« PreviousContinue »
accompanied to Italy (1844-1845). On his return he exhibited | coal, copper, lead, iron and other ores, was valued at less than “ The Cock-fight," which gained him a third-class medal in the £7000. There are also important hydraulic cement and ochre Salon of 1847. “ The Virgin with Christ and St John " and works, and no fewer than i wenty-two of the towns are centres “Anacreon, Bacchus and Cupid" took a second-class medal in of manufactures of linen, collon, woollen stuffs, paper, cloth, 1848. He exhibited "Bacchus and Love, Drunk," a "Greek leather, steel and furniture. The commerce of the province is Interior" and "Souvenir d'Italie,” in 1851; “Paestum" (1852); | important, Port Bou (or Portbou) being, after Irun, the most and “ An Idyll ” (1853). In 1854 Gérôme made a journey to active outlet for the trade by railway not only with France Turkey and the shores of the Danube, and in 1857 visited Egypt. but with the rest of the continent. The main railway from To the exhibition of 1855 he contributed a “ Piffcraro," a Barcelona to France runs through the province, and several 'Shepherd,' “A Russian Concert " and a large historical branch railways, besides steam and electric tramways, connect canvas, “The Age of Augustus and the Birth of Christ." The the principal towns. Gerona, the capital (pop. 1900, 15,787), last was somewhat confused in effect, but in recognition of its and Figueras (10,714), long a most important frontier fortress, consummate ability the State purchasedit. Gérôme's reputation are described in separate articles; the only other towns with was greatly enhanced at the Salon of 1857 by a collection of more than 7000 inhabitants are San Feliu de Guixols (11,333), works of a more popular kind: lhe“ Duel: after a Masquerade," Olot (7938) and Palafrugell (7087). The inhabitants of the · Egyptian Recruits crossing the Desert," " Memnon and province are, like most Catalans, distinguished for their enterSesostris and “Camels Watering," the drawing of which prise, hardiness and keen local patriotism; but emigration, was criticized by Edmond About. In “Caesar" (1859) Gérôme chiefly to Barcelona, kept their numbers almost stationary during tried to return to a severer class of work, but the picture failed the years 1875-1905. The percentage of illegitimate births (1-5) to interest the public. "Phryne before the Areopagus," " Le is lower than in any other.part of Spain. (See also CATALONIA.) Roi Candaule" and "Socratcs finding Alcibiades in the House of GERONA, the capital of the province of Gerona, in north. Aspasia” (1861) gave rise to some scandal by reason of the eastern Spain, on the railway from Barcelona to Perpignan in subjects selected by the painter, and brought down on him the France, and on the right bank of the river Ter, at its confluence bitter attacks of Paul de Saint-Victor and Maxime Ducamp: with the Oña, a small right-hand tributary. Pop. (1900) 15,787. At the same Salon he exhibited the “Egyptian chopping Straw,” | The older part of the town occupies the steep slope of the and “Rembrandt biting an Etching," two very minutely Montjuich, or Hill of the Capuchins, and with its old-fashioned finished works. Gérôme's best paintings are of Eastern subjects; buildings presents a picturesque appearance against a backamong these may be named the “ Turkish Prisoner" and ground of loftier heights; the newer portion stretches down into “Turkish Butcher" (1863); “ Prayer" (1865); “ The Slave the plain and beyond the Oña, which is here crossed by a bridge Market” (1867); and “ The Harem out Driving" (1869). of three arches. The old city walls and their bastions still He often illustrated history, as in “ Louis XIV. and Molière" remain, though in a dilapidated state; and the hill is crowned (1863); “ The Reception of the Siamese Ambassadors at by what were at one time very strong fortifications, now used Fontainebleau " (1865); and the “ Dcath of Marshal Ney ” as a prison. Gerona is the seat of a bishop, has a seminary, a (1868). Gérôme was also successful as a sculptor; he executed, public library and a theatre, and carries on the manufacture of among other works, “ Omphale” (1887), and the statue of the paper and cotton and woollen goods. Its churches are of exduc d'Aumale which stands in front of the château of Chantilly ceptional interest. The cathedral is one of the grandest specimens (1899). His “ Bellona” (1892), in ivory, metal, and precious of Gothic architecture in Spain, the nave being the widest stones, which was also exhibited in the Royal Academy of London, pointed vault in Christendom, as it measures no less than 73 it. attracted great attention. The artist then began an interesting from side to side, while Albi, the next in size, is only 58 ft., and series of “ Conquerors," wrought in gold, silver and gems- Westminster Abbey is only 38. The old cathedral on the same “ Bonaparte entering Cairo" (1897); “ Tamerlane" (1898); site was used as a mosque by the Moors, and on their expulsion and “Frederick the Great ” (1899). Gérôme was elected in 1915 it appears to have been very greatly modificd, if not member of the Institut in 1865. He died in 1904.
