their pollen; as the anthers wither the filaadvantageously the history and critical examination of any ments bend outwards, and when all the anthers have diverged doctrine in the arbitrary manner which de Gérando chose, the the stigmas become mature and ready for pollination. By this work has great merits. In correctness of detail and comprehensiveness of view it was greatly superior to every work of the same kind that had hitherto appeared in France. During the Empire and the first years of the Restoration, de Gérando found time to prepare a second edition (Paris, 1822, 4 vols.), which is enriched with so many additions that it may pass for an entirely new work. The last chapter of the part published during the author's lifetime ends with the revival of letters and the philosophy of the 15th century. The second part, carrying the work down to the close of the 18th century, was published posthumously by his son in 4 vols. (Paris, 1847). Twenty-three chapters of this were left complete by the author in manuscript; the remaining three were supplied from other sources, chiefly printed but unpublished memoirs.
His essay Du perfectionnement moral et de l'éducation de soi-même was crowned by the French Academy in 1825. The fundamental idea of this work is that human life is in reality only a great education, of which perfection is the aim.
Besides the works already mentioned, de Gérando left many others, of which we may indicate the following:--Corsidéralions sur diverses méthodes d'observation des peu sauvages (Paris, 18 Eloge de Dumarsais, -discours qui c remporté le prix proposé par la seconde classe de l'Institut National (Paris, 1805); Le Visiteur de pauvre (Paris, 1820); Instituts du droit administratif (4 vols., Paris, 1830): Cours normal des instituteurs primaires ou directions relatives à l'éducation physique, morale, et intellectuelle dans les écoles primaires (Paris, 1832): De l'éducation des sourds-muels (2 vols., Paris, 1832); De la bienfaisance publique (4 vols., 1838), A detailed analysis of the Histoire comparée des systèmes will be found in the Fragments philosophiques of M. Cousin. In connexion with his psychological studies, it is interesting that in 1884 the French Anthropological Society reproduced his instructions for the observation of primitive peoples, and modern students of the beginnings of speech in children and the cases of deaf-mutes have found useful
Meadow Cranc's-bill, Geranium pratense matter in his works. See also J. P. Damiron, Essai sur la philosophie
(Aster en France au XIXe siècle.
Curtis, Flora Londinensis.)
1, Flower after removal of petals, 3, Floral diagram, the dots GERANIACEAE, in botany, a small but very widely distributed 2, Fruit after splitting. 1 and 2 opposite the inner stamens natural order of Dicotyledons belonging to the subclass Poly
about natural size.
represent honey-glands. petalae, containing about 360 species in ii genera.
It is re
arrangement self-pollination is prevented and cross-pollination presented in Britain by two genera, Geranium (crane's-bill) and ensured by the visits of bees which come for the honey secreted Erodium (stork's-bill), to which belong nearly two-thirds of the by the glands at the base of the inner stamens. total number of species. The plants are mostly herbs, rarely In species with smaller and less conspicuous flowers, such as becoming shrubby, with generally simple glandular hairs on G. molle, the flowers of which are only } to į in. in diameter, the stem and leaves. The opposite or alternate leaves have a self-pollination is rendered possible, since the divisions of the pair of small stipules at the base of the stalk and a palminerved stigma begin to separate before the outer stamens have shed blade. The flowers, which are generally arranged in a cymose all their pollen; the nearness of the stigmas to the dehiscing inflorescence, are hermaphrodite, hypogynous, and, except in anthers favours self-pollination.
