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sent home, and which contained descriptions of his adventures (1837–1838); an admirable Histoire de la littérature française in the New World, to the editor of the Rosen, who published them depuis les origines jusqu'à la Révolution (1852), which he supplein that periodical. These sketches having found favour with the mented in 1859 by a volume bringing down the history to the public, Gerstäcker issued them in 1844 under the title Streif-und close of the revolutionary period; and some miscellaneous Jagdsüge durch die Vereinigten Staaten Nordamerikas. In 1845 works. Géruzez died on the 29th of May 1865 in Paris. A his first novel, Die Regulatoren in Arkansas, appeared, and hence- posthumous volume of Mélanges et pensées appeared in 1877. forth the stream of his productiveness flowed on uninterruptedly. GERVAIS, PAUL (1816-1879), French palaeontologist, was From 1849 to 1852 Gerstäcker travelled round the world, visiting born on the 26th of September 1816 at Paris, where he obtained North and South America, Polynesia and Australia, and on his the diplomas of doctor of science and of medicine, and in 1835 return settled in Leipzig. In 1860 he again went to South America, he began palaeontological research as assistant in the laboratory chiefly with a view to inspecting the German colonies there and of comparative anatomy at the Museum of Natural History. reporting on the possibility of diverting the stream of German In 1841 he obtained the chair of zoology and comparative emigration in this direction. The result of his observations and anatomy at the Faculty of Sciences in Montpellier, of which he experiences he recorded in Achtzehn Monate in Südamerika (1862). was in 1856 appointed dean. In 1848–1852 appeared his imIn 1862 he accompanied Duke Ernest of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to portant work Zoologie et paléontologie françaises, supplementary Egypt and Abyssinia, and on his return settled at Coburg, where to the palaeontological publications of G. Cuvier and H. M. D. he wrote a number of novels descriptive of the scenes he had de Blainville; of this a second and greatly improved edition visited. In 1867-1868 Gerstäcker again undertook a long journey, was issued in 1859. In 1865 he accepted the professorship of visiting North America, Venezuela and the West Indies, and on zoology at the Sorbonne, vacant through the death of L. P. his return lived first at Dresden and then at Brunswick, where Gratiolet; this post he left in 1868 for the chair of comparative he died on the 31st of May 1872. His genial and straightforward anatomy at the Paris museum of natural history, the anatomical character made him personally beloved; and his works, dealing collections of which were greatly enriched by his exertions. He as they did with the great world hitherto hidden from the narrow died in Paris on the roth of February 1879. “ parochialism ” of German life, obtained an immense popularity. He also wrote Histoire naturelle des mammiseres (1853. &c.); This was not due to any graces of style, in which they are sin-1 Zoologie médicale (1859, with P, J. van Beneden); Recherches sur gularly lacking; but the unstudied freshness of the author's et paliontologie générales (1867); Ostéographic des cétacés (1869, &c.,

l'ancionnelé de l'homme et la période quaternaire, 19 pl. (1867); Zoologie descriptions, and his sturdy humour, appealed to the wholesome with van Beneden). instincts of the public. Many of his books were translated into GERVASE OF CANTERBURY (d. c. 1210), English monk foreign languages, notably into English, and became widely and chronicler, entered the house of Christchurch, Canterbury, known on both sides of the Atlantic. His best works, from a

at an early age. He made his profession and received holy orders literary point of view, are, besides the above-mentioned Regula. in 1163; but we have no further clue to the date of his birth. loren, his Flusspiraten des Mississippi (1848); the novel Tahili We know nothing of his life beyond what may be gathered from (1854); his Australian romance Die beiden Sträflinge (1857); his own writings. Their evidence suggests that he died in or Aus dem Matrosenleben (1857); and Blau Wasser (1858). His shortly after 1210, and that he had resided almost continuously Travels exist in an English translation.

at Canterbury from the time of his admission. The only office - Gerstăcker's Gesammelte Schriften were published at Jena in 44 vols. (1872-1879); a selection, edited by D. Theden in 24 vols. (1889 received after 1190 and laid down before 1197: He took a keen

which we know him to have held is that of sacrist, which he 1890). See A. Karl, Friedrich Gerstäcker, der Weitgereiste. Ein Lebensbild (1873).

interest in the secular quarrels of the Canterbury monks with their GERSTENBERG, HEINRICH WILHELM VON (1737-1823), archbishops, and his earliest literary efforts were controversial German poet and critic, was born at Tondern in Schleswig on the

tracts upon this subject. But from 1188 he applied his mind to 3rd of January 1737. After studying law at Jena he entered the historical composition. About that year he began the compilation Danish military service and took part in the Russian campaign of his Chronica, a work intended for the private reading of his of 1762. He spent the next twelve years in Copenhagen, where brethren. Beginning with the accession of Stephen he continued he was intimate with Klopstock. From 1775 to 1783 he