entirely rebuilt During the 14th century new works were again GERONA, a maritime frontier province in the extreme north- carried out on an extensive scale, but it was not till the beginning east of Spain, formed in 1833 of districts taken from Catalonia, of the 15th that the proposal to crect the present magnificent and bounded on the N. by France, E. and S.E. by the Mediter- nave was originated by the master of the works, Guillermo ranean Sea, S.W. and W. by Barcelona, and N.W. by Lérida. Boffiy. The general appearance of the exterior is rather unPop. (1900) 299,287; area, 2264 sq. m. In the north-west a gainly, but there is a fine approach by a flight of 86 steps to ibe small section of the province, with the town of Llivia, is entirely façade, which rises in tiers and terminates in an oval rose-window. isolated and surrounded by French territory; otherwise Gerona Among the tombs may be mentioned those of Bishop Berenger is separated from France by the great range of the Pyrenees. or Berenguer (d. 1408), Count Ramon Berenger II. (d. 1082) Its general aspect is mounta especially in the western and the countess Ermesinda (d. 1057). The collegiate church districts. Most of the lower chains are covered with splendid of San Felíu (St Felix) is mainly of the 14th century, but it was forests of oak, pine and chestnut. There are comparatively considerably modified in the 16th, and its façade dates from the level tracts of arable land along the lower course of the three 18th. It is one of the few Spanish churches that can boast of a main rivers—the Ter, Muga and Fluvia, which rise in the Pyrenees genuine spire, and it thus forms a striking feature in the general and flow in a south-easterly direction to the sea. The coast-line view of the town. The Benedictine church of San Pedro de is not deeply indented, but includes one large bay, the Gulf of Galligans (or de los Gallos) is an interesting Romanesque building Rosas. Its two most conspicuous promontories, Capes Creus and of early date. It is named from the small river Galligans, an Bagur, are the easternmost points of the Iberian Peninsula. affluent of the Oña, which flows through the city. In the same The climate is generally temperate and rainy during several neighbourhood is a small church worthy of notice as a rare months in the valleys and near the coast, but cold in the Cerdana Spanish example of a transverse triapsal plan. district and other mountainous regions during eight months, Gerona is the ancient Gerunda, a city of the Auscelani. It while Gerona, La Bisbal and Santa Coloma are quite Mediter- claims to be the place in which St Paul and St James first rested ranean in their hot summers and mild winters. Agriculture is when they came to Spain; and it became the see of a bishop about backward, but there are profitable fisheries and fish-curing 247. For a considerable period it was in the hands of the Moors, establishments along the whole scaboard, notably at the ports of and their emir, Suleiman, was in alliance with Pippin the Short, Llansá, Rosas, Palamós, San Feliu de Guixols and Blanes. king of the Franks, about 759. It was taken by Charlemagne in Next in importance is the cork industry at San Feliu de Guixols, 785; but the Moors regained and sacked it in 795, and it was not Palafrugell and Cassa. More than one hundred mineral springs till 1015 that they were finally expelled. At a later date it gave are scattered over the province, and in 1903 twenty mines were the title of count to the king of Aragon's eldest son. It has been at work, although their total output, which included antimony, besieged no fewer than twenty-five times in all, and only four
of the sieges have resulted in its capture. The investment by, about 4000 and post and telegraph offices. The province is the French under Marshal Hocquincourt in 1653, that of 1684 fief of the chief of the Gerrús Kurds, pays a yearly revenue of by the French under Marshal Bellefonds, and the successful about £3000, and supplies a battalion of infantry (the 341h) to enterprise of Marshal Noailles in 1694 are the three great events of its history in the 17th century. Surrendered by the French GERRY, ELBRIDGE (1744-1814), American statesman, was at the peace of Ryswick, it was again captured by the younger born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, on the 17th of July 1744, Marshal Noailles in 1706, after a brilliant defence; and in 1717 the son of Thomas Gerry (d. 1774), a native of Newton, England, it held out against the Austrians. But its noblest resistance was who emigrated to America in 1730, and became a prosperous yet to be made.
In May 1809 it was besieged by the French, Marblehead merchant. The son graduated at Harvard in 1762 with 35,000 troops, under J. A. Verdier, P. F. Augereau and and entered his father's business. In 1772 and 1773 he was a Gouvion St Cyr; forty batteries were erected against it and a heavy member of the Massachusetts General Court, in which he identified bombardment maintained; but under the leadership of Mariano himself with Samuel Adams and the patriot party, and in 1973 Alvarez de Castro it held out till famine and fever compelled a he served on the Committee of Correspondence, which became capitulation on the 12th of December. The French, it is said, one of the great instruments of intercolonial resistance. In had spent 20,000 bombs and 60,000 cannon balls, and their loss 1774-1775 he was a member of the Massachusetts Provincial was estimated at 15,000 men.