Pelargonium regular. The parts are arranged in fives. There In the ripe fruit the carpels separate into five one-seeded are five free sepals, overlapping in the bud, and, alternating with portions (cocci), which break away from the central column, these, five free petals. In Pelargonium the flower is zygomorphic either rolling elastically outwards and upwards or becoming with a spurred posterior sepal and the petals differing in size spirally twisted. In most species of Geranium the cocci split or shape. In Geranium the stamens are obdiplostemonous, i.e. open on the inside and the seeds are shot out by the elastic an outer whorl of five opposite the petals alternates with an uptwisting (fig. 1); in Erodium and Pelargonium each coccus inner whorl of five opposite the sepals; at the base of each of remains closed, and the long twisted upper portion separates the antisepalous stamens is a honey-gland. In Erodium the from the central column, forming an awn, the distribution of members of the outer whorl are reduced to scale-like structures which is favoured by the presence of bristles or hairs. The (staminodes), and in Pelargonium from two to seven only are embryo generally fills the seed, and the cotyledons are rolled or fertile. There is no satisfactory explanation of this break in 1 folded on each other.
Geronium is the most widely distributed genus; it has 160 To recapitulate, the geraniums properly so-called are regularspecies and is spread over all temperate regions with a few flowered herbs with the flower-stalks solid, while many geraniums species in the tropics. Three British species--G. sylvaticum, | falsely so-called in popular language are really pelargoniums, G. pratense and G. Roberlianum (herb-Robert)-reach the and may be distinguished by their irregular flowers and hollow arctic zone, while G. patagonicum and G. magellanicum are flower-stalks. In a great majority of cases too, the pelargoniums found in the antarctic. Erodium contains 50 species (three are so commonly met with in greenhouses and summer parterres British), most of which are confined to the Mediterranean are of shrubby or sub-shrubby habit. region and west Asia, though others occur in America, in South The various races of pelargoniums bave sprung from the Africa and West Australia. Pelargonium, with 175 species, has intermixture of some of the species obtained from the Cape. its centre in South Africa, the well-known garden and green-The older show-flowered varieties have been gradually acquired house" geraniums "are species of Pelargonium (see GERANIUM). through a long series of years. The fancy varieties, as well as
GERANIUM, the name of a genus of plants, which is taken by the French spotted varieties and the market type, have been botanists as the type of the natural order Geraniaceae. The evolved from them. The zonal or bedding race, on the other name, as a scientific appellation, has a much more restricted hand, has been more recently perfected; they are supposed application than when taken in its popular sense. Formerly to have arisen from hybrids between Pelargonium inquinans the genus Geranium was almost conterminous with the order and P. sonale. In all the sections the varieties are of a highly Geraniaceae. Then as now the geranium was very popular ornamental character, but for general cultivation the market as a garden plant, and the species included in the original genus type is preferable for indoor purposes, while the zonals are became widely known under that name, which has more or less effective either in the greenhouse or flower garden. Some of the clung to them ever since, in spite of scientific changes which Cape species are still in cultivation-the leaves of many of them have removed the larger number of them to the genus Pelar- being beautifully subdivided, almost fern-like in character, gonium. This result has been probably brought about in some and some of them are deliciously scented; P. quercifolium degree by an error of the nurserymen, who seem in many cases is the oak-leaf geranium. The ivy-leaf geranium, derived to have acted on the conclusion that the group commonly from P. peltatum, has given rise to an important class of both known as Scarlet Geraniums were really geraniums and not double- and single-flowered forms adapted especially for pot pelargoniums, and were in consequence inserted under the culture, hanging baskets, window boxes and the greenhouse. former name in their trade catalogues. In fact it may be said Of late years the ivy-leaf “geraniums " have been crossed with that, from a popular point of view, the pelargoniums of the the “zonals," and a new race is being gradually evolved from botanist are still better known as geraniums than are the these two distinct groups. geraniums themselves, but the term " zonal Pelargonium” is The best soil for pelargoniums is a mellow fibrous loam with gradually making its way amongst the masses.