his narrative to the death of Richard I. Up to 1188 he relies

represented Denmark's interests as “ Danish Resident” at Lübeck, almost entirely upon extant sources; but from that date onand in 1786 received a judicial appointment at Altona, where he wards is usually an independent authority. A second history, died on the ist of November 1823. In the course of his long life the Gesta Regum, is planned on a smaller scale and traces the Gerstenberg passed through many phases of his nation's literalure. fortunes of Britain from the days of Brutus to the year 1209. The He began as an imitator of the Anacreontic school (Tändeleien, | latter part of this work, covering the years 1199-1209, is perhaps 1759); then wrote, in imitation of Gleim, Kriegslieder einës

an attempt to redeem the promise, which he had made in the dänischen Grenadiers (1762); with his Gedicht eines Skalden epilogue to the Chronica, of a continuation dealing with the reign (1766) he joined the group of “bards ” led by Klopstock. His of John. This is the only part of the Gesta which deserves much Ariadne auf Naxos (1767) is the best cantata of the 18th century; attention. The work was continued by various hands to the he translated Beaumont and Fletcher's Maid's Tragedy (1767), year 1328. From the Gesla the indefatigable Gervasc turned to and helped to usher in the Sturm und Drang period with a grue

a third project, the history of the sce of Canterbury from the some but powerful tragedy, Ugolino (1768). But he did perhaps arrival of Augustine to the death of Hubert Walter (1205). A even better service to the new literary movement with his Briefe topographical work, with the somewhat misleading title Mappa uber Merkwürdigkeiten der Literatur (1766-1770), in which the mundi, completes the list of his more important writings. The critical principles of the Sturm und Drang-and especially its Mappa mundi contains a useful description of England shire by enthusiasm for Shakespeare,--were first definitely formulated. shire, giving in particular a list of the castles and religious houses In later life Gerstenberg lost touch with literature, and occupied to be found in each. The industry of Gervase was greater than himself mainly with Kant's philosophy.

his insight. He took a narrow and monastic view of current His Vermischte Schriften appeared in 3 vols. (1815). The Briefe politics; he was seldom in touch with the leading statesmen of über Merkurirdigkeiten der Literatur were republished by A. von

his day. But he appears to be tolerably accurate when dealing Weilen (1888), and a selection of his poetry, including Ugolino, by with the years 1188-1209; and sometimes he supplements the R. Hamel, will be found in Kürschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur, information provided by the more important chronicles. vol. 48 (188+).

See the introductions and notes in W. Stubbs's edition of the GÉRUZEZ, NICOLAS EUGÈNE (1799-1865), French critic, Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls edition, 2 vols., was born on the 6th of January 1799 at Reims. He was assistant 1879-1880).

(H. W. C. D.) professor at the Sorbonne, and in 1852 he became secretary to GERVASE OF TILBURY (fl. 1211), Anglo-Latin writer of the the faculty of literature. He wrote a Histoire de l'éloquence late 12th and early 13th centuries, was a kinsman and schoolfellow politique el religicuse en France aux XIV, XV, el XVI° sièces I of Patrick, earl of Salisbury, but lived the life of a scholarly adventurer, wandering from land to land in search of patrons. 1805 at Darmstadt. He was educated at the gymnasium of Before 1177 he was a student and teacher of law at Bologna; the town, and intended for a commercial career, but in 1825 in that year he witnessed the meeting of the emperor Frederic I. he became a student of the university of Giessen. In 1826 he and Pope Alexander III, at Venice. He may have hoped to went to Heidelberg, where he attended the lectures of the win the favour of Frederic, who in the past had found useful historian Schlosser, who became henceforth his guide and his instruments among the civilians of Bologna. But Frederic model. In 1828 he was appointed teacher in a private school ignored him; his first employer of royal rank was Henry fitz at Frankfort-on-Main, and in 1830 Privatdozent at Heidelberg. Henry, the young king of England (d. 1183), for whom Gervase A volume of his collected Historische Schriften procured him wrote a jest-book which is no longer extant. Subsequently the appointment of professor extraordinarius; while the first we hear of Gervase as a clerk in the household of William of volume of his Geschichte der poëtischen Nationallitteratur der Champagne, cardinal archbishop of Reims (d. 1202). Here, Deutschen (1835-1842, 5 vols., subsequently entitled Geschickte as he himself confesses, he bascly accused of heretical opinions der deutschen Dichlung; sth edition, by K. Bartsch, 1871-1874) a young girl, who had rejected his advances, with the result that brought him the appointment to a regular professorship of history she was burned to death. He cannot have remained many and literature at Göttingen. This work is the first comprehensive years at Reims; before 1189 he attracted the favour of William history of German literature written both with scholarly erudition il. of Sicily, who had married Joanna, the sister of Henry fitz and literary skill. In the following year he wrote his Grundzüge Henry. William took Gervase into his service and gave him a der Historik, which is perhaps the most thoughtful of his philo. country-house at Nola. After William's death the kingdom sophico-historical productions. The same year brought his expul. of Sicily offered no attractions to an Englishman. The fortunes sion from Göttingen in consequence of his manly protest, in of Gervase suffered an eclipse until, some time after 1198, he conjunction with six of his colleagues, against the unscrupulous found employment under the emperor Otto IV., who by descent violation of the constitution by Ernest Augustus, king of Hanover and political interest was intimately connected with the Plan- and duke of Cumberland. After several years in Heidelberg, tagenets. Though a clerk in orders Gervase became marshal Darmstadt and Rome, he settled permanently in Heidelberg, of the kingdom of Arles, and married an heiress of good family. whcre, in 1844, he was appointed honorary professor. He For the delectation of the emperor he wrote, about 1211, his zealously took up in the following year the cause of the German Olia Imperialia in three parts. It is a farrago of history, Catholics, hoping it would lead to a union of all the Christian geography, folklore and political theory-one of those books of confessions, and to the establishment of a national church. table-talk in which the literature of the age abounded. Evidently He also came forward in 1846 as a patriotic champion of the Gervase coveted but ill deserved a reputation for encyclopaedic Schleswig-Holsteiners, and when, in 1847, King Frederick learning. The most interesting of his dissertations are contained William IV. promulgated the royal decree for summoning the in the second part of the Olia, where he discusses, among other so-called “ United Dict” (Vereinigter Landtag), Gervinus hoped topics, the theory of the Empire and the geography and history that this event would form the basis of the constitutional develop of England. We do not know what became of Gervase after the ment of the largest German state. He founded, together with downfall of Oito IV. But he became a canon; and may perhaps some other patriotic scholars, the Deutsche Zeitung, which be identified with Gervase, provost of Ebbekesdorf, who died in certainly was one of the best-written political journals ever 1235

