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Sweden 1773. In most of these countries Grand Lodges were | North America and wherever worked on a similar basis; the subsequently created and continue to this date, save that in countries of the continent of Europe have also their own Haules Austria (noi Hungary) and Russia no masonic lodges have for Grades.
(W. J. H. *) some time been permitted to assemble. There is a union of Grand FREEPORT, a city and the county-seat of Stephenson county, Lodges of Germany, and an annual Diet is beld for the transaction Illinois, in the N.W. part of the state, on the Pecatonica river, of business affecting the several masonic organizations in that 30 m. from its mouth and about 100 m. N.W. of Chicago. Pop. country, which works well. ,H.R.H. Prince Frederick Leopold (1890) 10,189; (1900) 13,258, of whom 2264 were foreign-born; was in 1909 Protector, or the “Wiscst Master” (Vicarius (1919 census) 17,567. The city is served by the Chicago & Salomonis). King Gustav V. was the Grand Master + of the North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the freemasons in Sweden, and the sovereign of the “ Order of Charles Illinois Central railways, and by the Rockford & Interurban XIII.,” the only one of the kind confined to members of the electric railway. The Illinois Central connects at South Freefraternity.
port, about 3 m. S. of Freeport, with the Chicago Great Western Lodges were constituted in India from 1730 (Calcutta), 1752 railway. Among Freeport's manufactures are foundry and (Madras), and 1758 (Bombay); in Jamaica 1742, Antigua 1738, machine shop products, carriages, hardware specialties, patent and St Christopher 1739; soon after which period the Grand medicines, windmills, engines, incubators, organs, beer and Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland had representatives shoes. The Illinois Central has large railway repair shops here. at work throughout the civilized world.
The total value of the city's factory product in 1905 was In no part, however, outside Great Britain has the craft $3,109,302, an increase of 14.8% since 1900. In the surflourished so much as in the United States of America, where the rounding country cereals are grown, and swine and poultry are first "regular" lodge (i.e. according to the new regime) was raised. Dairying is an important industry also. The city opened in 1733 at Boston, Mass. Undoubtedly lodges had has a Carnegie library (1901). In the Court House Square is been meeting still carlier, one of which was held at Philadelphia, a monument, 80 ft. high, in memory of the soldiers who died Penna., with records from 1731, which blossomed into a Grand in the Civil War. At the corner of Douglas Avenue and Lodge, but no authority has yet been traced for its proceedings, Mechanic Street a granite boulder commemorates the famous save that which may be termed "lime immemorial right," debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, which was enjoyed by all lodges and brethren who were at work held in Freeport on the 27th of August 1858. In that debate prior to the Grand Lodge era (1716-1717) or who declined 10 Lincoln emphasized the differences between himself and the recognize the autocratic proceedings of the premier Grand Lodge radical anti-slavery men, and in answer to one of Lincoln's of England, just as the brethren did in the city of York. A questions Douglas declared that the people of a territory, through “deputation was granted to Daniel Coxe, Esq. of New Jersey, "unfriendly” laws or denial of legislative protection, could by the duke of Norfolk, Grand Master, 5th of June 1730, as exclude slavery, and that“ it matters not what way the Supreme Prov. Grand Master of the“ Provinces of New York, New Jersey Court may hereafter decide on the abstract question whether and Pensilvania," but there is no evidence that he ever constituted slavery may or may not go into a territory under the Constituany lodges or exercised any masonic authority in virtue thereof. tion." This, the so-called "Freeport doctrine," greatly weakened Henry Price as Prov. Grand Master of New England, and his Douglas in the presidential election of 1860. Freeport was lodge, which was opened on the 31st of August 1733, in the city settled in 1835, was laid out and named Winneshiek in 1836, of Boston, so far as is known, began "regular" Freemasonry in and in 1837 under its present name was made the county-seal the United States, and the older and independent organization of Stephenson county. It was incorporated as a town in 1850 was soon afterwards “regularized.” Benjamin Franklin (an and chartered as a city in 1855. Initiate of the lodge of Philadelphia) printed and published the FREE PORTS, a term, strictly speaking, given to localities Book of Constitutions, 1723 (of London, England), in the “ City where no customs duties are levicd, and where no customs superof Brotherly Love” in 1734, being the oldest masonic work in vision exists. In these ports (subject to payment for specific America. English and Scottish Grand Lodges were soon after services rendered, wharfage, storage, &c., and to the observance petitioned to grant warrants to hold lodges, and by the end of of local police and sanitary regulations) ships load and unload, the 18th century several Grand Lodges were formed, the Crast cargoes arc deposited and handled, industries are exercised, becoming very popular, partly no doubt by reason of so many manufactures are carried on, goods are bought and sold, without prominent men joining the fraternity, of whom the chief was any action on the part of fiscal authorities. Ports are likewise George Washington, initiated in a Scottish lodge at Fredericks- designated “ free " where a space or zone exists within which burg, Virginia, in 1752-1753. In 1907 there were fifty Grand commercial operations are conducted without payment of import Lodges assembling in the United States, with considerably over or export duty, and without active interference on the part of a million members.