good well-rotted stable manure or leaf-mould in about the proThe species of Geranium consist mostly of herbs, of annual or portion of one-fifth; when used it should not be sisted, but perennial duration, dispersed throughout the temperate regions pulled to pieces by the hand, and as much sand should be added of the world. They number about 160, and bear a considerable as will allow the water to pass freely through it. The largefamily resemblance. The leaves are for the most part palmately- | flowered and fancy kinds cannot bear so much water as most lobed, and the flowers are regular, consisting of five sepals, five soft-wooded plants, and the latter should have a rather lighter imbricating petals, alternating with five glandules at their base, soil. ten stamens and a beaked ovary. Eleven species are natives All the pelargoniums are readily increased by cuttings made of the British Isles and are popularly known as crane's-bill. from the shoots when the plants are headed down after flowering, G. Robertianum is herb-Robert, a common plant in hedgebanks. or in the spring, when they will root freely in a temperature of G. sanguineum, with flowers a deep rose colour, is often grown 650 to 70°. They must not be kept too close, and must be very in borders, as are also the double-flowered varieties of G. pratense. moderately watered. When rooted they may be moved into Many others of exotic origin form handsome border plants in well-drained 3-in. pots, and when from 6 to 8 in, high, should our gardens of hardy perennials; amongst these G. armenum, have the points pinched out in order to induce them to push G. Endressi, G. ibericum and its variety platypetalum are con- out several shoots nearer the base. These shoots are, when long spicuous.
enough, to be trained in a horizontal direction; and when they From these regular-flowered herbs, with which they had have made three joints they should have the points again pinched been mixed up by the earlier botanists, the French botanist out. These early-struck plants will be ready for shifting into L'Heritier in 1787 separated those plants which have since 0-in. pots by the autumn, and should still be trained outwards. borne the name of Pelargonium, and which, though agreeing The show varieties after flowering should be set out of doors in with them in certain points of structure, differ in others which a sunny spot to ripen their wood, and should only get water are admitted to be of generic value. One obvious distinction of enough to keep them from flagging. In the course of two or Pelargonium is that the flowers are irregular, the two petals three weeks they will be ready to cut back within two joints which stand uppermost being different-larger, smaller or of where these were last stopped, when they should be placed differently marked-from the other three, which latter are in a frame or pit, and kept close and dry until they have broken. occasionally wanting. This difference of irregularity the modern When they have pushed an inch or so, turn them out of their florist has done very much to annul, for the increased size given pots, shake off the old soil, trim the straggling roots, and repot to the flowers by high breeding has usually been accompanied them firmly in smaller pots if practicable; keep them near the by the enlargement of the smaller petals, so that a very near light, and as the shoots grow continue to train them outwardly. approach to regularity has been in some cases attained. Another They require to be kept in a light house, and to be set well up well-marked difference, however, remains in Pelargonium: the to the glass; the night temperature should range about 45°; back or dorsal sepal has a hollow spur, which
spur is adnate, i.e.
and air should be given on all mild days, but no cold currents joined for its whole length with the flower-stalk; while in allowed, nor more water than is necessary to keep the soil from Geranium there is no spur. This peculiarity is best seen by getting parched. The young shoots should be topped about cutting clean through the flower-stalk just behind the nower, the end of October, and when they have grown an inch or two when in Pelargonium there will be seen the hollow tube of the beyond this, they may be shifted into 7-in. pots for flowering. spur, which in the case of Geranium will not be found, but the The 'shoots must be kept tied out so as to be fully exposed to stalk will appear as a solid mass. There are other characters the light. If required to flower early they should not be stopped which support those already pointed out, such as the absence of again; is not until June they may be stopped in February. the glandules, and the declination of the stamens; but the The zonal varieties, which are almost continuous bloomers, scatures already described olier the most ready and obvious are of much value as decorative subjects; they seldom require distinctions.
much pruning after the first stopping for winter flowering, young plants should be raised from cuttings about March, and or Theorica planclarum, and the versions of Avicenna's Canon grown on during the summer, but should not be allowed to of Medicine-the basis of the numerous subsequent Latin Aower. When blossoms are required, they should be placed editions of that well-known work-and of the Almansorius of close up to the glass in a light house with a temperature of 65°, Abu Bakr Razi) are probably due to a later Gerard, of the 13th only just as much water being given as will keep them growing. century, also called Cremonensis but more precisely de Sabloneta For bedding purposes the zonal varieties are best struck towards (Sabbionetta). This writer undertook the task of interpreting the middle of August in the open air, taken up and potted or to the Latin world some of the best work of Arabic physicians, planted in boxes as soon as struck, and preserved in frames or in and his translation of Avicenna is said to have been made by the greenhouse during winter.