published in Germany. His appearance in the political arena See the Otia Imperialia in G. Leibnitz's Scriptores rerum Bruns- secured his election as deputy for the Prussian province of Saxony vicensium, vols. i. and ii. (Hanover, 1707); extracts in J. Stevenson's to the National Assembly sitting in 1848 at Frankfort. Disgusted best are those by W. Stubbs in his edition of Gervase of Canterbury, with the failure of that body, he retired from all active political vol. i. introd. (Rolls series, 1879), and by R. Pauli in Nachrichten life. der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen (1882). In the older Gervinus now devoted himself to literary and historical biographers the Dialogus de scaccario of Richard Fitz Neal (9.2.) is studies, and between 1849 and 1852 published his work on wrongly attributed to Gervase.

(H. W. C. D.)

Shakespeare (4 vols., 4th ed. 2 vols., 1872; Eng. trans. by GERVEX, HENRI (1852– ), French painter, was born in F. E. Bunnett, 1863, new ed. 1877). He also revised his History Paris on the 10th of December 1852, and studied painting under of German Lilcrature, for a fourth edition (1853), and began at Cabanel, Brisset and Fromentin. His early work belonged the same time to plan his Geschichte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts almost exclusively to the mythological genre which served as an (8 vols., 1854-1860), which was preceded by an Einleitung in die excuse for the painting of the nude-not always in the best of Geschichte des neunzchnten Jahrhunderts (1853). The latter taste; indeed, his “ Rolla ” of 1878 was rejected by the jury of caused some stir in the literary and political world, owing to the Salon pour immoralité. He asterwards devoted himself to the circumstance that the government of Baden imprudently representations of modern life and achieved signal success with instituted a prosecution against the author for high treason. his “ Dr Péan at the Salpétrière," a modernized paraphrase, In 1868 appeared Händel und Shakes peore, zur Ästhetik de as it were, of Rembrandt's “ Anatomy Lesson." He was en- Tonkunst, in which he drew an ingenious parallel between his trusted with several important official paintings and the decora- favourite poet and his favourite composer, showing that iheir tion of public buildings. Among the first are " The Distribution intellectual affinity was based on the Teutonic origin common of Awards (1889) at the Palais de l'Industrie (now in the to both, on their analogous intellectual development and Versailles Museum), “ The Coronation of Nicolas II.” (Moscow, character. The ill-success of this publication, and the indifference May 14, 1896),“ The Mayors' Banquet ” (1900), and the portrait with which the latter volumes of his History of the 19th Century group La République Française"; and among the second, were received by his countrymen, together with the feeling of the ceiling for the Salle des Fêtes at the hôtel de ville, Paris, and disappointment that the unity of Germany had been brought the decorative panels painted in conjunction with Blanchon for about in another fashion and by other means than he wished to the mairie of the 19th arrondissement, Paris. He also painted, see employed, embittered his later years.

He died at Heidelberg with Alfred Stevens, a panorama,“ The History of the Century on theisth of March 1871. (1889). At the Luxembourg is his painting “ Satyrs playing

Gervinus's autobiography (G. G. Gervinus' Leben, von ihm selbst) with a Bacchante,” as well as the large“ Members of the Jury beyond the year 1836. See E. Lehmann, Gervinus, Versuch eine

was published by his widow in 1893. It does not, however, go of the Salon (1885). Other pictures of importance, besides Charakteristik (1871); R. Gosche, Gervinus (1871); J. Dörid, numerous portraits in oils and pastel, are Communion at Gcrvinus als historischer Denker (1904). Trinity Church," “ Return from the Ball," “ Diana and Endy- GERYON (GERYONES, GERYONEUS), in Greek mythology, the mion," " Job," “ Civil Marriage,” At the Ambassadeurs," son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoë, daughter of Oceanus, and king “ Yachting in the Archipelago,' Nana and “Maternity." of the island of Erythcia. He is represented as a monster with