Congress. The passage of a bill proposed by him (November See Juan Gaspar Roig,y Jalpi, Resumen de las Grandezas, &c. 1775) to arm and equip ships to prey upon British commerce, (Barcelona, 1678): J. A. Nieto y Samaniego, Memorias (Tarragona, and for the establishment of a prize court, was, according to his 1810); G. E. Street, Gothic Architecture in Spain (London, 1869). GEROUSIA (Gr. yepovola, Doric reputa), the ancient council biographer, Austin,“ the first actual avowal of ofíensive
hostility of elders at Sparta, corresponding in some of its functions to the against the mother country, which is to be found in the annals of Athenian Boulē. In historical times it numbered twenty-eight the Revolution.”. It is also noteworthy, says Austin, as “ the members, to whom were added ex officio the two kings and, later, first effort to establish an American naval armament." From the five ephors. Candidates must have passed their sixtieth 1776 to 1781 Gerry was a member of the Continental Congress, year, i.e. they must no longer be liable to military service, and where he early advocated independence, and was one of those who they were possibly restricted to the nobility. Vacancies were signed the Declaration after its formal signing on the end of filled by the Apella, that candidate being declared elected whom August 1776, at which time he was absent. He was active in the assembly acclaimed with the loudest shouts-a method which debates and committee work, and for some time held the chairAristotle censures as childish (Polil. ii. 9, p. 1271 a 9). Once manship of the important standing committee for the superin. elected, the gerontes held office for life and were irresponsible. tendence of the treasury, in which capacity he exercised a preThe functions of the council were among the most important dominating influence on congressional expenditures. In February in the state. It prepared the business which was to be submitted 3780 he withdrew from Congress because of its refusal to respond to the Apella, and was empowered to set aside, in conjunction to his call for the yeas and nays. Subsequently he laid his protest with the kings, any“ crooked ” decision of the people. Together before the Massachusetts General Court which voted its approval with the kings and ephors it formed the supreme executive of his action. On his return to Massachusetts, and while he was committee of the state, and it exercised also a considerable still a member of Congress, he was elected under the new state criminal and political jurisdiction, including the trial of kings; constitution (1780) to both branches of the state legislature, its competence extended to the infliction of a sentence of exile but accepted only his election to the House of Representatives. or even of death. These powers, or at least the greater part of On the expiration of his congressional term, he was again chosen them, were transferred by Cleomenes III. to a board of patronomi a delegate by the Massachusetts legislature, but it was not until (Pausanias ii. 9. 1); the gerousia, however, continued to exist 1783 that he resumed his seat. During the second period of his at least down to Hadrian's reign, consisting of twenty-three service in Congress, which lasted until 1785, he was a member members annually elected, but eligible for re-election (Sparta Britain, and chairman of two committees appointed to select a
of the committee to consider the treaty of peace with Great Museum Catalogue, Nos. 210, 612 and Introduction & 17).
Fuller discussions of the gerousia will be found in Aristotle, permanent seat of government. In 1784 he bitterly attacked the Politics, ii. 9, 17-19; Plutarch, Lycurgus, 5, 26; G. F. Schömann, establishment of the order of the Cincinnati on the ground that Antiquilies of Greece; The Slale (Eng. trans.). p. 230 ff.; G. Gilbert, it was a dangerous menace to democratic institutions. In 1786 Constitutional Antiquities of Sparla and Athens (Eng. trans.), p. 47 ff.; he served in the state House of Representatives. Not favouring C. 0. Müller, History and Antiquities of the Doric Race (Eng. trans.), iii. c. 6, 88 1-3: G. Busolt, Die griechischen Staats- und Rechtsalter the creation of a strong national government he declined to liimer (Iwan Müller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, attend the Annapolis Convention in 1786, but in the following iv. 1). $ 89; Griechische Geschichte, 2te Auflage i: 550 ff.; A. H. 1 year, when the assembling of the Constitutional Convention was Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History, 100 ff.; X. Gabriel, De magistralibus Lacedaemoniorum, 31 ff. (M. N. T.)
an assured fact, although he opposed the purpose for which it was GERRESHEIM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine called, he accepted an appointment as one of the Massachusetts Province, 6 m. by rail E. of Düsseldorf. It contains a fine delegates, with the idea that he might personally help to check too Romanesque church, dating from the 13th century, which forms strong a tendency toward centralization. His exertions in the a portion of an ancient nunnery (founded in the 10th century and convention were ceaseless in opposition to what he believed to be secularized in 1806), and has extensive glass manufactures and the wholly undemocratic character of the instrument, and eventuwire factories. Pop. (1905) 14,434.
ally he refused to sign the completed constitution. Returning to GERRHA (Arab. al-Jara), an ancient city of Arabia, on the Massachusetts, he spoke and wrote in opposition to its ratifica. west side of the Persian Gulf
, described by Strabo (Bk, xvi.) tion, and although not a member of the convention called to as inhabited by Chaldean exiles from. Babylon, who built their pass upon it, he laid before this convention, by request, his houses of salt and repaired them by the application of salt water.
reasons for opposing it, among them being that the constitution Pliny (IIisi. Nal. vi. 32) says it was 5 m. in circumference with contained no bill of rights, that the executive would unduly towers built of square blocks of salt. Various identifications of influence the legislative branch of the government, and that the the site have been attempted, J. P. B. D'Anville choosing El judiciary would be oppressive. Subsequently he served as an Katif, C. Niebuhr preferring Kuwet and C. Forster suggesting Anti-Federalist in the national House of Representatives in 1789the ruins at the head of the bay behind the islands of Bahrein.
