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whole proclamation. Whenever they had the chance, however, from Lüderitz Bay to Kubub was begun early in 1906. A camel the Germans hunted down the Herero, and thousands perished transport corps was also organized, and Boer auxiliaries engaged. in the Omaheke desert, across which numbers succeeded in Throughout the later half of 1906 the Hottentots maintained passing 10 British territory near Ngami.

the struggle, the Karas mountains forming a stronghold from On the day following the issue of von Trotha's proclamation which their dislodgment was extremely difficult. Many of their to the Herero, i.e. on the 3rd of October 1904, Hendrik Witboi leaders and numbers of the tribesmen had a considerable strain sent a formal declaration of war to the Germans. Hendrik had of white (chiefly Dutch) blood and were fairly educated men, helped to suppress the Bondelzwarts-rising, and had received a with a knowledge not only of native, but European ways; facts German decoration for his services, and his hostility is said to which helped to make them formidable opponents. Gradually have been kindled by the supersession of Colonel Leutwein, for the resistance of the Hottentots was overcome, and in December whom he entertained a great admiration. The Witbois were 1906 the Bondelzwarts again surrendered. Other tribes continued joined by other Hottentot tribes, and their first act was to the fight for months longer, but by March 1907 it was found murder some sixty German settlers in the Gibeon district. Both possible to reduce the troops in the protectorate to about 5000 British and Boer farmers were spared-the Hottentots in this At the height of the campaign the Germans had 19,000 matter following the example of the Herero. In November, men in the field. considerable reinforcements having come from Germany, the In August 1907 renewed alarm was created by the escape of Witbois were attacked, and Hendrik's headquarters, Reitmont, Morenga from British territory. The Cape government, regarding captured. Another defeat was inflicted on Hendrik in January the chief as a political refugee, had refused to extradite him and 1905, but, lacking ammunition and water, the Germans could not he had been assigned a residence near Upington. This place he follow up their victory. As in Damaraland, the warfare in left early in August and, eluding the frontier guards, re-entered Namaqualand now assumed a guerrilla character, and the Germans German territory. In September, however, he was again on found it almost impossible to meet their elusive enemy, while small the British side of the border. Meantime a force of the Cape detachments were often surprised and sometimes annihilated. Mounted Police under Major F. A. H. Eliott had been organized In May 1905 von Trotha tried the effect on the Hottentots of to effect his arrest. Summoned to surrender, Morenga fled into another of his proclamations. He invited them to surrender, the Kalahari Desert. Eliott's force of sixty men pursued him adding that in the contrary event all rebels would be exterminated. through a waterless country, covering 80 m. in 24 hours. When A price was at the same time put on the heads of Hendrik Witboi overtaken (September 21st), Morenga, with ten followers, was and other chiets. This proclamation was unheeded by the holding a kopje and fired on the advancing troops. After a Hottentots, who were in fact continuing the war with rifles and sharp engagement the chief and five of his men were killed, the ammunition seized from the Germans, and replenishing their British casualties being one killed and one wounded. The death stock with cattle taken from the same source. In the north, of Morenga removed a serious obstacle to the complete pacificahowever, Samuel Maherero had fled to British territory, tion of the protectorate. Military operations continued, however, and the resistance of the Herero was beginning to collapse. during 1908. Herr von Lindequist, being recalled to Berlin to Concentration camps were established in which some thousands become under-secretary in the colonial office, was succeeded as of Herero women and children were cared for. Meanwhile, the governor (May 1907) by Herr von Schuckmann. In 1908 steps administration of von Trotha, who had assumed the governorship were taken to establish German authority in the Caprivi enclave, as well as the command of the troops, was severely criticized by which up to that time had been neglected by the colonial the civilian population, and the non-success of the operations authorities. against the Hottentots provoked strong military criticism. The discovery of diamonds in the Lüderitz Bay district in In August 1905 Colonel (afterwards General) Leutwein, who July 1908 caused a rush of treasure-seekers. The diamonds had returned to Germany, 'formally resigned the governorship were found mostly on the surface in a sandy soil and of the protectorate, and Herr von Lindequist, late German

were of small size. The stones resemble Brazilian Discovery consul-general at Cape Town, was nominated as his successor, diamonds. By the end of the year the total yield was Von Trotha, who had publicly criticized Prince Bülow's order over 39,000 carats. One of the difficulties encountered to repeal the Herero proclamation, was superseded. He had in developing the field was the great scarcity of fresh water. in the summer of 1905 instituted a series of " drives” against During 1909 various companies were formed to exploit the the Witbois, with no particular results. Hendrik always evaded diamondiferous area. The first considerable packet of diamonds the columns and frequently attacked them in the rear.

from the colony reached Germany in April 1909. The output for In November 1905 von Lindequist arrived at Windhoek. the year was valued at over £1,000,000. The new governor issued a general amnesty to the Herero, and

AUTHORITIES.-Karl Dove, Deutsch-Südwestafrika (Berlin, 1903); set aside two large reserves for those who surrendered. His

W. Külz, Deutsch-Südafrika ... (Berlin, 1909); T. Leutwein, Elf conciliatory policy was in the end successful, and the Ovampo, Jahre Gouverneur in Deutsch-Südwestafrika (Berlin,, 1908). an who threatened to give trouble, were kept in hand. The task authoritative work, largely historical; P. Rohrbach, Deutsche of pacifying Damaraland was continued throughout 1906, and Kolonialwirtschaft, Band i: Südwestafrika (Berlin, 1907), a compre

hensive economic study: 1. Irle, Die Herero, ein Beitrag zur Landes-, by the close of that year about 16,000 Herero had been established Volks- und Missionskunde (Gütersloh, 1906), a valuable summary of in the reserves. Some 3000 had sought refuge in British territory, information concerning Damaraland; Major K. Schwabe, Im while the number who had perished may be estimated at between

deutschen Diamantenlande (Berlin, 1909); 'T. Rehbock, Deutsch20,000 and 30,000.