GERVINUS, GEORG GOTTFRIED (1805-1871), German three heads or three bodies (triformis, trigeminus), sometimes literary and political historian, was born on the 20th of May I with wings, and as the owner of herds of red cattle, which were

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tended by the giant shepherd Eurytion and the two-headed dog / same year appeared the first volume of the Hebräisches u. Chal Orthrus. To carry of these cattle to Greece was one of the

düisches llandworterbuch, completed in 1812. Revised editions of

this appear periodically in Germany, 2.g. that of H. Zimmern and twelve “ labours " imposed by Eurystheus upon Heracles. In F. Buhl (1905). The publication of a new English edition was order to get possession of them, Heracles travelled through Europe started in 1892 under the editorship of Professors C. A. Briggs. and Libya, set up the two pillars in the Straits of Gibraltar to

S. R. Driver and F. Brown. The Hebräische Grammatik, published in show the extent of his journey, and reached the great river and 26th German editions by G. W. Collins and A. E. Cowley; 1898).

1813 (27th edition by E. Kautzsch; English translation from 25th Oceanus. Having crossed Oceanus and landed on the island, was followed in 1815 by the Geschichte der hebräischen Sprache (now Heracles slew Orthrus together with Eurytion, who in vain strove very rare), and in 1817 by the Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der heto defend him, and drove off the cattle. Geryon started in pursuit, brüschen Sprache. The first volume of his well-known commentary but fell a victim to the arrows of Heracles, who, after various

on Isaiah (Der Prophet Jesaja), with a translation, appeared in 1821;

but the work was not completed until 1829. The Thesaurus philo. adventures, succeeded in getting the cattle safe to Greece, logico-criticus linguae Hebraicae et Chaldaicae V. T., begun in 1829, where they were offered in sacrifice to Hera by Eurystheus. The he did not live to complete; the latter part of the third volume is geographical position of Erytheia is unknown, but all ancient edited by E. Rödiger (1858). Other works: De Pentateuchi Samariauthorities agree that it was in the far west. The name itself loni origine, indole, el auctoritate (1815), supplemented in 1822 (= red) and the colour of the cattle suggest the fiery aspect of edition of Carmina Samaritana; Palaographische Studien über

and 1824 by the treatise De Samaritanorum Theologia, and by an the disk of the setting sun; further, Heracles crosses Occanus in phönizische u. punische Schrift (1835), a pioneering work which yopiw, the howler or roarer) is supposed to personity the storm, (Scripturae linguaeque Phoeniciae monumento quotquol supersun!); his father Chrysaor the lightning, his mother Callirrhoë the rain. language written in conjunction with E. Rödiger in 1841. Gesenius

an Aramaic lexicon (1834-1839); and a treatise on the Himyaritic The cattle are the rain-clouds, and the slaying of their kecpers also contributed extensively to Ersch and Gruber's 'Encyclopudie, typifies the victory of the sun over the clouds, or of spring over and enriched the German translation of L. L. Burckhardt's Travels in winter. The euhemeristic explanation of the struggle with the Syria and the Holy Land with valuable geographical notes. For

many years he also edited the Halle Allgemeine Lilleraturzeilung. triple monster was that Heracles fought three brothers in A sketch of his life was published anonymously in 1843 (Gesenius: succession.

eine Erinnerung für seine Freunde), and another by H. Gesenius, See Apollodorus ii. 5. 10; Hesiod, Theogony, 287; Diod. Sic. Wilhelm Gesenius, ein Erinnerungsblatt an den hundertjährigen iv. 17; Herodotus iv. 8; F. Wicscler in Ersch and Gruber, Allge Geburtstag, in 1866. See also the article in the Allgemeine deutsche meine Encyclopudie; F. A. Voigt in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie; | Biographie. L. Preller, Griechische Mythologie; article “ Hercules " in Daremberg GESNER, ABRAHAM (1797-1864), Canadian geologist, was and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiguités.

born in Nova Scotia in 1797. He qualified as a doctor of medicine GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1786-1842), in London in 1827. Returning to the Dominion, he published German orientalist and biblical critic, was born at Nordhausen, in 1836 Remarks on the Geology and Mineralogy of Nova Scotia, Hanover, on the 3rd of February 1786. In 1803 he became a