order of the emperor Frederic II. The fancy varieties root best early in spring from the half
Sec Pipini, Cronica," in Muratori, Scripi. rer. Ital. vol. ix.; ripened shoots; they are slower growers, and rather more
Nicol. Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana vetus, vol. ii.; Tiraboschi,
Sloria della lelleralura lialiana, vols. iii. (333) and iv.; Arisi, delicate in constitution than the zonal varieties, and very im- Cremona lilerala; Jourdain, Recherches sur l'origine des patient of excess of water at the root.
Traductions lalines d'Aristote; Chasles, A perçu historique des méthodes GERARD (d. 1108), archbishop of York under Henry I., began en géométrie, and in Comples rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. his career as a chancery clerk in the service of William Rusus.
xiii. p. 506; J: T. Reinaud, Géographie d'Aboulféda, introduction, He was one of the two royal envoys who, in 1095, persuaded Gherardo Cremonese e di Gherardo da Sabbionetta (Rome, 1851). Much
vol. í. pp. ccxlvi. ccxlviii.; Boncompagni, Della vila e delle opere di Urban II. to send a legate and Anselm's pallium to England. of the work of both the Gerards remains in manuscript, as in Paris, Although the legate disappointed the king's expectations, National Library, MSS. Lat. 7400, 7421; MSS. Suppl. Lat: 49; Rome, Gerard was rewarded for his services with the see of Hereford Vatican library. 4083, and Ottobon, 1826: Oxford, Bodleian library, (1096). On the death of Rufus he at once declared for Henry I., of " Gerard of Cremona " and a list of his " translations, apparently
Digby, 47, 61. The Vatican MS. 2392 is stated to contain a eulogy by whom he was nominated to the see of York. He made diff. confusing the two scholars. The former's most valuable work was culties when required to give Anselm the usual profession of in astronomy; the latter's in medicine.
(C. R. B.) obedience; and it was perhaps to assert the importance of his GÉRARD, ÉTIENNE MAURICE, COUNT (1773-1852), French see that he took the king's side on the question of investitures. general, was born at Damvilliers (Meuse), on the 4th of April He pleaded Henry's cause at Rome with great ability, and claimed 1773. He joined a battalion of volunteers in 1791, and served that he had obtained a promise, on the pope's part, to condone in the campaigns of 1792-1793 under Generals Dumouriez and the existing practice of lay investiture. But this statement Jourdan. In 1795 he accompanied Bernadotte as aide-de-camp. was contradicted by Paschal, and Gerard incurred the suspicion In 1799 he was promoted chef d'escadron, and in 1800 colonel. of perjury. About 1103 he wrote or inspired a series of tracts He distinguished himself at the battles of Austerlitz and Jena, which defended the king's prerogative and attacked the oecumeni. and was made general of brigade in November 1806, and for his cal pretensions of the papacy with great freedom of language. conduct in the battle of Wagram he was created a baron. In He changed sides in 1105, becoming a stanch friend and sup- the Spanish campaign of 1810 and 1811 he gained special disporter of Anselm. Gerard was a man of considerable learning tinction at the battle of Fuentes d'Onor; and in the expedition and ability; but the chroniclers accuse him of being lax in his to Russia he was present at Smolensk and Valutina, and displayed morals, an astrologer and a worshipper of the devil.
such bravery and ability in the battle of Borodino that he was See the Tractatus Eborccenses edited by H. Bochmer in Libelli de made general of division. He won further distinction in the lite Sacerdolii cl Imperii, vol. iii. (in the Monumenta hisi. Germaniae, disastrous retreat from Moscow. In the campaign of 1813, in quarto series), and the same author's Kirche und Staat in England command of a division, he took part in the battles of Lützen and und in der Normandie (Leipzig, 1899).