Südwestafrika, seine wirtschaftliche Erschliessung unter besonderer In Namaqualand von Lindequist found an enemy still unbroken. C. von François, Deutsch-Südwestafrika: Geschichte der Kolonisation

Berücksichtigung der Nutzbarmachung des Wassers (Berlin, 1898); On the 3rd of November, however, Hendrik Witboi died, aged bis zum Ausbruch des Krieges mit Witbooi, April 1893 (Berlin, 1899), a

seventy-five, and his son and successor Samuel Isaac history of the protectorate up to 1893: H. Schintz, Deutsch-SüdwestThe

Witboi shortly afterwards surrendered, and the afrika, Forschungsreisen durch die deutschen Schutzgebiete Gross-Nama Hottentots

und Hereroland, nach dem Kunene, &C., 1884–1887 (Oldenburg, N.D. subdued.

hostility of the tribe ceased. Morenga now became 11891]); H. von François, Nama und Damara (Magdeburg, N.p.

the chief of the rebel Hottentots, and "drives" against (18961). See also for Ethnology, “ Die Eingeborenen Deutschhim were organized. Early in May 1906 an encounter between Südwestafrikas nach Geschichte, Charakter, Sitten, Gebräuchen Morenga and a German column was fought close to the British und Sprachen," in Mitleilungen des Seminars für orientalische frontier of the Bechuanaland protectorate. Morenga fled, was

Sprachen (Berlin and Stuttgart) for 1899 and 1900; and G. W. Stow,

The Native Races of South Africa (London, 1905); ch. xvii. contains pursued across the frontier, and wounded, but escaped. On

an account of the Afrikander family. For geology consult A. Schenk, the 16th of May he was found hiding by British patrols and “ Die geologische Entwicklung Südafrikas (mit Karte),". Peterm. interned. Other Hottentot chiefs continued the conflict, greatly Schutzgebiete in Afrika (Munich and Leipzig, 1896). Of early books

Mill. (1888): Stromer von Reichenbach, Die Geologie der deutschen aided by the immense difficulty the Germans had in transporting of travel the most valuable are: F. Galton, Tropical South Africa supplies; to remedy which defect the building of a railway (1853; new ed. 1889); Charles J. Andersson, Lake Ngami (1856),

of dlamonds.

The Okavango River (1861) and Notes of Travel (1875). See also | Pastorius. The township, as originally laid oui, contained Sir J. E. Alexander, An Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of four distinct villages known as Germantown, Cresheim, SommerAfrica (London, 1838); Reports on the German colonies are pub: housen and Crefield. Cresheim was later known as Mount lished by the British foreign office. Südwestafrika (Berlin, 1904), in nine sheets on a scale of 1 : 800,000, Airy, and Sommerhousen and Crefield became known as Chestnut will be found useful.