customs authorities. The French and German designations In Canada in 1909 there were eight Grand Lodges, having for these two descriptions of ports are—for the former La Ville about 64,000 members. Freemasonry in the Dominion is be franche, Freihafon; for the latter Le Port franc, Freibezirk or lieved to date from 1740. The Grand Lodges are all of com- Freilager. The English phrase free port applies to both.' The paratively recent organization, the oldest and largest, with leading conditions under which free ports in Europe derived their 40,000 members, being for Ontario; those of Manitoba, Nova origin were as follows:-(1) When public order became reScotia and Quebec numbering about 5000 each. There are established during the middle ages, trading centres were gradually some seven Grand Lodges in Australia; South Australia coming formed. Marts for the exchange and purchase of goods arose in first as a “sovereign body,” followed closely by New South different localities. Many Italian settlements, constituting free Wales and Victoria (of 1884–1889 constitution), the whole of zones, were established in the Levant. The Hanseatic towns the lodges in the Commonwealth probably having fully 50,000 arose in the 12th century. Great fairs became recognized members on the registers.
the Leipzig charter was granted in 1268. These localities were There are many additional degrees which may be taken or not free as regards customs duties, although dues of the nature of (being quite optional), and dependent on a favourable ballot; octroi charges were often levied. (2) Until the 19th century the difficulty, however, of obtaining admission increases as pro- European states were numerous, and often of small size. Accordgress is made, the numbers accepted decreasing rapidly with each | ingly uniform customs tariffs of wide application did not exist. advancement. The chief of these are arranged in separate
1 In China at the present time (1902) certain ports are designated classes and are governed either by the “ Grand Chapter of the "free and open." This phrase means that the ports in question are Royal Arch,” the “ Mark Grand Lodge,” the “ Great Priory of (1) open to foreign trade, and (2) that vessels engaged in oversea Knights Templars" or the “ Ancient and Accepted Rite,” these voyages may freely resort there. Exemption from payment of being mutually complementary and intimately connected as permission granted under treaty engagements to foreign vessels to
customs duties is not implied, which is a matter distinct from the respects England, and more or less so in Ireland, Scotland, I carry cargoes to and from the treaty ports.
A few duties
Uniform rates of duty were fixed in England by the Subsidy Act | free ports since 1824, Hong-Kong since 1842, and Weihaiwei since of 1660. In France, before the Revolution (besides the free it was leased to Great Britain in 1898. Zanzibar was a free port
during 1892-1899. Aden, Gibraltar, St Helena and St Thomas ports), Alsace and the Lorrainc Bishoprics were in trade mallers (West Indies) are sometimes designated free ports. treated as foreign countries. The unification of the German arc, however, levied, which are really octroi rather than customs customs tarifs began in 1834 with the Steuerverein and the charges. These places are mainly stations for coaling and awaiting Zollverein. The Spanish fiscal system did not include the Basquc
Some harbours in the Netherlands East Indies were free ports provinces until
about 1850. The uniform Italian tariff dates from between 1829 and 1899; but these privileges were withdrawn by laws 1861. Thus until very recent times on the Continent free ports passed in 1898–1899, in order to establish uniformity of customs
Harbours where custom houses are not maintained were compatible with the fiscal policy and practice of different administration. countries. (3) Along the Mediterranean coast, up to the 19th will be practically closed to foreign trade, though the governorcentury, convenient shelter was needed from corsairs. In other general may in special circumstances vary the application of the
new regulations. continental countries the prevalent colonial and mercantilc Macao has been a free port since 1845. Portugal has no other policy sought to create trans-oceanic trade. Free ports were harbour of this character.