and continuing his researches he was enabled in 1843 to bring student of philosophy and theology at the university of Helm- before the Geological Society of London “A Geological Map of städt, where Heinrich Henke (1752-1809) was his most influential Nova Scotia, with an accompanying Memoir" (Proc. Geol. Soc. teacher; but the latter part of his university course was taken iv. 186). In 1849 he issued a volume on the industrial resources at Göttingen, where J. G. Eichhorn and T. C. Tychsen (1758- of the country. He dealt also with the geology and mineralogy 1834) were then at the height of their popularity. In 1806, of New Brunswick and Prince Edward's Island. Devoting shortly after graduation, he became Repelent and Privatdozent himself to the economic side of geology in various parts of North in that university; and, as he was fond of afterwards relating, America, he was enabled to bring out in 1861 A Practical Treatise had Neander for his first pupil in Hebrew. In 1810 he became on Coal, Petroleum and other Distilled Oils. He died at Halifax, professor extraordinarius in theology, and in 1811 ordinarius, N.S., on the 29th of April 1864. at the university of Halle, where, in spite of many offers of high GESNER, JOHANN MATTHIAS (1691-1761), German classical preíerment elsewhere, he spent the rest of his life. He taught scholar and schoolmaster, was born at Roth near Ansbach on the with great regularity for upward of thirty years, the only in oth of April 1691. He studied at the university of Jena, and in terruptions being that of 1813-1814 (occasioned by the War of

1714 published a work on the Philopalris ascribed to Lucian. Liberation, during which the university was closed) and those In 1715 he became librarian and conrector (vice-principal) occasioned by two prolonged literary tours, first in 1820 to Paris, at Weimar, in 1729 rector of the gymnasium at Ansbach, and in London and Oxford with his colleague Johann Karl Thilo (1794-1730 rector of the Thomas school at Leipzig. On the foundation 1853) for the examination of rare oriental manuscripts, and in of the university of Göttingen he became professor of rhetoric 1835 to England and Holland in connexion with his Phoenician (1734) and subscquently librarian. He died at Göttingen on the studies. He soon became the most popular teacher of Hebrew | 3rd of August 1761. His special merit lies in the attention he and of Old Testament introduction and exegesis in Germany; devoted to the explanation and illustration of the subject matter during his later years his lectures were attended by nearly five of the classical authors. hundred students. Among his pupils the most eminent were His principal works are: cditions of the Scriplores rei rusticae, of Peter von Bohlen (1796-1840), A. G. Hoffmann (1769-1864), Quintilian, Claudian, Pliny the Younger, Horace and the Orphic Hermann Hupfeld, Emil Rödiger (1801-1874), J. F. Tuch (1806- poems (published after his death), Primae lineae isagoges in eru1867), W. Vatke (1806-1882) and Theodor Benfey (1809-1881). cruditionis scholasticae (1726), afterwards continued under the title

disionem universalcm (1756); an edition of B. Faber's Thesaurus In 1827, after declining an invitation to take Eichhorn's place Novus linguae et eruditionis Romanae thesaurus (1749); Opuscula at Göttingen, Gesenius was made a Consistorialrath; but, apart minora varii argumenti (1743-1745): Thescurns epistolicus Gesnefrom the violent attacks to which he, along with his friend and rianus (cd. Klotz, 1708-1770); Index etymologicus latinitatis (1749). colleague Julius Wegscheider, was in 1830 subjected by E. W. Gottinger Professoren (1872): C. H. Pöhnert, J. M. Gesner und sein

See J. A. Ernesti, Opuscula oratoria (1762), p. 305; H. Sauppe, Hengstenberg and his party in the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, Verhalinis sum Philan:hropinismus und Neuhumanismus (1898), a on account of his rationalism, his life was uncventful. He died contribution to the history of pedagogy in the 18th century; articles at Halle on the 23rd of October 1842. To Gesenius belongs in by F. A. Eckstein in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie ix.; and Sandys,

Hist. of Class. Schol. iii. (1908), 5-9. a large measure the credit of having frced Semitic philology from the trammels of theological and religious prepossession,

GESNER (improperly GESSNER; in Latin, GESNERUS), and of inaugurating the strictly scientific (and comparative) KONRAD VON (1516-1505), German-Swiss writer and naturalist, method which has since been so fruitful. As an exegete he called the German Pliny ” by Cuvier, was born at Zürich on the exercised a powerful, and on the whole a beneficial, influence on

26th of March 1516. The son of a poor furrier, he was educated theological investigation.

in that town, but fell into great need after the death of his father Of his many works, the carliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch

at the battle of Kappel (1531). He had good friends, however, über die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely in his old master, Myconius, and subsequently in Heinrich current opinion that ihe modern Maltese was of Punic origin. In the Bullinger, and he was enabled to continue his studies at the universities of Strassburg and Bourges (1532-1533); he found period for the conventional pastoral. His writings are marked also a generous patron in Paris (1534), in the person of Joh. by sweetness and melody, qualities which were warmly appre. Stciger of Berne. In 1535 the religious troubles drove him back ciated by Lessing, Herder and Goethe. As a painter Gessner to Zürich, where he made an imprudent marriage. His friends represented the conventional classical landscape. again came to his aid, enabled him to study at Basel (1536), and Collected editions of Gessner's works were repeatedly published in 1537 procured for him the professorship of Greek at the newly | (2 vols. 1777-1778, finally 2 vols. 1841, both at Zürich). They were founded academy of Lausanne (then belonging to Berne). Here

translated into French (3 vols., Paris, 1786-1793), and versions of he had leisure to devote himself to scientific studies, especially Swedish and Bohemian.

the Idyllen appeared in English, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish,

