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between the Gumti and the Gogra, whose confluences with the other that of his son Masa'ud. On thé Kabul road, a mile main stream mark its eastern and western limits respectively. beyond the Minaret of Mahmud, is a village called Rauzah The southern tract is a much smaller strip of country, enclosed (“the Garden," a term often applied to garden-mausoleums). between the Karamnasa and the great river itself. There are Here, in a poor garden, stands the tomb of the famous conqueror. no hills in the district. A few lakes are scattered here and there, It is a prism of white marble standing on a plinth of the same, formed where the rivers have deserted their ancient channels. and bearing a Cufic inscription praying the mercy of God on the The largest is that of Suraha, once a northern bend of the Ganges, most noble Amir, the great king, the lord of church and state, but now an almost isolated sheet of water, 5 m. long by about Abul Kasim Mahmud, son of Sabuktagin. The tomb stands in 4 broad. Ghazipur is said to be one of the hottest and dampest a rude chamber, covered with a.dome of clay, and hung with old districts in the United Provinces. In 1901 the population was shawls, ostrich eggs, tiger-skins and so forth. The village stands 913,818, showing a decrease of 11% in the decade. Sugar among luxuriant gardens and orchards, watered by a copious refining is the chief industry, and provides the principal article aqueduct. Sultan Baber celebrates the excellence of the grapes of export. The main line of the East Indian railway traverses of Rauzah. the southern portion of the district, with a branch to the Ganges There are many holy shrines about Ghazni surrounded by bank opposite Ghazipur town; the northern portion is served orchards and vineyards. Baber speaks of them, and tells how by the Bengal & North-Western system.

he detected and put a stop to the imposture of a pretended GHAZNI, a famous city in Afghanistan, the seat of an extensive miracle at one of them.. These sanctuaries make Ghazni a place empire under two medieval dynasties, and again of prominent of Moslem pilgrimage, and it is said that at Constantinople much interest in the modern history of British India. Ghazni stands respect is paid to those who have worshipped at the tomb of the on the high tableland of central Afghanistan, in 68° 18' E. long., great Ghazi. To test the genuineness of the boast, professed 33° 44' N. lat., at a height of 7280 ft. above the sea, and on the pilgrims are called on to describe the chief notabilia of the place, direct road between Kandahar and Kabul, 221 m. by road N.E. and are expected to name all those detailed in certain current from the former, and 92 m. S.W. from the latter. A very | Persian verses. considerable trade in fruit, wool, skins, &c., is carried on between History.---The city is not mentioned by any narrator of Ghazni and India by the Povindah kafilas, which yearly enter Alexander's expedition, nor by any ancient author so as to India in the late autumn and pass back again to the Afghan admit of positive recognition. But it is very possibly the Gazaca highlands in the early spring. The Povindah merchants in- which Ptolemy places among the Paropamisadae, and this may variably make use of the Gomal pass which leads to the British not be inconsistent with Sir H. Rawlinson's identification of it frontier at Dera Ismail Khan. The opening up of this pass and with Gazos, an Indian city spoken of by two obscure Greek poets the British occupation of Wana, by offering protection to the as an impregnable place of war. The name is probably conmerchants from Waziri blackmailing, largely increased the nected with the Persian and Sanskrit ganj and ganja, a treasury traffic.