The American Republics have adopted the bonding system. advantageous from all these points of view.
In following the history of these harbours in Europe, it is to be 1896 a free wharf was opened at New Orleans in imitation of the observed that in Great Britain free ports have never existed.
recent European plan. "Livingstone (Guatemala) was a free port 1552 it was contemplated to place Hull and Southampton on this during the period 1882–1888. footing, but the design was abandoned. Subsequently the bonding
The privileges enjoyed under the old free port system benefited and not the free port system was adopted in the United Kingdom. the towns and districts where they existed; and their aboli
Austria-Hungary.--I iumc and Trieste were respectively free ports tion has been, locally, injurious. These places were, however,
foreign ” to their own country, and their inland intercourse Netherlands in June 1781 cndeavoured to create a direct trade was restricted by the duties levied on their products, and by the between that country and India. Ostend was made free port, precautions adopted to prevent evasion of these charges. With and iarge bonding facilities were afforded at Bruges, Brussels, Ghent fiscal usages involving prescrential and deferential trcalment and Louvain. In 1796, however, the revolutionary government of goods and places, the drawbacks thus arising did not attract abolished the Ostend privileges.
Under the limited means of communication
became more completcly organized, the free port system sell out
of foreign trade is desired, and the competition which it involves Germany.-Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck were reconstituted pose. In these circumstances a free zone sufficiently large to free towns and ports under the treaties of 1814-1815. Certain minor admit of commercial operations and transhipments on a scale ports, and several landing-stages on the Rhine and the Neckar, which will fulfil these conditions (watched but not intersered with were also designated free. As the Zollverein policy became accepted by the customs) becomes indispensable. The German governthroughout Germany,, previous privileges were gradually lesscned, and since 1888 only Hamburg remains a free port. There an arca ment have, as we have scen, maintained a free zonc of this nature of about 2500 acres is exempt from customs duties and control, at Hamburg. And when the free port at Copenhagen was opened, and is largely used for shipping and commercial purposes. Bremer counter measures were adopted at Danzig and Stettin. An haven has a similar area of nearly 700 acres. haven, Emden, Geestemünde, Neufahrwasser and Stettin possess agitation has arisen in France to provide at certain ports frce Freibezirke areas, portions of the larger port. Hcligoland is outside
zones similar to those at Copenhagen and Hamburg, and to open the Zollverein-practically a foreign country.
free ports in French possessions. A bill to this cffect was subIn Italy free ports were numerous and important, and possessed mitted to the chamber of deputies on the 12th of April 1905. privileges which varied at different dates. They werc-Ancona, Colonial free ports, such as Hong-Kong and Singapore, do not during the period 1696-1868; Brindisi, 1845-1862: Leghorn (in the 17th and 18th centuries a very important Mediterranean har interfere with the uniformity of the home customs and excise bour), 1675-1867; Messina, 1695-1879; Senigallia, 1821-1868, policy. These two harbours in particular have become great during the month of the local fair. Venice possessed warchouses, shipping resorts and distributing centres. The policy which led equivalent to bonded stores, for German and Turkish trade during to their cstablishment as free ports has certainly promoted the Republic, and was a free port 1851-1873. Genoa was a free port
British commercial interests. in the time of the Republic and under the French Empire, and was continued as such by the treaties of 1814-1815. The free port was, Scc the Parliamentary Paper on “ Continental Free Ports," 1904. however, changed into a " deposito franco" by a law passed in 1865,
(C. M. K.) and only storing privileges now remain.
FREE REED VIBRATOR (Fr. anche libre, Ger. durchschlagende Rumania.-Braila, Galatz and Kustenji were free ports (for a period of about forty years) up to 1883, when bonded warehouses | Zunge, Ital. ancia or lingua libera), in musical instruments, a were established by the Rumanian government. Sulina remains free. thin metal tongue fixed at onc cnd and vibrating srcely either
Russia -Archangel was a free port, at least for English goods, in surrounding space, as in the accordion and concertina, or from 1553 to 1648. During this period English products were
enclosed in a pipe or channel, as in certain recd stops of the admitted into Russia via Archangel without any customs payment for internal consumption, and also in transit to Persia. The tsar
organ or in the harmonium. The enclosed reed, in its typical Alexis revoked this grant on the execution of Charles I. Free and theoretical form, is fixed over an aperture of the same shape ports were opened in 1895 at Kola, in Russian Lapland. Dalny, but just large enough to allow it to swing freely backwards and adjoining Port Arthur, was a free port during the Russian occupation; forwards, alternately opening and closing the aperture, when and Japan after the war decided to renew this privilege as soon as driven by a current of compressed air. We have to deal with practicable.