Gessner's life was written by Hottinger botany. In 1540–1541 he visited the famous medical university (Zürich, 1796), and by H. Wolmin (Frauenfeld, 1889); sec also his of Montpellier, took his degree of doctor of medicine (1541) at Briefwechsel mit seinem Sohn (Bern and Zürich, 1801). Basel, and then settled down to practise at Zürich, where he GESSO, an Italian word (Lat. gypsum), for "plaster of Paris" obtained the post of lecturer in physics at the Carolinum. There, especially when used as a ground for painting, or for modelling apart from a few journeys to foreign countries, and annual or sculpture. summer botanical journeys in his native land, he passed the GESTA ROMANORUM, a Latin collection of anecdotes and remainder of his life. He devoted himself to preparing works tales, probably compiled about the end of the 13th century or on many subjects of different sorts. He died of the plaguc on the beginning of the 14th. It still possesses a twofold literary the 13th of December 1565. In the previous year he had been interest, first as one of the most popular books of the time, and ennobled.

secondly as the source, directly or indirectly, of later literature, To his contemporaries he was best known as a botanist, though in Chaucer, Gower, Shakespeare and others. Of its authorship his botanical MSS. were not published till long after his death nothing certain is known; and there is little but gratuitous (at Nuremberg, 1751-1771, 2 vols. folio), he himself issuing only conjecture to associate it either with the name of Helinandus the Enchiridion historiae plantarum (1541) and the Catalogus or with that of Petrus Berchorius (Pierre Bercheure). It is even plantarum (1542) in four tongues. In 1545 he published his a matter of debate whether it took its rise in England, Germany remarkable Bibliotheca universalis (ed. by J. Simler, 1574), or France. The work was evidently intended as a manual for a catalogue (in Latin, Greek and Hebrew) of all writers who preachers, and was probably written by one who himself tehad ever lived, with the titles of their works, &c. A second part, longed to the clerical profession. The name, Deeds of the Romans, under the title of Pandeclarium sive partitionum universalium is only partially appropriate to the collection in its present form, Conradi Gesneri Ligurini libri xxi., appeared in 1548; only since, besides the titles from Greek and Latin history and legend, nineteen books being then concluded. The 21st book, a thco- it comprises fragments of very various origin, oriental and logical encyclopaedia, was published in 1549, but the 20th, European. The unifying clement of the book is its moral purpose. intended to include his medical work, was never finished. His The style is barbarous, and the narrative ability of the compiler great zoological work, Historia animalium, appeared in 4 vols. seems to vary with his source; but he has managed to bring (quadrupeds, birds, fishes) folio, 1551-1558, at Zürich, a fifth together a considerable variety of excellent material. He gives (snakes) being issued in 1587 (there is a German translation, us, for example, the germ of the romance of “Guy of Warwick "; entitled Thierbuch, of the first 4 vols., Zürich, 1563): this work the story of “ Darius and his Three Sons,” versified by Occleve; is the starting point of modern zoology. Not content with such part of Chaucer's " Man of Lawes' Tale”; a tale of the emperor vast works, Gesner put forth in 1555 his book cntitled Mithridates Theodosius, the same in its main features as that of Shakespeare's de differentiis linguis, an account of about 130 known languages, Lear; the story of the “ Three Black Crows "; the “ Hermit and with the Lord's Prayer in 22 tongues, while in 1556 appeared the Angel,” well known from Parnell's version, and a story his edition of the works of Aelian. To non- scientific readers, identical with the Fridolin of Schiller. Owing to the loose Gesner will be best known for his love of mountains (below the structure of the book, it was easy for a transcriber to insert any snow-line) and for his many excursions among them, undertaken additional story into his own copy, and consequently the MSS. partly as a botanist, but also for the sake of mere exercise and of the Gesla Romanorum exhibit considerable variety Oesterley enjoyment of the beauties of nature. In 1541 he prefixed to a recognizes an English group of MSS. (written always in Latin), singular little work of his (Libellus de lacte et operibus lactariis) a German group (sometimes in Latin and sometimes in German), a letter addressed to his friend, J. Vogel, of Glarus, as to the and a group which is represented by the vulgate or colimon wonders to be found among the mountains, declaring his love printed text. The earliest editions are supposed to be those of for them, and his firm resolve to climb at least one mountain Ketelaer and de Lecompt at Utrecht, of Arnold Ter Hoenen at every year, not only to collect flowers, but in order to exercise Cologne, and of Ulrich Zell at Cologne; but the exact date is in his body. In 1555 Gesner issued his narrative (Descriplio Montis all three cases uncertain. Fracli sive Montis Pilali) of his excursion to the Gncpfstein An English translation, probably based directly on the MS. (6299 ft.), the lowest point in the Pilatus chain, and therein Harl. 5369, was published by Wynkyn de Worde about 1510-1515, explains at length how cach of the senses of man is refreshed the only copy, of which now known to exist is preserved in the in the course of a mountain excursion.