1793, taking, as always, a prominent part in debates and other See A. Sprenger, Dic alle Geographie Arabiens (Bern, 1875), pp. legislative concerns. In 1797 he was sent by President John
Adams, together with John Marshall and Charles Cotesworth GERRÚS, a small province of Persia, situated between Pinckney, on a mission to France to obtain from the governKhamseh and Azerbaijan in the N., Kurdistan in the W. and ment of the Directory a treaty embodying a settlement of Hamadan in the S. Its population is estimated at 80,000, and several long-standing disputes. The discourteous and under. its capital, Bíjár, 180 m. from Hamadan, has a population of I handed treatment of this embassy by Talleyrand and his agents.
who attempted to obtain their ends by bribery, threats and
See also Elmer C. Griffith, The Rise and Development of the Gerry duplicity, resulted in the speedy retirement of Marshall and
mander (Chicago, 1907); John W. Dean, " History of the Gerry. Pinckney. The episode is known in American history as the xlvi. (Boston, 1892).
mander," in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol "X Y Z Affair." Gerry, although despairing of any good results, remained in Paris for some time in the vain hope that GERS, a department of south-western France, composed of Talleyrand might offer to a known friend of France terms that the whole or parts of certain districts of Gascony, viz. Armagnac, had been refused to envoys whose anti-French views were more Astarac, Fezensac, Pardiac, Pays de Gaure, Lomagne, Comthan suspected. This action of Gerry's brought down upon him minges, Condomois and of a small portion of Agenais. It is from Federalist partisans a storm of abuse and censure, from bounded N. by the department of Lot-et-Garonne, N.E. by which he never wholly clcared himself. In 1810-1812 he was Tarn-et-Garonne, E. and S.E. by Haute-Garonne, S. by Hautes. governor of Massachusetts. His administration, which was marked Pyrénées, S.W. by Basses-Pyrénées and W. by Landes. Pop. by extreme partisanship, was especially notable for the enact. (1906) 231,088. Area, 2428 sq. m. The department consists of ment of a law by which the state was divided into new senatorial a plateau sloping from south to north and traversed by numerous districts in such a manner as to consolidate the Federalist votc rivers, most of them having their source close together in the in a few districts, thus giving the Democratic-Republicans an Plateau de Lannemezan (Hautes-Pyrénées), from which point undue advantage. The outline of one of these districts, which they diverge in the shape of a fan to the north-west, north and was thought to resemble a salamander, gave rise in 1812, through north-cast. In the south several summits exceed 1100 st. in a popular application of the governor's name, to the term hcight. Thence the descent towards the north is gradual till on “ Gerrymander ” (q.v.). In 1812, Gerry, who was an ardent the northern limit of the department the lowest point (less than advocate of the war with Great Britain, was elected vice-presi-200 st.) is rcached. The grcater part of the department belongs dent of the United States, on the ticket with James Madison. to the basin of the Garonne, while a small portion in the west He died in office at Washington on the 23rd of November 1814. is drained by the Adour. The chicf affluents of the former are
See J. T. Austin, Life of Elbridge Gerry, with Contemporary Letters the Save, Gimone, Arrats, Gers and Baise, which derive their (2 vols., Boston, 1828-1829).