The number of free ports outside Europe has also lessened. The air under three disícrcnt conditions in considering the phenomeadministrative policy of European countries has been gradually non of the sound produced by free recds. (1) The stationary adopted in other parts of the world, and customs duties have become column or stratum in pipe or channel containing the reed, which In British colonies and possessions, under an act of parliament is normally at rest. (2) The wind or current of air fed from the passed in 1766, and repealed in 1867, two ports in Dominica and four bellows with a variable velocity and pressure, which is broken in Jamaica were free, Malacca, Penang and Singapore have been I up into periodic air pusis as its entrance into pipe or channel is
is in force.
air is sed.
From J B Biot, Traité de
alternately checked or allowed by the vibrator. (3) The disturbed | in periodic pulsations to divide into aliquot vibrations or loops, condition of No. 1 when acted upon by the metal vibrator and producing the phenomenon known as by No 2, whereby the air within the pipe is forced into alternate harmonic overtones or upper partials, pulses of condensation and rarefaction. The free reed is there which may, in the highly composite fore not the tone-producer but only the exciting agent, that is clang of free reeds, be discerned as far..? to say, the sound is not produced by the communication of as the 16th or 20th of the series. The the free reed's vibrations to the surrounding air, as in the case more intermittent and interrupted the
lཅུ་ of a vibrating string, but by the series of air puffs punctuated by air current becomes, the greater the infinitesimal pauses, which it produces by alternately opening number of the upper partials produced." and almost closing the aperture. A musical sound is thus The power of the overtones and their produced the pitch of which depends on the length and thick. relation to the fundamental note depend ness of the metal tongue; the greater the length, the slower greatly upon the form of the tongue, its the vibrations and the lower the pitch, while on the contrary, position and the amount of the clearance the thicker the recd near the shoulder at the fixed end, the left as it swings through the aperture. higher the pitch. It must be borne in mind that the periodic Free' reeds not associated with reson- FIG. 2.-Organ pipe vibrations of the reed determine the pitch of the sound solely ating media as in the concertina are fitted with beatingreed: by the frequency per second they impose upon the pulses of peculiarly rich in harmonics, but as the AL, Beating reed. rarefaction and condensation within the pipe.
higher harmonics lie very close together, R, Reed box. The most valuable characteristic of the free reed is its power disagreeable dissonances and a harsh TV, Feed pipe. of producing all the delicate gradations of tone between forte and tone result. The resonating pipe or y. Conical foot.
piano by virtue of a law of acoustics chamber when suitably accommodated s. 'Hole through
(K. S.) of the swing of the transmitting particles
FREESIA, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the Iris of the medium-greater pressure in the family (Iridaceae), and containing a single species, F. refracta, psysique ex périmentale. air current (No. 2 above) which sets the native at the Cape of Good Hope. The plants grow from a corm
FIG 1. - Grenie's vibrator in motion producing amplitude (a solid bulb, as in Gladiolus) which sends up a tuft of long organ pipe fitted with of vibration in the air within the re
narrow leaves and a slightly branched stem bearing a few leaves free-reed vibrator. A, Tuning wire. ceptacle (No. 3 above) scrving as reson.
and loose one-sided spikes of fragrant narrowly funnel-shaped D, Free reed.
aring medium. The sound produced by flowers. Several varieties are known in cultivation, differing R. Reed-box.