(H. W. C. D.)
Bautzen and the operations of Marshal Macdonald, and at the GERARD (c. 1040-1120), variously surnamed Tum, Tunc, battle of Leipzig (in which he commanded the XI. corps) he was TENQUE or Thou, founder of the order of the knights of St John dangerously wounded. After the battle of Bautzen he was of Jerusalem (9.v.), was born at Amalfi about the year 1040.created by Napoleon a count of the empire. In the campaign According to other accounts Martigues in Provence was his of France of 1814, and especially at La Rothière and Montereau, birthplace, while one authority even names the Château d'Avesnes he won suill greater distinction. After the first restoration he in Hainaut. Either as a soldier or a merchant, he found his way was named by Louis XVIII. grand cross of the Legion of Honour to Jerusalem, where a hospice had for some time existed for the and chevalier of St Louis. In the Hundred Days Napoleon made convenience of those who wished to visit the holy places. Of Gérard a peer of France and placed him in command of the IV. this institution Gerard became guardian or provost at a date not corps of the Army of the North. In this capacity Gérard look later than 1100; and here he organized that religious order of a brilliant part in the battle of Ligny (sec WATERLOO CAMPAIGN), St John which received papal recognition from Paschal II. in and on the morning of the 18th of Junc he was foremost in advis1113, by a bull which was renewed and confirmed by Calixtus II. ing Marshal Grouchy to march to the sound of the guns. Gérard shortly before the death of Gerard in 1120.
retired to Brussels after the fall of Napolcon, and did not return GERARD OF CREMONA (c. 1114-1187), the medieval trans- to France till 1817. He sat as a member of the chamber of lator of Ptolemy's Astronomy, was born at Cremona, Lombardy, deputies in 1822-1824, and was re-elected in 1827. He took part in or about 1114. Dissatisfied with the meagre philosophies in the revolution of 1830, after which he was appointed minister of his Italian teachers, he went to Toledo to study in Spanish of war and named a marshal of France. On account of his Moslem schools, then so famous as depositories and interpreters health he resigned the office of war minister in the October of ancient wisdom; and, having thus acquired a knowledge of following, but in 1831 he took the command of the northern army, the Arabic language, he appears to have devoted the remainder and was successíul in thirteen days in driving the army of Holland of his life to the business of making Latin translations from its out of Belgium. In 1832 he commanded the besieging army in literature. The date of his return to his native town is uncertain, the famous scientific siege of the citadel of Antwerp. He was but he is known to have died there in 1187. His most celebrated again chosen war minister in July 1834, but resigned in the work is the Latin version by which alone Ptolemy's Almagest October following. In 1836 he was named grand chancellor of was known to Europe until the discovery of the original Meyadn the Legion of Honour in succession to Marshal Mortier, and in Luvragis. In addition to this, he translated various other 1838 commander of the National Guards of the Seine, an office treatises, to the number, it is said, of sixty-six; among these which he held till 1842. He became a senator under the empire were the Tables of " Arzakhel,” or Al Zarkala of Toledo, Al in 1852, and died on the 17th of April in the same year. Farabi On the Sciences (De scientiis), Euclid's Geometry, Al GÉRARD, FRANÇOIS, Baron (1770-1837), French painter, Farghani's Elements of Astronomy, and treatises on algebra, was born on the 4th of May 1770, at Rome, where his father arithmetic and astrology. In the last-named latitudes arc occupied a post in the house of the French ambassador. At the reckoned from Cremona and Toledo. Some of the works, how- age of twelve Gérard obtained admission into the Pension du ever, with which he has been credited (including the Theorie | Roi at Paris. From the Pension he passed to the studio oí Pajou (sculptor), which he left at the end of two years for that satirical humour, soon came to enjoy a general popularity. . of the painter Brenet, whom he quitted almost immediately to Besides supplying illustrations for various standard works, place