(F. R. C.) Hill. The borough of Germantown was incorporated in 1689. GERMANTOWN, a residential district and former suburb, For many years it was a straggling village extending about 2 m. now the Twenty-second Ward, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, along Main Street. Its growth was more rapid from the middle U.S.A., on Wissahickon Creek, in the N. part of the city. It is of the 18th century. In 1789 a motion for the permanent served by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading location of the national capital at Germantown was carried railways. There are many old colonial houses and handsome in the Senate, and the same measure passed the House, amended modern residences along Main Street (the old Germantown only with respect to the temporary government of the ceded Road or Avenue). Prominent among the historic houses is district; but the Senate killed the bill by voting 10 postpone Cliveden, or the “ Chew House," built about 1761 by Benjamin further consideration of it until the next session. Germantown Chew (1722–1810), who was chief-justice of Pennsylvania in was annexed to Philadelphia in 1854. 1774-1777 and was imprisoned as a Loyalist in 1777, and whose Batlle of Germanlown.- This famous encounter in the American home during the battle of Germantown (see below) was occupied War of Independence was fought on the 4th of October 1777. by British troops. The well-preserved Morris House (1772) was After the battle of Brandywine (9.0.) and the occupation of the headquarters of General Howe at the close of the battle, Philadelphia, the British force commanded by Sir W. Howe and in 1793, when Germantown, owing to the yellow fever in encamped at Germantown, where Washington determined Philadelphia, was the temporary capital of the United States, to attack them. The Americans advanced by two roads, General it was occupied by President Washington. Three doors above Sullivan leading the column on the right and General Greene stood until 1904 the Ashmead House, used for a time by Count that on the left. Washington himsell accompanied Sullivan, Nicholas Lewis Zinzendorf and his daughters for their Moravian with whom were Stirling (an officer who claimed to be earl of school, which was removed to Bethlehem. In the same street, that name) and Anthony Wayne. The right at first met with opposite Indian Queen Lane, is the old Wister Mansion, built success, driving the British advanced troops back on the main as a country-seat in 1744 and occupied by British officers during body near the Chew House. Colonel Musgrave, of the 40th Foot, the War of Independence. In another old house (now Nos. threw a portion of his regiment into this house, and General 5275-5277), John Fanning Watson (1779-1860), the annalist of Agnew came up with his command. The Americans under Philadelphia, did most of his literary work. Just outside the Stirling attempted to dislodge Musgrave, thus losing time and ward limits, in what has since become a part of Fairmont Park, alarming part of Sullivan's advance who had pushed farther is the house in which David Rittenhouse, the astronomer, was forward in the fog. General Greene on the left was even less born; it stands on Monoshore Creek or Paper Mill Run, in what fortunate. Meeting with unexpected opposition at the first was long called Roxborough (now the 21st ward of Philadelphia). point of attack his troops were thrown into consusion and In this vicinity the first paper mill in America was erected in compelled to retreat. One of his brigades extended itself 10 1690 by a company of which William Rittenhouse, David's the right wing, and by opening fire on the Chew House caused great-grandfather, was the leading member. The King of Prussia Wayne to retreat, and presently both of the American columns Inn, built about 1740, and the Mermaid Hotel, as old or older, retired rapidly in the direction of their camp. The surprise are interesting survivals of the inns and taverns of old German- had failed, with the loss to Washington's army of 673 men as town. The Germantown Academy was built in 1760, and after against 500 on the side of the British. The British General the battle of Germantown was used by the British as a hospital. Agnew and the American General Nash were both morially In Germantown are also a Friends' (orthodox) school, a Friends' wounded. In December Washington went into winter quarters free library, and the Germantown branch of the Philadelphia at Valley Forge, 40 m. west of Philadelphia. The British wintered public library. The first school in Germantown was established in and around the city. about 1701, and for the first eighteen years was under the master- Sec N. H. Keyser," Old Historic Germantown," in the Proceedings ship of Francis Daniel Pastorius (1651–1719), the lcaderin founding 1906): S. W. Pennypacker, The Settlement of Germaniown, Pennsyl.

and Addresses of the Pennsylvania-German Society (Lancaster the town, who lived in a house that stood on the site of the present vania, and the Beginning of German Emigration to North America First Methodist Episcopal church, High Street and Main Street. (Philadelphia, 1899), and S. F. Hotchkin, Ancient and Modern He compiled a primer which was the first school book produced Germantown, Mount Airy and Chestnut Hill (Philadelphia, 1889). in the state; with three others he drafted and signed in 1688 GERMANY (Ger. Deutschland), or, more properly, THE GERMAN what seems to have been the first public protest made in America Empire (Deutsches Reich), a country of central Europe. The against slavery; and he is celebrated in Whittier's Pennsylvania territories occupied by peoples of distinctively Tcutonic race Pilgrim. Later the same school passed to Christopher Dock and language are commonly designated as German, and in this (d. 1771), who in 1770 published an essay on teaching (written sense may be taken to include, besides Germany proper (the in 1750), which is said to have been the first book on pedagogy subject of the present article), thc German-speaking sections of published in America. The first Bible printed in America in Austria, Switzerland and Holland. But Germany, or the any European language was published in Germantown in 1743 German empire, as it is now understood, was formed in 1871 by Christopher Sauer (d. 1758), a preacher of the German by virtue of treaties between the North German Confederation Baptist Brethren, who in 1739 established Germantown's first and the South German states, and by the acquisition, in the newspaper, The High German Pennsylvania Historian, or Collec- peace of Frankfort (May 10, 1871), of Alsace-Lorraine, and tion of Important News from the Kingdom of Nature and of the embraces all the countries of the former German Confederation, Church. His grandsons are said to have cast about 1772 the with the exception of Austria, Luxemburg, Limburg and Liechfirst American printing type. The Friends were the first sect to tenstein. The sole addition to the empire proper since that erect a meeting-house of their own (about 1693). The Mennonites date is the island of Heligoland, ceded by Great Britain in 1890, built a log meeting-house in 1709, and their present stone church but Germany has acquired extensive colonies in Africa and the was built in 1770. The town hall of Germantown was used as Pacific (see below, Colonics). a hospital during the last three years of the Civil War. In Market The German empire extends from 47° 16' to 55° 53' N., and Square a soldiers' monument was erected in 1883. The Site and from 5° 52' to 22° 52' E. The eastern provinces project so far Relic Society of Germantown maintains a museum of relics. that the extent of German territory is much greater from southMany of the early settlers were linen weavers, and Germantown west to north-cast than in any other direction. Tilsit is 815 m. still manufactures textiles, knit goods and yarns.