(whence the Greek and Latin Gaza). We seem to have positive Ghazni, as it now exists, is a place in decay, and probably evidence of the existence of the city before the Mahommedan does not contain more than 4000 inhabitants. It stands at the times (644) in the travels of the Chinese pilgrim, Hsuan Tsang, base of the terminal spur of a ridge of hills, an offshoot from the who speaks of Ho-si-na (i.e. probably Ghazni) as one of the Gul-Koh, which forms the watershed between the Arghandáb, capitals of Tsaukuta or Arachosia, a place of great strength. and Tarnak rivers. The castle stands at the northern angle of In early Mahommedan times the country adjoining Ghazni was the town next the hills, and is about 150 ft. above the plain. called Zābul. When the Mahommedans first invaded that The town walls stand on an elevation, partly artificial, and form region Ghazni was a wealthy entrepot of the Indian trade. an irregular square, close on a mile in circuit (including the of the extent of this trade some idea is given by Ibn Haukal, castle), the walls being partly of stone or brick laid in mud, and who states that at Kabul, then a mart of the same trade, there parily of clay built in courses. They are flanked by numerous was sold yearly indigo to the value of two million dinars towers. There are three gates. The town consists of dirty and (£1,000,000). The enterprise of Islam underwent several ebbs very irregular streets of houses several stories high, but with and flows over this region. The provinces on the Helmund and two straighter streets of more pretension, crossing near the about Ghazni were invaded as early as the caliphate of Moaiya middle of the town. Of the strategical importance of Ghazni (662-680). The arms of Yaqub b. Laith swept over Kabul and there can hardly be a question. The view to the south is ex- Arachosia (Al-Rukhaj) about 871, and the people of the latter tensive, and the plain in the direction of Kandahar stretches country were forcibly converted. Though the Hindu dynasty to the horizon. It is bare except in the vicinity of the river, of Kabul held a part of the valley of Kabul river till the time of where villages and gardens are tolerably numerous. Abundant Mahmud, it is probably to the period just mentioned that we crops of wheat and barley are grown, as well as of madder, must refer the permanent Mahommedan occupation of Ghazni. besides minor products. The climate is notoriously cold, Indeed, the building of the fort and city is ascribed by a Mahomsnow lying 2 or 3 ft. deep for about three months, and tradition medan historian to Amr b. Laith, the brother and successor speaks of the city as having been more than once overwhelmed of Ya'kub (d. 901), though the facts already stated discredit by snowdrift. Fuel is scarce, consisting chiefly of prickly this. In the latter part of the 9th century the family of the shrubs. In summer the heat is not like that of Kandahar or Samanid, sprung from Samarkand, reigned in splendour at Kabul, but the radiation from the bare heights renders the nights Bokhara. Alptagin, originally a Turkish slave, and high in the oppressive, and constant dust-storms occur. It is evident that service of the dynasty, about the middle of the roth century, the present restricted walls cannot have contained the vaunted losing the favour of the court, wrested Ghazni from its chief city of Mahmud. Probably the existing site formed the citadel (who is styled Abu Bakr Lawik, wali of Ghazni), and established only of his city. The remarks of Ibn Batuta (c. 1332) already himself there. His government was recognized from Bokhara, suggest the present state of things, viz. a small town occupied, and held till his death. In 977 another Turk slave, Sabuktagin, a large space of ruin; for a considerable area to the N.E. is who had married the daughter of his master Alptagin, obtained covered with ruins, or rather with a vast extent of shapeless rule in Ghazni. He made himself lord of nearly all the present mounds, which are pointed out as Old Ghazni. The only remains territory of Afghanistan and of the Punjab. In 997 Mahmud, retaining architectural character are two remarkable towers son of Sabuktagin, succeeded to the government, and with his rising to the height of about 140 ft., and some 400 yds. apart name Ghazni and the Ghaznevid dynasty have beome perpetufrom each other. They are similar, but whether identical, in ally associated. Issuing forth year after year from that capital, design, is not clearly recorded. They belong, on a smaller and Mahmud (q.o.) carried fully seventeen expeditions of devastation far less elaborate scale, to the same class as the Kutb Minar at through northern India and Gujarat, as well as others to the Delhi (q.v.). Arabic inscriptions in Cufic characters show the north and west. From the borders of Kurdistan to Samarkand, most northerly to have been