library of St John's College, Cambridge. In 1577 Richard Robin

son published a revised edition of Wynkyn de Worde, and the book Lives by J. Hanhart (Winterthur, 1824) and J. Simler (Zürich, proved highly popular. Between 1648 and 1703 at least eight 1566); see also Lebert's Gesner als Arzl (Zürich, 1854). A part of impressions were issued. In 1703 appeared the first vol. of a transhis unpublished writing, edited by Prof. Schmiedel, was published lation by B. P.; probably, Bartholomew Pratt," from the Latin at Nuremberg in 1753.

edition of 1514.". A translation by the Rev. C. Swan, first pub

lished in 2 vols. in 1824, forms part of Bohn's antiquarian library, GESSNER, SOLOMON (1730-1788), Swiss painter and poct, and was re-edited by Wynnard Hooper in 1877 (see also the latter's was born at Zürich on the ist of April 1730. With the exception edition in 1894). The German translation was first printed at Augs. of some time (1749-1750) spent in Berlin and Hamburg, where he burg, 1489. A French version, under the title of Le Violier des

histoires romaines moralisés, appeared in the carly part of the 16th came under the influence of Ramler and Hagedorn, he passed century, and went through a number of editions; it has been rethe whole of his life in his native town, where he carried on the printed by G. Brunet (Paris, 1858). Critical editions of the Latin business of a bookseller. He died on the 2nd of March 1788. text have been produced by A. Keller (Stuttgart, 1842) and Oesterley.

On the Gosta Romanorum, The first of his writings that attracted attention was his Lied (Berlin, 1872). See also Warton,

dissertation iii., prefixed to the History of English Poetry; Douce, eines Schweizers an sein bewafsneles Mädchen (1751). Then

Illustrations of Shakespeare, vol. ii.; Frederick Madden, Introduction followed Daphnis (1754), Idyllen (1756 and 1772), Inkel and to the Roxburghe Club edition of The Old English Versions of the Yariko (1756), a version of a story borrowed from the Spectator Gesla Romanorum (1838). (No. 11, 13th of March 1711) and already worked out by Gellert GETA, PUBLIUS SEPTIMIUS (189–212), younger son of the and Bodmer, and Der Tod Abels (1758), a sort of idyllic pastoral. Roman emperor Septimius Severus, was born at Mediolanum It is somewhat difficult for us now to understand the reason of (Milan). In 198 he received the title of Caesar, and in 209 those of Gessner's universal popularity, unless it was the taste of the l imperator and Augustus. Between him and his brother Caracalla there existed from their early years a keen rivalry and antipathy. I hundred yards farther north, is an ancient cave-cistern, now a On the death of their father in 211 they were proclaimed joint Latin sanctuary. (See further JERUSALEM.) emperors; and after the failure of a proposed arrangement GETTYSBURG, a borough and the county-seat of Adams for the division of the empire, Caracalla pretended a desire for county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., about 35 m. S.W. of Harrisburg. reconciliation. He arranged a meeting with his brother in his Pop. (1900) 3495; (1910) 4030. It is served by the Western mother's apartments, and had him murdered in her arms by Maryland and the Gettysburg & Harrisburg railways. The site some centurions.

of the borough is a valley about 1} m. wide; the neighbouring Dio Cassius (xxvii. 2; Spartianus, Caracalla, 2; Herodian iv. I. country abounds in attractive scenery. Katalysine Spring in

GETAE, an ancient people of Thracian origin, closely akin to the vicinity was once a well-known summer resort; its waters the Daci (sce Dacia). Their original home seems to have been contain lithia in solution. Gettysburg has several small manuthe district on the right bank of the Danube between the rivers facturing establishments and is the seat of Pennsylvania College Descus (Iskr) and latrus (Yantra). The view that the Getae (opened in 1832, and the oldest Lutheran college in America), were identical with the Goths has found distinguished supporters, which had 312 students (68 in the preparatory department) but it is not generally accepted. Their name first occurs in con- in 1907–1908, and of a Lutheran theological seminary, opened in nexion with the expedition of Darius Hystaspis (515 B.C.) against 1826 on Seminary Ridge; but the borough is best known as the Scythians, in the course of which they were brought under the scene of one of the most important batiles of the Civil War. his sway, but they regained their freedom on his return to the very soon after the battle a soldiers' national cemetery was laid East. During the 5th century, they appear as furnishing a out here, in which the bodies of about 3000 Union soldiers have contingent of cavalry to Sitalces, king of the Odrysae, in his been buried; and at the dedication of this cemetery, in November attack on Perdiccas II., king of Macedon, but the decay of the 1863, President Lincoln delivered his celebrated “Gettysburg Odrysian kingdom again left them independent. When Philip Address.” In 1864 the Gettysburg Battle-Field Memorial II. of Macedon in 342 reduced the Odrysae to the condition of Association was incorporated, and the work of this association tributaries, the Getae, searing that their turn would come next, resulted in the conversion of the battle-field into a National Park, made overtures to the conqueror. Their king Cothelas undertook an act for the purpose being passed by Congress in 1895. Within to supply Philip with soldiers, and his daughter became the wife the park the lines of battle have been carefully marked, and of the Macedonian. About this time, perhaps being hard pressed about 600 monuments, 1000 markers, and 500 iron tablets by the Triballi and other tribes, the Getac crossed the Danube. have been erected by states and regimental associations. Alexander the Great, before transporting his forces into Asia, Hundreds of cannon have been mounted, and five observation decided to make his power felt by the Macedonian dependencies. towers have been built. From 1816 to 1840 Gettysburg was the His operations against the Triballi not having met with complete home of Thaddeus Stevens. Gettysburg was settled about 1740, success, he resolved to cross the Danube and attack the Getae.