from Metz, whercas Hadersleben, in Schleswig, is only 540 m. Germantown was founded in October 1683 by thirteen families from the Lake of Constance. The actual difference in time from Crefeld, Germany, under the leadership of Francis Daniel between the eastern and western points is 1 hour and 8 minutes, but the empire observes but one time 1 hour E. of Greenwich. | also has been considerably reduced by the sea. The tides rise The empire is bounded on the S.E. and $. by Austria and Switzer- to the height of 12 or 13 ft. in the Jade Bay and at Bremerhaven, land (for 1659 m.), on the S.W. by France (242 m.), on the W. and 6 or 7 ft. at Hamburg. The coast of the Baltic, on the other by Luxemburg, Belgium and Holland (together 558 m.). The hand, possesses few islands, the chief being Alsen and Fehmarn length of German coast on the North Sea or German Ocean is off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, and Rügen off Pomerania. 293 m., and on the Baltic 927 m., the intervening land boundary It has no extensive sands, though on the whole very flat. The on the north of Schleswig being only 47m. The eastern boundary Baltic has no perceptible tides; and a great part of its coast-line is with Russia 843 m. The total length of the frontiers is thus is in winter covered with ice, which also so blocks up the harbours 4569 m. The area, including rivers and lakes but not the haffs that navigation is interrupted for several months every year. or lagoons on the Baltic coast, is 208,830 sq. m., and the popula- Its haffs fronting the mouths of the large rivers must be regarded tion (1905) 60,641,278. In respect of its area, the German as lagoons or extensions of the river beds, not as bays. The empire occupied in 1909 the third place among European Pommersche or Oder Haff is separated from the sea by two countries, and in point of population the second, coming in point islands, so that the river flows out by three mouths, the middle of area immediately after Russia and Austria-Hungary, and one (Swine) being the most considerable. The Frische Hafi in population next to Russia.

is formed by the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, and by the Political Divisions.—The empire is composed of the following Pregel, and communicates with the sea by means of the Pillauer twenty-six states and divisions: the kingdoms of Prussia, Tief. The Kurische Haff receives the Memel, called Niemenin Bavaria, Saxony and Württemberg; the grand-duchies of Russia, and has its outlet in the extreme north at Memel. Long Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last Oldenburg and Saxe-Weimar; the duchies of Anhalt, Brunswick, two hafís and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen; the by large indentations, the Gulf of Lübeck, that of Pomerania, principalities of Lippe-Detmold, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, east of Rügen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg- the promontories of Rixhöst and Brüsterort. The German Sondershausen and Waldeck-Pyrmont; the free towns of coasts are well provided with lighthouses. Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, and the imperial territory of

Surface.-In respect of physical structure Germany is divided into Alsace-Lorraine.

two entirely distinct portions, which bear to one another a ratio Besides these political divisions there are certain parts of of about 3 to 4. The northern and larger part may be described as Germany which, not conterminous with political boundaries, a uniform plain, South and central Germany, on the other hand, retain appellations derived either from former tribal settlements such as that of Bavaria, which stretches away from the foot of the

is very much diversified in scenery. It possesses large plateaus, or from divisions of the old Holy Roman Empire. These are Alps, fertile low plains like that intersected by the Rhine, mountain Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, chains and isolated groups of mountains, comparatively low in Schweinfurt and Würzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwa- height, and so situated as not seriously to interfere with communiben), in which is included Württemberg, parts of Bavaria and

cation either by road or by railway.

Bavaria is the only division of the country that includes within it Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing, any part of the Alps, the Austro-Bavarian frontier running along the Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; ridge of the Northern Tirolese or Bavarian Alps. The

Mountains Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt loftiest peak of this group, the Zugspitze (57 m. S. of and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous Munich), is 9738 st. in height, being the highest summit

plateaus. country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; wards from the Bavarian Alps is watered by the Lech, the Isar and Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony the Inn, tributaries of the Danube, all three rising beyond the and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; l. limits of German territory.. This plain is separated on the west Thuringia (Thüringen), the country lying south of the Harz from the Swiss plain by the Lake of Constance (Bodensee, 1306 ft.

above sea-level), and on the east from the undulating grounds of Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Friesland

Austria by the Inn. The average height of the plain may be esti(Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of mated at about 1800 ft., the valley of the Danube on its north the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile border being from 1540 ft. (at Ulm) to 920 ft. (at Passau). The plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending plain is not very fertile. In the upper part of the plain, towards the to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.

Alps, there are several lakes, the largest being the Ammersee, the

Wurmsee or Starnberger Sée and the Chiemsee. Many portions of Coast and Islands. The length of the coast-line is considerably the plain are covered by moors and swamps of large extent, called less than the third part of the whole frontier. The coasts are Moose. The lest or northern bank of the Danube from Regensburg shallow, and deficient in natural ports, except on the east of downwards presents a series of granitic rocks called the Bavarian Schleswig-Holstein, where wide bays encroach upon the land, Bohemian Forest (Böhmer Wald). The latter is a range of wooded