the free reed itself is weak and requires in the colour of the flower, which is white, cream or yellow. B,C, Feed pipe with to be reinforced by means of an ad- They form pretty greenhouse plants which are readily increased
conical foot. T, Part of resonating
ditional stationary column or stratum of from seed. They are extensively grown for the market in pipe, the upper end air. Free reed instruments are therefore Guernsey, England and America. By potting successively with cap and vent classified according to the nature of the throughout the autumn a supply of flowers is obtained through hole being shown resonant medium provided:-(1) Frec winter and spring. Some very fine large-flowered varieties, separately at the
reeds vibrating in pipes, such as the recd including rose-coloured ones, are now being raised by various
stops of church organs on the continent growers in England, and are a great improvement on the older of Europe (in England the reed pipes are generally provided forms. with beating reeds, see REED INSTRUMENTS and CLARINET). FREE SOIL PARTY, a political party in the United States, (2) Free reeds vibrating in reed compartments and reinforced which was organized in 1847-1848 to oppose the extension of by air chambers of various shapes and sizes as in the har- slavery into the Territories. It was a combination of the political monium (9.0.). (3) Instruments like the accordion and con- abolitionists-many of whom had formerly been identified with certina having the free reed set in vibration through a valve, the more radical Liberty party--the anti-slavery Whigs, and the but having no reinforcing medium.
faction of the Democratic party in the state of New York, called The arrangement of the free recd in an organ pipe is simple, “Barnburners," who favoured the prohibition of slavery, in and does not differ greatly from that of the beating rced shown accordance with the “ Wilmot Proviso” (see WILMOT, DAVID), in fig. 2 for the purpose of comparison. The reed-box, a rect in the territory acquired from Mexico. The party was prominent angular wooden pipc, is closed at the bottom and covered on one in the presidential campaigns of 1848 and 1852. At the national face with a thin plate of copper having a rectangular slit over convention held in Buffalo, N.Y., on the 9th and 10th of August which is fixed the ihin metal vibrating tongue or recd as described 1848, they secured the nomination to the presidency of exabove. The reed-box, itself open at i he top, is enclosed in a feed President Martin Van Buren, who had failed to secure nomination pipe having a conical foot pierced with a small hole through by the Democrats in 1844 because of his opposition to the annexawhich the air current is forced by the action of the bellows. tion of Texas, and of Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, The impact of the incoming compressed air against the rood for the vice-presidency, taking as their“ platform "a Declaration tongue sets it swinging through the slit, thus causing a disturb that Congress, having“ no more power to make a slave than to ance or series of pulsations within the reed-box. The air then make a king," was bound to restrict slavery to the slave states, finds an escape through the resonating medium of a pipe fitting and concluding, "we inscribe on our banner 'Free Soil, Free over the reed-box and terminating in an inverted cone covered Speech, Frce Labor and Free Man,'and under it we will fight on and with a cap in the top of which is pierced a small hole or vent. fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions." The quality of tone of free reeds is due to the tendency of air sct The Liberty party had previously, in November 1847, nominated
! See H. Helmholtz, Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (Bruns. " See Helmholtz, op. cit. p. 167. wick, 1877), p. 166.
These phenomena are clearly explained at greater length by 2 See also Ernst Heinrich and Wilhelm Weber, Wellenlehre Sedley Taylor in Sound and Music (London, 1896), pp. 134-153 and (Leipzig. 1825), where a particularly lucid explanation of the pheno: pp. 74-86. See also Friedrich Zamminer, Die Musik und die musika, menon is given, pp. 526-530.
lischen Instrumenle, &c. (Giessen, 1855), p. 261.
John P. Hale and Leicester King as president and vice-president | by a municipality (created in 1893) with a mayor and councillors, respectively, but in the spring of 1848 it withdrew its candidates the large majority being elective. Freetown was the first place and joined the "free soil" movement. Representatives of in British West Africa granted local self-government. eighteen states, including Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, Both commercially and strategically Freetown is a place of attended the Buffalo convention. In the ensuing presidential importance. Its harbour affords ample accommodation for the election Van Buren and Adams received a popular vote of largest feets, it is a coaling station for the British navy, the head291,263, of which 120,510 were cast in New York. They re-quarters of the British military forces in West Africa, the sea ceived no electoral votes, all these being divided between the terminus of the railway to the rich oil-palm regions of Mendiland, Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor, who was elected, and the and a port of call for all steamers serving West Africa. Its Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass. The“ free soilers," however, inhabitants are noted for their skill as traders; the town itself succeeded in sending to the thirty-first Congress two senators produces nothing in the way of exports. and fourteen representatives, who by their ability exercised an In consequence of the character of the original settlement influence out of proportion to their number.