was laid out in 1787, was made the county-seat in 1800, and was The laiter, unable to withstand the phalanx, abandoned their incorporated as a borough in 1806. chief town, and fled to the steppes (Teria ñ é ponuos, north of Battle of Gettysburg.-The battle of the ist, 2nd and 3rd of July the Danube delta), whither Alexander was unwilling to follow 1863 is often regarded as the turning-point of the American them. About 326, an expedition conducted by Zopyrion, a Civil War (9.v.) although it arose from a chance encounter. Macedonian governor of Thrace, against the Getae, failed Lee, the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern disastrously. In 292, Lysimachus declared war against them, Virginia, had merely ordered his scattered forces to concentrate alleging as an excuse that they had rendered assistance to certain there, while Meade, the Federal commander, held the town with barbarous Macedonian tribes. He penetrated to the plains of a cavalry division, supported by two weak army corps, to screen Bessarabia, where his retreat was cut off and he was forced to the concentration of his Army of the Potomac in a selected surrender. Although the people clamoured for his execution, position on Pipe Creek to the south-eastward. On the 1st of July Dromichaetes, king of the Getae, allowed him to depart un ihe leading troops of General A. P. Hill's Confederate corps apharmed, probably on payment of a large ransom, great numbers proached Gettysburg from the west to meet Ewell's corps, which of gold coins having been found near Thorda, some of them was to the N. of the town, whilst Longstreet's corps followed Hill. bearing the name of Lysimachus. When the Gauls made their Lee's intention was to close up Hill, Longstreet and Ewell before way into castern Europe, they came into collision with the Getae, fighting a battle. But Hill's leading brigades met a strenuous whom they defeated and sold in large numbers to the Athenians resistance from the Federal cavalry division of General John as slaves. From this time the Getae seem to have been usually Buford, which was promptly supported by the infantry of the called Daci; for their further history see Dacia.

1. corps under General J. F. Reynolds. The Federals so far held The Getae arc described by Herodotus as the most valiant their own that Hill had to deploy two-thirds of his corps for action, and upright of the Thracian tribes; but what chiefly struck and the western approaches of Gettysburg were still held when Greek inquirers was their belief in the immortality of the soul Ewell appeared to the northward. Reynolds had already fallen, (hence they were called åavarisovies) and their worship of and the command of the Federals, after being held for a time by Zalmoxis (or Zamolxis), whom the euhemerists of the colonies Gen. Abner Doubleday, was taken over by Gen. 0. O. Howard, on the Euxine made a pupil of Pythagoras. They were very the commander of the XI. corps, which took post to bar the way fond of music, and it was the custom for their ambassadors the to Ewell on the north side. But Ewell's attack, led by the priests to present themselves clad in white, playing the lyre and fiery Jubal Early, swiftly drove back the XI. corps to Gettyssinging songs. They were experts in the use of the bow and burg; the I. corps, with its flank thus laid open, fell back also, arrows while on horseback.

and the remnants of both Federal corps retreated through See E. R. Rösler, “ Die Geten und ihre Nachbarn," in Sitzungs-Gettysburg to the Cemetery Hill position. They had lost severely berichte der k. Akad. der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische in the struggle against superior numbers, and there had been Classe, xliv. (1863), and Romanische Studien (Leipzig, 1871); W. Tomaschek, “Dic alten Thrakcr," in above Sitzungsberichie, cxxviii.

some disorder in the retreat. Still a formidable line of defence (Vienna, 1893); W. Bessel, De rebus Geticis (Göttingen, 1854); C. was taken up on Cemetery Hill and both Ewell and Lee refrained Mullenhoff in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopädie; T. from further attacks, for the Confederates had also lost heavily Mommsen, Hisl. of Rome (Eng. ans.), bk. v. ch. 7.

during the day and their concentration was not complete. In GETHSEMANE (Hebr. for "oil-press "), the place to which the meanwhile Meade had sent forward General W. S. Hancock, Jesus and His disciples withdrew on the eve of the Crucifixion. the commander of the Federal II. corps, to examine the state of It was evidently an enclosed piece of ground, a plantation rather affairs and on Hancock's report he decided to fight on the than a garden in our sense of the word. It lay east of the Kidron Cemetery Hill position. Two corps of his army were still distant, and on the lower slopc of the mount of Olives, at the foot of which but the XII. arrived before night, the III. was near, and Hanis the traditional site dating from the 4th century and now cock moved the II. corps on his own initiative. Headquarters and possessed by the Franciscans. The Grotto of the Agony, a few | the artillery reserve started for Gettysburg on the night of the ist.

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