Forest (Bayrischer Wald), which must be regarded as a branch of the giving access to the largest vessels, so that the great naval heights on the frontier of Bavaria and Bohemia, occupying the least harbour could be constructed at Kicl. With the exception of known and least frequented regions of Germany. The summits of those on the east coast of Schleswig-Holstein, all the important the Bayrischer Wald rise to the height of about 4000 ft., and those trading ports of Germany are river ports, such as Emden, Bremen, the Danube above Regensburg is flanked by platcaus sloping gently

of the Böhmer Wald to 4800 ft., Arber being 4872 ft. The valley of Hamburg, Lübeck, Stettin, Danzig, Königsberg, Memel. A to the Danube, but precipitous towards the valley of the Neckar. great difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts The centre of this clevated tract is the Rauhe Alb, so named on of the North Sea and those of the Baltic. On the former, where account of the harshness of the climate. The plateau continuing the sea has broken up the ranges of dunes formed in bygone Franconian Jura, is crossed by the valley of the winding Altmühl,

to the north-east and then to the north, under the name of the times, and divided them into separate islands, the mainland and extends to the Main. To the west extensive undulating grounds has to be protected by massive dikes, while the Frisian Islands or low plateaus occupy the area between the Main and the Neckar. are being gradually washed away by the waters. On the coast of

The south-western corner of the cmpire contains a series of better East Friesland there are now only seven of these islands, of defined hill-ranges. Beginning with the Black Forest (Schwarzwald),

we find its southern heights decline to the valley of the Rhine, which Norderney is best known, while of the North Frisian

above Basel, and to the Jura. The summits are rounded and covered Islands, on the western coast of Schleswig, Sylt is the most with wood, the highest being the Feldberg (10 m. S.E. of Freiburg, considerable. Besides the ordinary waste of the shores, there 4898 st.). Northwards the Black Forest passes into the plateau of have been extensive inundations by the sea within the historic the Neckarbergland (average height, 1000 ft.). The heights between

the lower Neckar and the Main form the Odenwald (about 1700 ft.); period, the gulf of the Dollart having been so caused in the year and the Spessart, which is watered by the Main on three sides, is 1276. Sands surround the whole coast of the North Sea to such nothing but a continuation of the Odenwald. West of this range of an extent that the entrance to the ports is not practicable hills lies the valley of the upper Rhine, extending about 180 m. without the aid of pilots. Heligoland is a rocky island, but it

In the from south to north, and with a width of only 20 to 25 m.

upper parts the Rhine is rapid, and therefore navigable with diffi. 11.e. the territory once under the jurisdiction of an imperial Vogt culty; this explains why the towns there are not along the banks of or advocatus (see ADVOCATE).

the river, but some 5 to 10 m. off. But from Spires (Speyer) town


succeeds town as far down as Düsseldorf. The western boundary | The North German plain presents little variety, yet is not absoof this valley is formed in the first instance by the Vosges, where lutely uniform. A row of low hills runs generally parallel to the granite summits rise from under the surrounding red Triassic rocks mountain ranges already noticed, at a distance of 20 10 30 m, to the (Sulzer Belchen, 4669 st.). To the south the range is not con- north. To ihese belongs the upper Silesian coal-basin, which tinuous with the Swiss Jura, the valley of the Rhine being connected occupies a considerable arca in south-castern Silesia. North of the here with the Rhone system by low ground known as the Gate of middle districts of the Elbe country the heights are called the Mülhausen. The crest of the Vosges is pretty high and unbroken, Flaming hills. Westward lies as the last link of this series the the first convenient pass being near Zabern, which is followed by the Lüneburger Heide or Heath, between the Weser and Elbe, north of railway from Strassburg to Paris. On the northern side the Vosges Hanover. A second iracı, of moderate elevation, sweeps round the are connected with the Hardı sandstone platcau (Kalmit. 2241 11.), Baltic, without, however, approaching its shores.