himself under David. In 1789 he competed for the Prix such as the songs of Béranger, the fables of La Fontaine, Don de Rome, which was carried off by his comrade Girodet. In the Quixole; Gulliver's Travels, Robinson Crusoe, he also continued following year (1790) he again presented himself, but the death the issue of various lithographic collections, among which may of his father prevented the completion of his work, and obliged be mentioned La Vie privée el publique des animaux, Les Cerit him to accompany his mother to Rome. In 1791 he returned to Proverbes, L'Autre Monde and Les Fleurs unimécs. Though Paris; but his poverty was so great that he was forced to forgo the designs of Gérard are occasionally unnatural and absurd, his studies in favour of employment which should bring in they usually display keen analysis of character and marvellous immediate profit. David at once availed himself of his help, inventive ingenuity, and his humour is always tempered and and one of that master's most celebrated pictures-Le Pelletier refined by delicacy of sentiment and a vein of sober thoughtfulde St Fargeau--may owe much to the hand of Gérard. This ness. He died of mental disease on the 17th of March 1847. painting was executed carly in 1793, the year in which Gérard, A short notice of Gérard, under the name of Grandville, is conat the request of David, was named a member of the revolu- tained in Théophile Gautier's Portraits contemporains. See ako tionary tribunal, from the fatal decisions of which he, however,
Charles Blanc, Grandville (Paris, 1855). invariably absented himself. In 1794 he obtained the first prize GERARD, JOHN (1545-1612), English herbalist and surgeon, in a competition, the subject of which was “The Tenth of August,'
was born towards the end of 1545 at Nant wich in Cheshire. He and, further stimulated by the successes of his rival and friend was educated at Wisterson, or Willaston, 2 m. from Nant wich, Girodet in the Salons of 1793 and 1794, Gerard (nobly aided and eventually, after spending some time in travelling, took up by Isabey the miniaturist) produced in 1795 his famous “ Bélis- his abode in London, where he exercised his profession. For aire.” In 1796 a portrait of his gencrous friend in the Louvre) more than twenty years he also acted as superintendent of the obtained undisputed success, and the money received from gardens in London and at Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, of William Isabey for these two works enabled Gérard to cxcculc in 1797 Cecil, Lord Burghley. In 1596 he published a catalogue of his Psyché et l'Amour." At last, in 1799, his portrait of plants cultivated in his own garden in Holborn, London, 1039 in Madame Bonaparte established his position as one of the first number, inclusive of varieties of the same species. Their English portrait-painters of the day. In 1808 as many as eight, in 1810
as well as their Latin names are given in a revised edition of the no less than fourteen portraits by him, were exhibited at the catalogue issued in 1599. In 1597 appeared Gerard's well-known Salon, and these figures afford only an indication of the cnormous Herball, described by him in its preface as “the first fruits of numbers which he executed yearly; all the leading figures of these mine own labours,” but more truly an adaptation of the the empire and of the restoration, all the most celebrated men Slirpium historice pemptades of Rembert Dodoens (1518-1585), and women of Europe, sat to Gérard. This extraordinary published in 1583, or rather of a translation of the whole or part vogue was due partly to the charm of his manner and conversa- of the same by Dr Priest, with M. Lobel's arrangement. Of the tion, for his salon was as much frequented as his studio; Madame