waters in great part from the Canal de la Ncste in the department GERRYMANDER (usually pronounced " jerrymander," but of Hautes-Pyrénées; and of the latter, the Arros, Midou and the g was originally pronounced hard), an American expression Douze, the last two uniting and taking the name of Midouze which has taken root in the English language, meaning to arrange before joining the Adour. The climate is temperate; its election districts so as to give an unfair advantage to the party in drawbacks are thc unwholesome south-cast wind and the power by means of a redistribution act, and so to manipulate destructive hail-storms which sometimes occur in spring. There constituencies generally, or arrange any political measure, is seldom any snow or frost. Over the greater portion of the with a view to an unfair party advantage. The word is derived department the annual rainfall varics between 28 and 32 in. from the name of the American politician Elbridge Gerry (9.0.). Gers is primarily agricultural. The south-western district is John Fiske, in his Civil Government in the United States (1890). the most productive, but the valleys generally are fertile and the says that in 1812, when Gerry was governor of Massachusetts, grain produced is more than sullicient for local consumption. the Democratic state legislature (in order, according to Winsor, Wheat, maize and oats are the principal cercals. About oneto secure an increased representation of the Democratic party third of the winc produced is used for home consumption, and in the state senate) “ redistributed the districts in such wise the remainder is chiefly manufactured into brandy, known by that the shapes of the towns forming a single district in Essex the name of Armagnac, second only to Cognac in reputation. county gave to the district a somewhat dragon-like contour. The natural pastures are supplemented chictly by crops of sainThis was indicated upon a map of Massachusetts which Benjamin foin and clover; horses, cattle, shecp and swine are reared in Russell, an ardent Federalist and editor of the Centinel, hung considerable numbers; turkcys, geese and other poultry are up over the desk in his office. The painter, Gilbert Stuart, abundant. There are mineral springs at Aurenson, Barbotan coming into the office one day and observing the uncouth figure, and several other places in the department. The mineral proadded with his pencil a head, wings and claws, and exclaimed, duction and manufactures are unimportant. Building stone * That will do for a salamander!' Better say a Gerrymander,' and clay are obtained. Flour-mills, saw-mills, tanncries, brickgrowled the editor; and the outlandish name, thus duly coined, works and cask-works are the chief industrial establishments. soon came into general currency.” It was, however, only the Gers is divided into the arrondissements of Auch, Lectoure, name that was new. Fiske (who also refers to Winsor's Memorial Mirande, Condom and Lombcz, with 29 cantons and 466 comHistory of Boston, iii. 212, and Bryce's American Commonwealth, munes. The chicf town is Auch, the seat of an archbishopric. i. 121) says that gerrymandering, as a political dodge," seems | The department falls within the circumscription of the appealto have been first devised in 1788, by the enemies of the Federal court of Agen, and the region of the XVII. army corps. It forms constitution in Virginia, in order to prevent the election of James part of the académie (cducational circumscription) of Toulouse. Madison to the first Congress, and fortunately it was unsuccess- Auch, Condom, Lectoure and Mirande are the principal towns. ful.” But it was really earlier than that, and in the American The following are also of interest: Lombcz, with its church of colonial period political advantage was often obtained by Sainte-Marie, once a cathedral, dating from the 14th century, changing county lines. In 1709 the Pennsylvania counties of when the bishopric was created; Flaran, with an abbey-church Bucks, Chester and Philadelphia formed a combination for of the last half of the 12th cenlury; La Romicu, with a church preventing the city of Philadelphia from securing its propor- of the same period and a beautiful cloister; Simorre, with a tionate representation; and in 1732 George Burrington, royal fortificd abbey-church of the 14th century; and Fleurance, governor of North Carolina, divided the voting precincts of the with a handsome church, also of the 14th century, containing province for his own advantage. Gerry was not the originator stained glass of the 16th century. of the Massachusetts law of 1812, which was probably drafted GERSON, JOHN (1363-1429), otherwise JEAN CHARLIER DE by Samuel Dana or by Judge Story. The law resulted in 29 Gerson, French scholar and divine, chancellor of thc university of seats being secured in Massachusetts by 50,164 Democratic Paris, and the ruling spirit in the occumenical councils of Pisa and votes, while 51,766 Federalist votes only returned 11 members; Constance, was born at the village of Gerson, in the bishopric and Essex county, which, undivided, sent 5 Federalists to the of Reims and department of Ardennes, on the 14th of December Senate, returned 3 Democrats and 2 Federalists after being 1363. His parents, Arnulph Charlier and Elizabeth de la
gerrymandered,” Stuart's drawing (reproduced in Fiske's Chardenière, “ a second Monica," were pious peasants, and seven book) was contrived so as to make the back line of the creatures of their twelve children, four daughters and ihree sons, devoted body form a caricature of Gerry's profile. The law of 1812 was themselves to a religious life. Young Gerson was sent to Paris repealed in 1813, when the Federalists had again gained control to the famous college of Navarre when fourteen years of age. of the Massachusetts legislature.