This plateau which rises abruptly from the plain of the Rhine. The mountains contains a considerable number of lakes, and is divided into three south of Mainz, which are mostly covered by vineyards, are lower, portions by the Vistula and the Oder. The most eastward is the the Donnersberg, however, raising its head to 2254 ft. These hills so-called Prussian Seenplatte. Spirdingsee (430 st. above sea. are bordered on the west by the high plain of Lorraine and the coal. level and 46 sq. m. in arca) and Mauersee are the largest lakes; they fields of Saarbrucken, the former being traversed by the river Mosel. are situated in the centre of the plateau, and give rise to the Pricel. The larger part of Lorraine belongs to France, but the German part Some peaks near the Russian frontier attain to 1000 ft. The possesses great mineral wealth in its rich layers of ironstone (siderite) | Pomeranian Seenplatte, between the Vistula and the Oder, extends and in the coal-ficlds of the Saar. The tract of the Hunsrück, from S.W. to N.E., its greatest elevation being in the neighbourhood Taunus and Eifel is an extended plateau, divided into separate of Danzig (Turmberg. 1086 st.). The Seenplatte of Mecklenburg. sections by the river valleys. Among these the Rhine valley from on the other hand, stretches from S. E. to N.W., and most of its Bingen to Bonn, and that of the Mosel from Trier to Coblenz, are lakes, of which the Müritz is the largest, send their waters towards winding gorges excavated by the rivers. The Eisel presents a sterile, the Elbe. The finely wooded heights which surround the bays of thinly-peopled plateau, covered by extensive moors in several places the east coast of Holstein and Schleswig may be regarded as a conIt passes westwards imperceptibly into the Ardennes. The hills tinuation of these Baltic elevations. The lowest parts, therefore, on the right bank of the Rhine also are in part of a like barren of the North German plain, excluding the sca-coasts, are the central character, without wood; the Westerwald (about 2000 ft.), which districts from about 52° to 53° N. lat., where the Vistula, Netze, separates the valleys of the Sieg and Lahn, is particularly so. The Warthe, Oder, Sprec and Havel form vast swampy lowlands (in northern and southern limits of the Niederrheinische Gebirge present German called Bruche), which have been considerably reduced by a striking contrast to the central region. In the south the declivities the construction of canals and by cultivation, improvements due in of the Taunus (2890 lt.) are marked by the occurrence of mineral large measure to Frederick the Great. The reewald, to the S.E. springs, as at Ems on the Lahn, Nauheim. Homburg. Soden, Wies- of Berlin, is one of the most remarkable districts of Germany. As baden, &c., and by the vineyards which produce the best Rhine wines. the Spree divides itself there into innumerable branches, enclosing To the north of this system, on the other hand, lies the great coal thickly wooded islands, boats form the only means of communication basin of Westphalia, the largest in Germany. In the south of the West of Berlin the Havel widens into what are called the Havel lakes, hilly duchy of Hesse rise the isolated mountain groups of the Vogels to which the environs of Potsdam owe their charms. In general berg (2530 It.) and the Rhôn (3117 st.), separated by the valley of the the soil of the North German plain cannot be termed fertile, the Fulda, which uniting farther north with the Werra forms the Weser. cultivation nearly everywhere requiring severe and constant labour. To the cast of Hesse lies Thuringia, a province consisting of the Long stretches of ground are covered by moors, and there turi. far-stretching wooded ridge of the Thuringian Forest (Thüringer- cutting forms the principal occupation of the inhabitants. The wald: with three peaks upwards of 3000 ft. high), and an extensive greatest extent of moorland is found in the westernmost parts of the elevated plain to the north. Its rivers are the Saale and Unstrut: plain, in Oldenburg and East Frisia. The plain contains, however, The plateau is bounded on the north by the Harz, an isolated a lew districts of the utmost fertility, particularly the tracts on the group of mountains, rich in minerals, with its highest elevation in central Elbe, and the marsh lands on the west coast of Holstein and the bare summit of the Brocken (3747 ft.). To the west of the Harz the north coast of Hanover, Oldenburg and East Frisia, which, a series of hilly tracts is comprised under the name of the Weser within the last two centuries, the inhabitants have reclaimed from Mountains, out of which above Minden the river Weser bursts by the sea by means of immense dikes. the Porta Westphalica. A narrow ridge, the Teutoburger Wald Rivers.--Nine independent river-systems may be distinguished: (1,300 st.), extends between the Weser and the Ems as far as the those of the Memel, Pregel, Vistula (Weichsel), 'Oder, Elbe, Wieser, neighbourhood of Osnabrück.

Ems, Rhine and Danube. Of these the Pregcl. Weser and Ems To the cast the Thuringian Forest is connected by the plateau of belong entirely, and the Oder mostly, to the German empire. The the Frankenwald with the Fichtelgebirge. This group of mountains, Danube has its sources on Gerinan soil; but only a fifth part of its occupying what may be regarded as ethnologically the centre of course is German. Its total length is 1750 m., and the Bavarian Germany forms a hydrographical centre, whence ihe. Naab flows frontier at Passau, where the Inn joins it, is only 350 m distant southward to the Danube, the Main westward to the Rhine, the Eger from its sources. It is navigable as far as Ulm, 220 m. above cast ward to the Elbe, and the Saale northward, also into the Elbe. Passau; and its tributaries the Lech, Isar, Inn and Altmühl are also In the north-east the Fichtelgebirge connects itself directly with navigable. The Rhine is the most important river of Germany, the Erzgebirge, which forms the northern boundary of Bohemia. although neither its sources nor its mouths are within the limits The southern sides of this range are comparatively steep: on the of the empire. From the Lake of Constance to Basel (122 m.) the north it slopes gently down to the plains of Leipzig, but is intersected Rhine forms the boundary between the German empire and Switzer. by the deep valleys of the Elster and Mulde. Although by, no land; the canton of Schaffhausen, however, is situated on the means fertile, the "Erzgebirge is very thickly peopled, as various northern bank of the river. From Basel to below Emmerich the branches of industry have taken root there in numerous small places. Rhine belongs to the German empire-about 470 m. or four-sevenths Around Zwickau there are productive coal-fields, and mining, for of its whole course. It is navigable all this distance as are also the metals is carried on near Freiberg. In the cast a tableland of Neckar from Esslingen, the Main from Bamberg, the Lahn, the Lippe, sandstone, called Saxon Switzerland, from the picturesque outlines the Ruhr, the Mosel from Metz, with its affluents the Saar and into which it has been eroded, adjoins the Erzgebirge; one of its Sauer. Sea-going vessels sail up the Ems as far as Halte, and river most notable features is the deep ravine by which the Elbe escapes craft as far as Greven, and the river is connected with a widely from it. Numerous quarries, which supply the North German cities branching system of canals, as the Ems-Jade and Dortmund-Emas with stone for buildings and monuments, have been opened along canals. The Fulda, navigable for 63 m., and the Werra, 38 m., the valley. The standstone range of the Elbe unites in the east above the point where they unite, form by their junction the Wear, with the low Lusatian group, along the east of which runs the best which has a course of 271 m., and receives as navigable tributaries t be road from northern Germany to Bohemia. Then comes a range of Aller, the Leine from Hanover, and some smaller streams. Oceanlesser hills clustering together to form the frontier between Silesia going steamers, however, cannot get as far as Bremen, and unload at and Bohemia. The most western group is the Iscrgebirge, and the Bremerhaven. The Elbe, after a course of 250 m., enters German next the Riesengebirge, a narrow ridge of about 20 miles' length. territory near Bodenbach, 490 m. from its mouth. It is navigable with bare summits. °Excluding the Alps, the Schneekoppe (5266 above this point through its tributary, the Moldau, to Prague ft.) is the highest peak in Germany; and the southern declivities Hamburg may be reached by vessels of 17 ft. draught. The navi of this range contain the sources of the Elbe. The hills north and gable tributaries of the Elbe are the Saale (below Naumburg), the north-cast of it are termed the Silesian Mountains. Here one of the Havel, Spree, Elde, Sude and some others. The Oder begins to be minor coal-fields gives employment to a population grouped round a navigable almost on the frontier at Ratibor, 480 m. from its mouth, number of comparatively small centres. One of the main roads receiving as navigable tributaries the Glatz Neisse and the Warthe into Bohemia (the pass of Landshut) runs along the eastern base Only the lower course of the Vistula belongs to the German empire, of the Riesengebirge. Still farther to the cast the mountains are within which it is a broad, navigable stream of considerable volume. grouped around the hollow of Glatz, whence the Neisse forces its On the Pregel ships of 3000 tons reach Königsberg, and river barges way towards the north. This hollow is shut in on the east by the reach Insterburg; the Alle, its tributary, may also be navigated. Sudetic group, in which the Alt vater rises to almost 4900 ft.' The The Memel is navigable in its course of 113 m. from the Russian eastern portion of the group, called the Gesenke, slopes gently away frontier. Germany is thus a country abounding in natural water. to the valley of the Oder, which affords an open route for the inter- ways, the total length of them being estimated at 7000 m. But it is national traffic, like that through the Mülhausen Gate in Alsace. only the Rhine, in its middle course, that has at all times sufficient Geographers style this the Moravian Gate.