(see SIERRA LEONE), 75% of the inhabitants are descended from Between 1848 and 1852 the “Barnburners" and the “Hunkers," non-indigenous Negro races. As many as 150 different tribes their opponents, became partially reunited, the former returning are represented in the Sierra Leonis of today. Their semito the Democratic ranks, and thus greatly weakening the Free Europcanization is largely the result of missionary endeavour. Soilers. The party held its national convention at Pittsburg, The only language of the lower class is pidgin-English-quite Pennsylvania, on the ith of August 1852, delegates being incomprehensible to the newcomer from Great Britain,-but present from all the free states, and from Delaware, Maryland, a large proportion of the inhabitants are highly educated men Virginia and Kentucky; and John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, who excel as lawyers, clergymen, clerks and traders. Many and George W. Julian of Indiana, were nominated for the members of the upper, that is, the best-educated, class have presidency and the vice-presidency respectively, on a platform filled official positions of great responsibility. The most noted which declared slavery “a sin against God and a crime against citizens are Bishop Crowther and Sir Samuel Lewis, chief justice man,” denounced the Compromise Measures of 1850, the fugitive of Sicrra Leone 1882-1894. Both were full-blooded Africans. slave law in particular, and again opposed the extension of The Kru-men form a distinct section of the community, living slavery in the Territories. These candidates, however, received in a separate quarter and preserving their tribal customs. no electoral votes and a popular vote of only 156,149, of Since 1861-1862 there has been an independent Episcopal which but 25,329 were polled in New York. By 1856 they aban- Native Church; but the Church Missionary Society, which in doned their separate organization and joined the movement 1804 sent out the first missionaries to Sierra Leone, still maintains which resulted in the formation of the powerful Republican various agencies. Furah Bay College, built by the society on party (2.0.), of which the Free Soil party was the legitimate the site of General Charles Turner's estate (i! m. E. of Freetown), precursor.
and opened in 1828 with six pupils, one of whom was Bishop FREE-STONE (a translation of the 0. Fr. franche pere or pierre, Crowther, was affiliated in 1876 to Durham University and has i.e. stone of good quality; the modern French equivalent is a high-class curriculum. The Wesleyans have a high school, a pierre de la ille, and Ital. pietra molle), stone used in architecture thcological college, and other educative agencies. The Moslems, for mouldings, tracery and other work required to be worked who are among the most law-abiding and intelligent citizens of with the chisel. The colitic stones are generally so called, Freetown, have several state-aided primary schools. although in some countries soft sandstoncs are used; in some FREE TRADE, an expression which has now come to be churches an indurated chalk called “clunch" is employed for appropriated to the economic policy of encouraging the greatest internal lining and for carving.
possible commercial intercourse, unrestricted by “protective” FREETOWN, capital of the British colony of Sierra Leone, duties (see PROTECTION), bet ween any one country and its neighWest Africa, on the south side of the Sierra Leone estuary, about bours. This policy was originally advocated in France, and it s m. from the cape of that name, in 8° 29' N., 13° 10' W. Pop. has had its adherents in many countries, but Great Britain (1901) 34,463. About 500 of the inhabitants are Europeans. stands alone among the great commercial nations of the world Freetown is picturesquely situated on a plain, closed in behind in having adopted it systematically from 1846 onwards as the by a succession of wooded hills, the Sierra Leone, rising to a height fundamental principle of her economic policy. of 1700 ft. As nearly every house is surrounded by a courtyard In the economic literature of earlier periods, it may be noted or garden, the town covers an unusually large area for the number that the term "free trade” is employed in senses which have no of its inhabitants. It possesses few buildings of architectural relation to modern usage. The term conveyed no suggestion merit. The principal are the governor's residence and govern- of unrestricted trade or national liberty when it first appeared ment offices, the barracks, the cathedral, the missionary institu- | in controversial pamphlets;' it stood for a freedom conferred tions, the fruit market, Wilberforce Hall, courts of justice, and maintained by authority-like that of a free town. The the railway station and the grammar school. Several of these merchants desired to have good regulations for trade so that they institutions are built on the slopes of the hills, and on the highest might be free from the disabilities imposed upon them by point, Sugar Loaf Mountain, is a sanatorium. The boianic foreign princes or unscrupulous fellow-subjects. After 1640 the gardens form a pleasant and favourite place of resort. The roads term seems to have been commonly current in a different sense. are wide but badly kept. Horses do not live, and all wheeled When the practice which had