After a five years' course he obtained the degree of licentiate of
arts, and then began his theological studies under two very longed for learned leisure. To obtain it he accepted the deanery celebrated teachers, Gilles des Champs (Aegidius Campensis) of Bruges from the duke of Burgundy, but after a short sojourn he and Pierre d'Ailly (Petrus de Alliaco), rector of the college of returned to Paris and to the chancellorship. Navarre, chancellor of the university, and afterwards bishop of Gerson's chief work was what he did to destroy the great Puy, archbishop of Cambrai and cardinal. Pierre d'Ailly schism. Gregory XI. had died in 1378, one year after Gerson remained his life-long friend, and in later life the pupil seems to went to the college of Navarre, and since his death the church had have become the teacher (see pref. to Liber de vila Spir. Animae). had two popes, which to the medieval mind meant two churches
Gerson very soon attracted the notice of the university. and a divided Christ. The schism had practically been brought He was elected procurator for the French “nation" in 1383, about by France. The popes had been under French influence so and again in 1384, in which year he graduated bachelor of long that it appeared to France a political necessity to have theology. Three years later a still higher honour was bestowed her own pope, and pious Frenchmen felt themselves somewhat upon him; he was sent along with the chancellor and others responsible for the sins and scandals of the schism. Hence the to represent the university in a case of appeal taken to the melancholy piety of Gerson, Pierre d'Ailly and their companions, pope. John of Montson (Monzon de Montesono), an Aragonese and the energy with which they strove to bring the schism to an Dominican who had recently graduated as doctor of theology end. During the lifetime of Clement VII. the university of Paris, at Paris, had in 1387 been condemned by the faculty of theology led by Pierre d'Ailly, Gerson and Nicolas of Clamenges, met in because he had taught that the Virgin Mary, like other ordinary deliberation about the state of Christendom, and resolved that descendants of Adam, was born in original sin; and the the schism could be ended in three ways,-by cession, if both Dominicans, who were fierce opponents of the doctrine of the popes renounced the tiara unconditionally, by arbitration or immaculate conception, were expelled the university. John by a general council. Clement died. The king of France, of Montson appealed to Pope Clement VII. at Avignon, and urged by the university, sent orders that no new pope should be Pierre d'Ailly, Gerson and the other university delegates, while elected. The cardinals first elected, and then opened the letter. they personally supported the doctrine of the immaculate in the new elections, however, both at Rome and Avignon, conception, were content to rest their case upon the legal rights the influence of Paris was so much felt that each of the new of the university to test in its own way its theological teachers. popes swore to “ cede" if his rival would do so also. Gerson's biographers have compared his journey to Avignon with Meanwhile in 1395 the national assembly of France and the Luther's visit to Rome. It is certain that from this time onwards French clergy adopted the programme of the university-cession he was zealous in his endeavours to spiritualize the universities, or a general council. The movement gathered strength. In to reform the morals of the clergy, and to put an end to the 1398 most of the cardinals and most of the crowned heads in schism which then divided the church. In 1392 Gerson became Europe had given their adhesion to the plan. During this period doctor of theology, and in 1395, when Pierre d'Ailly was made Gerson's literary activity was untiring, and the throb of public bishop of Puy, he was, at the early age of thirty-two, elected expectancy, of hope and fear, is revealed in his multitude of chancellor of the university of Paris, and made a canon of Notre pamphlets. At first there were hopes of a setilement by way of Dame. The university was then at the height of its fame, and cession. These come out in Protcsl. super statum ecclesiac (ii. 1), its chancellor was necessarily a man prominent not only in France Tract. de modo habcudi se tem porc schismatis, De schismale, &c. but in Europe, sworn to maintain the rights of bis university But soon the conduct of the popes made Europe impatient, against both king and pope, and entrusted with the conduct and the desire for a general council grew strong-see De concilio and studies of a vast crowd of students attracted from almost generali unius obedientiae (ii. 24). The council was resolved every country in Europe. Gerson's writings bear witness to his upon. It was to meet at Pisa, and Gerson poured forth tract deep sense of the responsibilities, anxieties and troubles of his after tract for its guidance. The most important are—Trilogus position. He was all his days a man of letters, and an analysis of in maleria schismatis (ii. 83), and De unilale Ecclesiae (ii. 113), his writings is his best biography. His work has three periods, in which, following Pierre d' Ailly (see Tschackert’s Peter v. Ailli, in which he was engaged in reforming the university studies, P. 153), Gerson demonstrates that the ideal unity of the church, maturing plans for overcoming the schism (a task which after based upon Christ, destroyed by the popes, can only be restored 1404 absorbed all his energies), and in the evening of his life by a general council, supreme and legitimate, though unwriting books of devotion.