volume of water to meet the requirements of a good navigable river.

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Lakes.- The regions which abound in lakes have already been | which the Rhine meanders from Basel to Mainz, and occupy a large pointed out. The Lake of Constance or Bodensee (204. sq. m.) is on part of the plain of the Danube. The depression of the Rhine is a the frontier of the empire, portions of the northern banks belonging trough lying between two faults or system of faults. The very severally to Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden. In the south the much broader depression of the Danube is associated with the largest lakes are the Chiemsee (33 sq. m.); the Ammersee and the formation of the Alps, and was flooded by the sea during a part of Würmsee. A good many smaller lakes are to be found in the the Miocene period.

(P. LA.). Bavarian Alps. The North German plain is dotted with upwards Climale.- the climate of Germany is to be regarded as intermediate of 500 lakes, covering an area of about 2500 sq. m. The largest of between the oceanic and continental climates of western and eastern these are the three Haffs-the Oder Half covering 370 sq. m., the Europe respectively. It has nothing in common with the MediterFrische Haff, 332, and the Kurische Haff, 626. The lakes in the ranean clinate of southern Europe, Germany being separated from Prussian and Pomeranian provinces, in Mecklenburg and in Holstein, that region by the losty barrier of the Alps. Although there are very and those of the Havel, have already been mentioned. In the west considerable differences in the range of temperature and the amount the only lakes of importance are the Steinhuder Meer, 14 m. north of rainfall throughout Germany, these are not so great as they would west of Hanover, and the Dümmersee on the southern frontier of be were it not that the elevated plateaus and mountain chains are Oldenburg.

(P. A. A.) in the south, while the north is occupied by low-lying plains. In the Geology. - Germany consists of a floor of folded Palacozoic rocks west no chain of hills intercepts the warmer and moister winds upon which rest unconformably the comparatively little disturbed which blow from the Atlantic, and these accordingly influence at beds of the Mesozoic system, while in the North German plain a times even the eastern regions of Germany. The mean annual covering of modern deposits conceals the whole of the older strata temperature of south-western Germany, or the Rhine and Danube from view, excepting some scattered and isolated outcrops of basins, is about 52° to 54° F., that of central Germany, 48° to 50°, Cretaceous and Tertiary beds. . The rocks which compose the ancient and that of the northern plain 46° to 48°. In Pomerania and West floor are thrown into folds which run approximately from W.S.W. Prussia it is only 44° to 45°, and in East Prussia 42° to 44o. The to E.N.E. They are exposed on the one hand in the neighbourhood of the Rhine and on the other hand in the Bohemian massif. With the latter must be included the Frankenwald, the Thüringerwald, and even the Harz. The oldest rocks, belonging to the Archaean NORTH system, occur in the south, forming the Vosges and the Black Forest in the west, and the greater part of the Bohemian massif, including the Erzgebirge, in the east. They consist chiefly of gneiss and schist, with granite and other eruptive rocks. Farther north, in the Hunsrück, the Taunus, the Eifel and Westerwald, the Harz and the Frankenwald, the ancient Aoor is composed mainly of Devonian beds. Other Palaeozoic systems are, however, included in the folds. The Cambrian, for example, is exposed at Leimitz near Hof in the Frankenwald, and the important coal-field of the Saar lies on the southern side of the Hunsrück, while Ordovician and Silurian beds have been found in several localities. Along the northern border of the folded belt lies the coal basin of the Ruhr in Westphalia, which is the continuation of the Belgian coal-field, and bears much the same relation to the Rhenish Devonian area that the coal basin of Liége bears to the Ardennes. Carboniferous and Devonian beds are also found south-east of the Bohemian massif, where lies the extensive coal-field of Silesia. The Permian, as in England, is not involved in the folds which have affected the older beds, and in general lies unconformably upon them. It occurs chiefly around the masses of ancient rock, and one of the largest arcas is that of the Saar.