been handed down from the middle traffic is done by manual labour-hammocks and sedan-chairs ages-of organizing the trade with particular countries by means are the customary means of locomotion. Notwithstanding that of privileged companies, which professed to regulate the trade Freetown possesses an abundant and pure water supply, drawn according to the state of the market so as to secure its steady from the adjacent hills, it is enervating and unhealthy, and it development in the interest of producers and traders—was was particularly to the capital, often spoken of as Sierra Leone, seriously called in question under the Stuarts and at the Revoluthat the designation "White Man's Grave" applied. Since the tion, the interlopers and opponents of the companies insisted beginning of the 20th century strenuous efforts have been made on the advantages of a “ Free Trade”; they meant by this to improve the sanitary condition by a new system of drainage, that the various branches of commerce should not be confined a better water service, the filling up of marshes wherein the to particular persons or limited in amount, but should be thrown malarial mosquito breeds, and in other directions. A light open to be pursued by any Englishman in the way he thought railway 6 m. long, opened in 1904, has been built to Hill Station most profitable himself. Again, in the latter half of the 18th (900 ft. high), where, on a healthy site, are the residences of the government officials and of other Europeans. As a consequence
"E. Misselden, Free Trade or the Meanes to make Trade Flourisk the public health has improved, the highest death-rate in the (1622), p. 68; G. Malynes, The Maintenance of Free Trade (1622).
p. 105. years 1901-1907 being 29.6 per 1000. The town is governed 2 H. Parker, Of a Free Trade (1648), p. 8.
century, till Pitt's financial reforms' were brought into operation, it may often be wise for the statesman to look far ahead, beyond the English customs duties on wine and brandy were excessive; the existing generation. Owing to the neglect of this element of and those who carried on a remunerative business by evading time, and the allowance which must be made for it, the reasoning these duties were known as Fair Traders or Free Traders. as to the advantages of free trade, which is perfectly sound in Since 1846 the term free trade has been popularly used, in regard to the distribution of goods already in existence, may England, to designate the policy of Cobden (9.0.) and others who become sophistical, if it is put forward as affording a complete advocated the abolition of the tax on imported corn (see CORN | demonstration of the benefits of free trade as a regular policy. Laws); this is the only one of the specialized senses of the term After all, human society is very complex, and any attempt to which is at all likely to be confused with the economic doctrine. deal with its problems oll-hand by appealing to a simple principle The Anti-Corn Law movement was, as a matter of fact, a special raises the suspicion that some important factor may have been application of the economic principle; but serious mistakes have left out of account. When there is such mistaken simplification, arisen from the blunder of confusing the part with the whole, the reasoning may seem to have complete certainty, and yet it and treating the remission of one particular duty as if it were the fails to produce conviction, because it does not profess to deal essential element of a policy in which it was only an incident. with the problem in all its aspects. When we concentrate attenW. E. Gladstone, in discussing the effect of improvements in tion on the phenomena of exchange, we are viewing society as a locomotion on British trade, showed what a large proportion of mechanism in which each acts under known laws and is impelled the stimulus to commerce during the 19th century was to be by one particular force-that of self-interest; now, society is, credited to what he called the “liberalizing legislation " of the no doubt, in this sense a mechanism, but it is also an organism, free-trade movement in the wide sense in which he used the term. and it is only for very short periods, and in a very limited way, "I rank the introduction of cheap postage for letters, docu- that we can venture to neglect its organic character without ments, patterns and printed matter, and the abolition of all taxes running the risk of falling into serious mistakes. on printed matter, in the category of Free Trade Legislation. The doctrine of free trade maintains that in order to secure Not only thought in general, but every communication, and every the greatest possible mass of goods in the world as a whole, and publication, relating to matters of business, was thus set free. the greatest possibility of immediate comfort for the consumer, These great measures, then, may well take their place beside the it is expedient that there should be no restriction on the exchange abolition of prohibitions and protective duties, the simplifying of goods and services cither between individuals or communities. of revenue laws, and the repeal of the Navigation Act, as forming The controversies in regard to this doctrine have not turned on together the great code of industrial emancipation. Under this its certainty as a hypothetical principle, but on the legitimacy code, our race, restored to freedom in mind and hand, and braced of the arguments based upon it. "It certainly supplies a principle by the powerful stimulus of open competition with the world, has in the light of which all proposed trade regulations should be upon the whole surpassed itself and every other, and has won for criticized. It gives us a basis for examining and estimating the itself a commercial primacy more evident, more comprehensive, expense at which any particular piece of trade restriction is and more solid than it had at any previous time possessed."