summoned by a pope. The council met, deposed both antiGerson wished to banish scholastic subtletics from the studies popes, and elected Alexander V. Gerson was chosen to address of the university, and at the same time to put some evangelical the new pope on the duties of his office. He did so in his Sermo warmth into them. He was called at this period of his life coram Alexandro Papa in die ascensionis in concilio Pisano Doctor Christianissimus; later his devotional works brought (ii. 131). All hopes of reformation, however, were quenched him the title Doctor Consolatorius. His plan was to make theo- by the conduct of the new pope. He had been a Franciscan, logy plain and simple by founding it on the philosophical prin- and loved his order above measure. He issued a bull which laid ciples of nominalism. His method was a clear exposition of the the parish clergy and the universities at the mercy of the mendiprinciples of thcology where clearness was possible, with a due cants. The great university of Paris rose in revolt, headed by recognition of the place of mystery in the Christian system of her chancellor, who wrote a fierce pamphlet-Censura professorum doctrine. Like the great nominalist William of Occam, he saved in theologia circa bullam Alexandri V. (ii. 442). The pope died himself from rationalism by laying hold on mysticism-the soon after, and one of the most profligate men of that time, Christian mysticism of the school of St Victor. He thought that Pope John XXIII. (Baldassare Cossa), was elected his successor. in this way he would equally guard against the folly of the old | The council of Pisa had not brought peace; it had only added a scholasticism, and the seductions of such Averroistic panthcism third pope. Pierre d'Ailly despaired of general councils (see his as was preached by heretics like Amalric of Bena. His plans for De difficultate reformationis in concilio universali), but Gerson the reformation of university studies may be learned from his struggled on. Another matter too had roused him. The feuds Tract. de examinatione doctrinarum (Opp. i. 7), Epistolae de between the houses of Orleans and Burgundy had long distracted roform. theol. (i. 121), Epistolae ad studentes Collegii Navarrae, France. The duke of Orleans had been treacherously murdered quid et qualiter studere debeat not theologiae auditor, ci conlra by the followers of the duke of Burgundy, and a theologian, curiosilalem studenlium (i. 106), and Lectiones duae contra vanam Jean Petit (c. 1360-1411), had publicly and unambiguously curiosilalem in negolio fidci (i. 86). The study of the Bible and of justiñed the murder. His eight verities, as he called them-his the fathers was to supersede the idle questions of the schools, and apologies for the murder-had been, mainly through the influence in his Tract. contra romantiam de rosa (iii. 297) he warns young of Gerson, condemned by the university of Paris, and by the men against the evil consequences of romance-reading. He was
Born c. 1360; rector of the university of Paris 1393; afterwards oftentimes weary of the chancellorship,-it involved him in
treasurer of Langres and archdeacon of Bayeux; died at Paris in strife and in money dithculties; he grew tired of public life, and 1437
archbishop and grand inquisitor, and his book had been publicly of his life. His family had been distinguished for piety and burned before the cathedral of Notre Dame. Gerson wished a exegetical skill, but though he was known in the Jewish comcouncil to confirm this sentence. "His literary labours were as munity by commentaries on certain books of the Bible, he never untiring as ever. He maintained in a series of tracts that a general seems to have accepted any rabbinical post. Possibly the council could depose a pope; he drew up indictments against freedom of his opinions may have put obstacles in the way of his the reigning pontifss, reiterated the charges against Jean Petit, preferment. He is known to have been at Avignon and Orange and exposed the sin of schism-in short, he did all he could to during his life, and is believed to have died in 1344, though direct the public mind towards the evils in the church and the Zacuto asserts that he died at Perpignan in 1370. Part of his way to heal them. His efforts were powerfully seconded by the writings consist of commentaries on the portions of Aristotle emperor Sigismund, and the result was the council of Constance then known, or rather of commentaries the commentaries of (see CONSTANCE, COUNCIL OF). Gerson's influence at the council Averroes. Some of these are printed in the early Latin editions was supreme up to the election of a new pope. It was he who of Aristotle's works. His most important treatise, that by which dictated the form of submission and cession made by John he has a place in the history of philosophy, is entitled Milhamoth XXIII., and directed the process against Huss. Many of 'Adonai (The Wars of God), and occupied twelve years in comGerson's biographers have found it difficult to reconcile his position (1317-1329). A portion of it, containing an elaborate proceedings against Huss with his own opinions upon the supre- survey of astronomy as known to the Arabs, was translated into macy of the pope; but the difficulty has arisen partly from Latin in 1342 at the request of Clement VI. The Milhamotk misunderstanding Gerson's position; partly from supposing him is throughout modelled after the plan of the great work of Jewish to be the author of a famous tract-De modis uniendi ac resor- philosophy, the Moreh Nebuhim of Moses Maimonides, and mandi Ecclesiam in concilio universali. All Gerson's high-sounding may be regarded as an elaborate criticism from the more philophrases about the supremacy of a council were meant to apply sophical point of view (mainly Averroistic) of the syncretism io some time of emergency. He was essentially a trimmer, of Aristotelianism and Jewish orthodoxy as presented in that and can scarcely be called a reformer, and he hated Huss with work. The six books pass in review (1) the doctrine of the soul, all the hatred the trimmer has of the reformer. The three bold | in which Gersonides defends the theory of impersonal reason as treatises, De necessitate reformationis Ecclesiae, De modis uniendi mediating between God and man, and explains the formation of ac reformandi Ecclesiam, and De difficultate reformationis in the higher reason (or acquired intellect, as it was called) in concilio universali, long ascribed to Gerson, were proved by humanity,-his view--being thoroughly realist and resembling Schwab in his Johannes Gerson not to be his work, and have since that of Avicebron; (2) prophecy; (3) and (4) God's knowledge been ascribed to Abbot Andreas of Randuf, and with more of facts and providence, in which is advanced the curious theory reason to Dietrich of Nieheim (see NIEM, DIETRICH OF).