the work of Mahmud himself, the l from the Caspian to the Ganges, his authority was acknowledged. The wealth brought back to Ghazni was enormous, and con- Ibn Batuta (c. 1332) says the greater part of the city was in temporary historians give glowing descriptions of the magnifi- ruins, and only a small part continued to be a town. Timur cence of the capital, as well as of the conqueror's munificent seems never to have visited Ghazni, but we find him in 1401 support of literature. Mahmud died in 1030, and some fourteen bestowing the government of Kabul, Kandahar, and Ghazni on kings of his house came after him; but though there was some Pir Mahommed, the son of his son Jahangir. In the end of the revival of importance under Ibrahim (1059-1099), the empire century it was still in the hands of a descendant of Timur, Ulugh never reached anything like the same splendour and power. Beg Mirza, who was king of Kabul and Ghazni. The illustrious It was overshadowed by the Seljuks of Persia, and by the rising nephew of this prince, Baber, got peaceful possession of both rivalry of Ghor (q.v.), the hostility of which it had repeatedly cities in 1504, and has left notes on both in his own inimitable provoked. Bahram Shah (1918-1152) put to death Kutbuddin, Memoirs. His account of Ghazni indicates how far it had now one of the princes of Ghor, called king of the Jibal or Hill country, fallen. “It is,” he says, "but a poor mean place, and I have who had withdrawn to Ghazni. This prince's brother, Saifuddin always wondered how its princes, who possessed also Hindustan Suri, came to take vengeance, and drove out Bahram. But and Khorasan, could have chosen such a wretched country the latter recapturing the place (1149) paraded Saifuddin and his for the seat of their government, in preference to Khorasan." vizier ignominiously about the city, and then hanged them on the He commends the fruit of its gardens, which still contribute bridge. Ala-uddin of Ghor, younger brother of the two slain largely to the markets of Kabul. Ghazni remained in the hands princes, then gathered a great host, and came against Bahram, of Baber's descendants, reigning at Delhi and Agra, till the who met him on the Helmund. The Ghori prince, after repeated invasion of Nadir Shah (1738), and became after Nadir's death victories, stormed Ghazni, and gave it over to fire and sword. a part of the new kingdom of the Afghans under Ahmad Shah The dead kings of the house of Mahmud, except the conqueror Durani, We know of but two modern travellers who have himself and two others, were torn from their graves and burnt, recorded visits to the place previous to the war of 1839. George whilst the bodies of the princes of Ghor were solemnly dis- Forster passed as a disguised traveller with a qafila in 1783. interred and carried to the distant tombs of their ancestors. " Its slender existence," he says, “is now maintained by some It seems certain that Ghazni never recovered the splendour that Hindu families, who support a small traffic, and supply the perished then (1152). Ala-uddin, who from this deed became wants of the few Mahommedan residents." Vigne visited it in known in history as Jahin-soz (Brûlemonde), returned to Ghor, 1836, having reached it from Multan with a caravan of Lohani and Bahram reoccupied Ghazni; he died in 1957. In the time merchants, travelling by the Gomal pass. The historical name of his son Khusru Shah, Ghazni was taken by the Turkish tribes of Ghazni was brought back from the dead, as it were, by the called Ghuzz (generally believed to have been what are now news of its capture by the British army under Sir John Keane, called Turkomans). The king fled to Lahore, and the dynasty 23rd July 1839. The siege artillery had been left behind at ended with his son. In 1173 the Ghuzz were expelled by Kandahar; escalade was judged impracticable; but the project Ghiyasuddin sultan of Ghor (nephew of Ala-uddin Jahansoz), of the commanding engineer, Captain George Thomson, for blowwho made Ghazni over to his brother Muizuddin. This famous ing in the Kabul gate with powder in bags, was adopted, and prince, whom the later historians call Mahommed Ghori, shortly carried out successfully, at the cost of 182 killed and wounded. afterwards (1174-1175) invaded India, taking Multan and Two years and a half later the Afghan outbreak against the Uchh. This was the first of many successive inroads on western British occupation found Ghazni garrisoned by a Bengal regiment and northern India, in one of which Lahore was wrested from of sepoys, but neither repaired nor provisioned. They beld out Khusru Malik, the last of Mahmud's house, who died a captive | under great hardships from the 16th of December 1841 to the in the hills of Ghor. In 1192 Prithvi Rai or Pithora (as the 6th of March 1842, when they surrendered. In the autumn of Moslem writers call him), the Chauhan