* carried out; but thus used, the principle does not necessarily In this large sense free trade may be almost interpreted as the condemn the expenditure; the game may be worth the candle combination of the doctrines of the division of labour and of or it may not, but at least it is well that we should know how laissez-faire in regard to the world as a whole. The division of fast the candle is being burnt. It was in this critical spirit that labour between different countries of the world so that each Adam Smith examined the various restrictions and encourageconcentrates its energies in supplying that for the production ments to trade which were in vogue in his day; he proved of each of which it is best fitted-appears to offer the greatest possi- in turn that it was expensive, but he showed that he was conscious bility of production; but this result cannot be secured unless that the final decision could not be taken from this standpoint, trade and industry are treated as the primary elements in the since he recognized in regard to the Navigation Acts that" defence welfare of each community, and political considerations are not is more than opulence."* In more recent times, the same sort allowed to hamper them.
of attitude was taken by Henry Sidgwick," who criticizes various Stated in its simplest form, the principle which underlies the protective expedients in turn, in the light of free trade, but does doctrine of free trade is almost a truism; it is directly deducible not treat it as conveying an authoritative decision on their merits. from the very notion of exchange (9.9.). Adam Smith and his But other exponents of the doctrine have not been content successors have demonstrated that in every case of voluntary to employ it in this fashion. They urge it in a more positive exchange each party gains something that is of greater value-in- manner, and insist that free trade pure and simple is the foundause to him than that with which he parts, and that consequently tion on which the economic life of the community ought to be in every exchange, either between individuals or between based. By men who advocate it in this way, free trade is set nations, both parties are the gainers. Hence it necessarily forward as an ideal which it is a duty to realize, and those who follows that, since both parties gain through exchanging, the more hold aloof from it or oppose it have been held up to scorn as if facilities there are for exchange the greater will be the advantage they were almost guilty of a crime. The development of the to every individual all round. There is no difficulty in translat- material resources of the world is undoubtedly an important ing this principle into the terms of actual life, and stating the element in the welfare of mankind; it is an aim which is common conditions in which it holds good absolutely. If
, at any given to the whole race, and may be looked upon as contributing to the moment, the mass of goods in the world were distributed among greatest happiness of the greatest number. Competition in the the consumers with the minimum of restriction on interchange, open market seems to secure that cach consumer shall obtain the each competitor would obtain the largest possible share of the best possible terms; and again, since all men are consumers things he procures in the world's market. But the argument whether they produce or not, or whatever they produce, the is less conclusive when the element of time is taken into account; greatest measure of comforts for each seems likely to be attainable what is true of each moment separately is not necessarily true on these lines. For those who are frankly cosmopolitan, and who of any period in which the conditions of production, or the regard material prosperity as at all events the prime object at requirements of communities, may possibly change. Each which public policy should aim, the free-trade doctrine is readily individual is likely to act with reference to his own future, but
Schmoller, Grundriss der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre (1787), 27 Geo. III. c. 13.
(1904), ii. 607. : Sir Walter Scott, Guy Mannering, chapter v.
Byles, Sophisms of Free Trade; L. S. Amery, Fundamental * Gladstone, “ Free Trade, Railways and Commerce," in Nine- Fallacies of Free Trade. 13. kenth Century (Feb. 1880), vol. vii. p. 370.
W. Cunningham, Rise and Decline of the Free Trade Movement, • Parker states a similar argument in the form in which it suited
pp. 5-11. the special problem of his day. “Il merchandise be good for the 's Wealth of Nations, book iv. chap. ii. commonweal, then the more common it is made, the more open it is • Principles of Political Economy, 485. laid, the more good it will convey to us. Op. cit. 20.
19 J. Morley, Life of Cobden, i. 230.