numerous illustrations of the Herball sixteen appear to be de Staël, Canning, Tallcyrand, the duke of Wellington, have all original, the remainder are mostly impressions from the wood borne witness to the attraction of his society. Rich and famous, blocks employed by Jacob Theodorus Tabernaemontanus in Gérard was stung by remorse for earlier ambitions abandoned; his Icones stirpium, published at Frankfort in 1590. A second at intervals he had indeed striven to prove his strength with edition of the Herbell, with considerable improvements and Girodet and other rivals, and his “ Bataille d'Austerlitz" (1810) additions, was brought out by Thomas Johnson in 1633, and showed a breadth of invention and style which are even more reprinted in 1636. Gerard was elected a member of the court of conspicuous in “ L'Entrée d'Henri IV” (Versailles)-the work assistants of the barber-surgeons in 1595, by which company with which in 1817 he did homage to the Bourbons. After this he was appointed an examiner in 1598, junior warden in 1605, date Gérard declined, watching with impotent grief the progress and master in 1608. He died in February 1612, and was buried of the Romantic school. Loaded with honours-baron of the at St Andrews, Holborn. empire, member of the Institute, officer of the legion of honour, See Johnson's preface to his edition of the Herball; and A Catefirst painter to the king-he worked on sad and discouraged; logue of Plants cultivated in the Garden of John Gerard in the years the revolution of 1830 added to his disquiet; and on the inth oi 1500-1599, edited with Notes, References to Gerard's Herball
Addition of modern Names, and a Life of the Author, by Benjamin January 1837, after three days of sever, he died. By his portraits Daydon Jackson, F.L.S., privately printed (London, 1876, 4to). Gérard is best remembered; the colour of his paintings has GÉRARDMER, a town of north-eastern France, in the departsuffered, but his drawings show in uninjured delicacy the purity ment of Vosges, 33 m. E.S.E. of Epinal by rail. Pop. (1906) of his line; and those of women are specially remarkable for a of the town, 3993; of the commune, 10,041. Gérardmer is virginal simplicity and frankness of expression.
M. Ch. Lenormant published in 1846 Essai de biographie et de beautifully situated at a height of 2200 ft. at the eastern end critique sur François Gérard, a second cdition of which appeared of the small Lake of Gérardmer (285 acres in extent) among in 1847; and M. Delécluze devoted several pages to the same subject forest-clad mountains. It is the chief summer-resort of the in his work Louis David, son école et son lemps.
French Vosges and is a centre for excursions, among which may GÉRARD, JEAN IGNACE ISIDORE (1803-1847), French be mentioned those to the Höhneck (4481 ft.), the second caricaturist, generally known by the pseudonym of Grandville highest summit in the Vosges, the Schlucht, the mountain pass the professional name of his grandparents, who were actors from France to Germany, and, nearer the town, the picturesque was born at Nancy on the 13th of September 1803. He received defile of Granges, watered by the Vologne, which at one point his first instruction in drawing from his father, a miniature forms the cascade known as the Saut des Cuves. The town painter, and at the age of twenty-one came to Paris, where he itself, in which the chief object of interest is the huge lime-tree soon afterwards published a collection of lithographs entitled in the market-place, carries on cloth-weaving, bleaching, woodLes Tribulations de la petite propriété. He followed this by Les sawing and the manufacture of wooden goods; there is trade Plaisirs de louldge and La Sibylle des salons; but the work in the cheeses (géromés) manufactured in the neighbourhood. which first established his fame was Mélamorphoses du jour, Gérardmer is said to owe its name to Gerard of Alsace, ist duke published in 1828, a series of seventy scenes in which individuals of Lorraine, who in the uth century built a tower on the bank with the bodies of men and faces of animals are made to play a of the lake or mer, near which, in 1285, a new town was founded. human comedy. These drawings are remarkable for the extra- GERASA (mod. Gerash or Jerash), a city of Palestine, and a ordinary skill with which human characteristics are represented member of the league known as the Decapolis (9.9.), situated amid in animal features. The success of this work led to his being the mountains of Gilead, about 1757 ft. above the sea, 20 m. engaged as artistic contributor to various periodicals, such as La from the Jordan and 21 m. N. of Philadelphia. Of its origin Silhouelle, L'Artiste, La Caricature, Le Charivari; and his political nothing is known; it has been suggested that it represents caricatures, which were characterized by marvellous sertility of the biblical Ramoth Gilcad. From Josephus we learn that it