that God does not know individual facts, and that, while there is The council of Constance, which revealed the eminence of general providence for all, special providence only extends to Gerson, became in the end the cause of his downfall. He was the those whose reason has been enlightened; (5) celestial substances, prosecutor in the case of Jean Petit, and the council, overawed treating of the strange spiritual hierarchy which the Jewish by the duke of Burgundy, would not affirm the censure of the philosophers of the middle ages accepted from the Neoplatonists university and archbishop of Paris. Petit's justification of murder and the pseudo-Dionysius, and also giving, along with astronomi. was declared to be only a moral and philosophical opinion, not cal details, much of astrological theory; (6) creation and of faith. The utmost length the council would go was to con- miracles, in respect to which Gerson deviates widely from the demn one proposition, and even this censure was annulled by the position of Maimonides. Gersonides was also the author of a new pope, Martin V., on a formal pretext. Gerson dared not commentary on the Pentateuch and other exegetical and scientific return to France, where, in the disturbed state of the kingdom, works. the duke of Burgundy was in power. He lay hid for a time at
A careful analysis of the Milhamoth is given in Rabbi Isidore Constance and then at Rattenberg in Tirol, where he wrote his
Weil's Philosophie religieuse de Lévi-Ben-Gerson (Paris, 1868). See
also Munk, Mélanges de phil. juive et arabe; and Joel, Religionsfamous book De consolatione theologiae. On returning to France philosophie d. L. Ben-Gerson (1862), The Milhamoth was pubhe went to Lyons, where his brother was prior of the Celestines. lished in 1560 at Riva di Trento, and has been published at Leipzig, It is said that he taught a school of boys and girls in Lyons, and 1866.
(I. A.) that the only fee he exacted was to make the children promise GERSOPPA, FALLS OF, a cataract on the Sharavati river in to repeat the prayer; “ Lord, have mercy on thy poor servant the North Kanara district of Bombay. The falls are considered Gerson." His later years were spent in writing books of mystical the finest in India. The river descends in four separate cascades devotion and hymns. He died at Lyons on the 12th of July 1429. called the Raja or Horseshoe, the Roarer, the Rocket and the Tradition declares that during his sojourn there he translated Dame Blanche. The cliff over which the river plunges is 8zo it. or adapted from the Latin a work upon cternal consolation, high, and the pool at the base of the Raja Fall is 132 ft. deep. which afterwards became very famous under the title of The The falls are reached by boat from Honavar, or by road from I mitalion of Christ, and was attributed to Thomas à Kempis. Gersoppa village, 18 m. distant. Near the village are extensive It has, however, been proved beyond a doubt that the famous ruins (the finest of which is a cruciform temple) of Nagarbastikere, Imitalio Christi was really written by Thomas, and not by the capital of the Jain chiefs of Gersoppa. Their family was John Gerson or the abbot Gerson.
established in power in 1409 by the Vijayanagar kings, but The literature on Gerson is very abundant. See Dupin, Gersoniana, subsequently became practically independent. The chieftaincy including Vila Gersoni, prefixed to the edition of Gerson's works in was several times held by women, and on the death of the last Schmidt, Essai sur Jean Gerson, chancelier de l'Université de Paris queen (1608) it collapsed, having been attacked by the chief of (Strassburg, 1839): J. B. Schwab, Johannes Gerson. (Würzburg: for its pepper, and they called its queen“ Regina da pimenta "
Bednur. Among the Portuguese the district was celebrated sa familie (Reims, 1882). On the relations between Gerson and (queen of pepper). D'Ailly, see Paul Tschackert, Peter von Ailli (Gotha, 1877). On GERSTÄCKER, FRIEDRICH (1816-1872), German novelist Gerson's public life see also histories of the councils of Pisa and Constance, especially Herm. y. der Hardt, Con. Constantiensis libri and writer of travels, was born at Hamburg on the roth of May iv. (1695-1699). The best editions of his works are those of Paris 1816, the son of Friedrich Gerstäcker (1790-1825), a celebrated (3 vols., 1606) and Antwerp (5 vols., 1706). See also Ulysse Chevalier, opera singer. After being apprenticed to a commercial house Répertoire des sources hist. Bio-bibliographie (Paris, 1905, &c.), s.v. Gerson."
he learnt farming in Saxony. In 1837, however, having imbibed (T. M. L.; X.)
from Robinson Crusoe a taste for adventure, he went to America GERSONIDES, or Ben GERSON (Gershon), LEVI, known also and wandered over a large part of the United States, supporting as Ralbag (1288-1344), Jewish philosopher and commentator, himself by whatever work came to hand. In 1843 be returned was born at Bagnols in Languedoc, probably in 1288. As in the to Germany, to find himself, to his great surprise, famous as an case of the other medieval Jewish philosophers little is known author. His mother had shown his diary, which he regularly