Between the old rocks of the Rhine on the west and the ancient massif of Bohemia on the east a vast area of Triassic beds extends from Hanover to Basel and from Metz to Bayreuth. Over the greater part of this region the Triassic beds are free from folding and are nearly horizontal, but faulting is by no means absent, especially along the margins of the Bohemian and Rhenish hills. Quaterbary The Triassic beds must indeed have covered a large part of these old rock masses, but they have been preserved only where they were saulted down to a lower level. Along the southern margin of the

Carboniferous Triassic area there is a long band of Jurassic beds dipping towards

Devonian the Danube; and at its eastern extremity this band is continuous with a synclinal of Jurassic beds, running parallel to the western mean January temperature varies between 22° and 34° (in Masuren border of the Bohemian massif, but separated from it by a narrow and Cologne respectively): the mean July temperature, between 61° strip of Triassic beds. Towards the north, in Hanover and West- in north Schleswig and 68° at Cologne. The extremes of cold and phalia, the Triassic beds are followed by Jurassic and Cretaceous heat arc, as recorded in the ten years 1895-1905, 7° in Königsberg deposits, the latter being here the more important. As in the south of and 93° in Heidelberg (the hottest place in Germany). The difference England, the lower beds of the Cretaceous are of estuarine origin and in the mean annual temperature between the south-west and norththe Upper Cretaceous overlaps the Lower, lying in the valley of the west of Germany amounts to about 3°. The contrasts of heat and Ruhe directly

upon the Palaeozoic rocks. In Saxony also the upper cold are furnished by the valley of the Rhine above Mainz, which Cretaceous beds rest directly upon the Palaeozoic or Archaean rocks. has the greatest mean heat, the mildest winter and the highest Still more to the east, in the province of Silesia, both Jurassic and summer temperature, and the lake plateau of East Prussia, where Cretaceous beds are again met with, but they are to a large extent Arys on the Spirdingsee has a like winter temperature to the Brocken concealed by the recent accumulations of the great plain. The at 3200 ft. The Baltic has the lowest spring temperature, and the Eocene system is unknown in Germany except in the foothills of the autumn there is also not characterized by an appreciably higher Alps; bui the Oligocene and Miocene are widely

spread, especially degree of warmth. In central Germany the high plateaus of the in the great plain and in the depression of the Danube. The Oli- Erz and Fichtelgebirge are the coldest regions. In south Germany gocene is generally marine. Marine Miocene occurs in N.W. Germany the upper Bavarian plain experiences an inclement winter and a cold and the Miocene of the Danube valley is also in part marine, but in summer. In Alsace-Lorraine the Vosges and the plateau of Lorraine central Germany it is of fluviatile or lacustrine origin. The lignites are also remarkable for low temperatures. The warmest districts of of Hesse, Cassci, &c., are interstratificd with basaltic lava-flows the German empire are the northern parts of the Rhine plain, from which form the greater part of the Vogelsberg and other hills. The Karlsruhe downwards, especially the Rheintal; these are scarcely trachytes of the Siebengebirge are probably of slightly earlier date. 300 ft. above the sea-level, and are protected by mountainous tracts The precise age of the volcanoes of the Eifel, many of which are in a of land. The same holds true of the valleys of the Neckar, Main and very perfect state of preservation, is not clear, but they are certainly Mósel. Hence the vine is everywhere cultivated in these districts. Tertiary or Post-tertiary Leucite and nepheline lavas are here The mean summer temperature there is 66° and upwards, while the abundant. In the Siebengebirge the little crater of Roderberg, average temperature of January does not descend to the freezing with its• lavas and scoriae of leucite-basalt, is posterior to some of point (32°). The climate of north-western Germany (west of the the Pleistocene river deposits.

Elbe) shows a predominating oceanic character, the summers not A glance at a geological map of Germany will show that the greater being too hot (mean summer temperature 60° to 62°), and snow in part of Prussia and of German Poland is covered by Quaternary winter remaining but a short time on the ground. West of the deposits. These are in part of glacial origin, and contain Scandi-Weser the average temperature of January exceeds 32°; to the east navian boulders: but Auviatile and acolian deposits also occur. it sinks to 30°, and therefore the Elbe is generally covered with ice Quaternary beds also cover the floor of the broad depression through for some months of the year, as are also its tributaries. The farther

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