king of Ajmere, being the same year General Nott, advancing from Kandahar upon defeated and slain near Thanewar, the whole country from the Kabul, reoccupied Ghazni, destroyed the defences of the castle Himalaya to Ajmere became subject to the Ghori king of Ghazni. and part of the town, and carried away the famous gates of On the death of his brother Ghiyasuddin, with whose power he Somnath (9.0.). had been constantly associated, and of whose conquests he had GHEE (Hindostani ghi), a kind of clarified butter made in been the chief instrument, Muizuddin became sole sovereign the East. The best is prepared from butter of the milk of cows, over Ghor and Ghazni, and the latter place was then again for a the less esteemed from that of buffaloes. The butter is melted brief period the seat of an empire nearly as extensive as that of over a slow fire, and set aside to cool; the thick, opaque, whitish, Mahmud the son of Sabuktagin. Muizuddin crossed the Indus and more fluid portion, or ghee, representing the greater bulk once more to put down a rebellion of the Khokhars in the Punjab, of the butter, is then removed. The less liquid residue, mixed and on his way back was murdered by a band of them, or, as with ground-nut oil, is sold as an inferior kind of ghee. It may some say, by one of the Mulähidah or Assassins. The slave be obtained also by boiling butter over a clear fire, skimming it lieutenants of Muizuddin carried on the conquest of India, and the while, and, when all the water has evaporated, straining as the rapidly succeeding events broke their dependence on any it through a cloth. Ghee which is rancid or tainted, as is often master, they established at Delhi that monarchy of which, after that of the Indian bazaars, is said to be rendered sweet by boiling it had endured through many dynasties, and had culminated with leaves of the Moringa plerygosperma or horse-radish tree. with the Mogul house of Baber, the shadow perished in 1857. In India ghee is one of the commonest articles of diet, and indeed The death of Muizuddin was followed by struggle and anarchy, enters into the composition of everything caten by the Brahmans. ending for a time in the annexation of Ghazni to the empire of It is also extensively used in Indian religious ceremonies, being Khwarizm by Mahommed Shah, who conferred it on his famous offered as a sacrifice to idols, which are at times bathed in it. son, Jelaluddin, and Ghazni became the headquarters of the Sanskrit treatises on therapeutics describe ghee as cooling, latter. After Jenghiz Khan had extinguished the power of his emollient and stomachic, as capable of increasing the mental family in Turkestan, Jelaluddin defeated the army sent against powers, and of improving the voice and personal appearance, him by the Mongol at Parwan, north of Kabul. Jenghiz then and as useful in eye-diseases, tympanitis, painful dyspepsia, advanced and drove Jelaluddin across the Indus, after which he wounds, ulcers and other affections. Old ghee is in special sent Ogdai his son to besiege Ghazni. Henceforward Ghazni is repute among the Hindus as a medicinal agent, and its efficacy much less prominent in Asiatic history. It continued subject as an external application is believed by them to increase with to the Mongols, sometimes to the house of Hulagu in Persia, its age. Ghee more than ten years old, the purana gkrita of and sometimes to that of Jagatai in Turkestan. In 1326, Sanskrit materia medicas, has a strong odour and the colour of after a battle between Amir Hosain, the viceroy of the former lac. Some specimens which have been much longer preserved house in Khorasan, and Tarmashirin, the reigning khan of and “ clarified butter a hundred years old is often heard of”Jagatai, the former entered Ghazni and once more subjected it have an earthy look, and are quite dry and hard, and nearly to devastation, and this time the tomb of Mahmud to desecration. I inodorous. Medicated ghce is made by warming ordinary ghee

narrow,

to remove contained water, melting, after the addition of a the counts, and of the auto-da-fés under the Spanish regime. little turmeric juice, in a metal pan at a gentle heat, and then In it stands a bronze statue of Jacob van Artevelde, by Devigneboiling with the prepared drugs till all moisture is expelled, and Quyo, erected in 1863. At a corner of the square is a remarkable straining through a cloth.

cannon, known as Dulle Griete (Mad Meg), 19 ft. long and 11 st. GHEEL, or GEEL, a town of Belgium, about 30 m. E. of in circumference. It is, ornamented with the arms of Philip Antwerp and in the same province. Pop. (1904) 14,087. It is the Good, duke of Burgundy, and must have been cast between remarkable on account of the colony of insane persons which 1419 and 1467. On the Scheldt, near the Place Laurent, is the has existod there for many centuries. The legend reads that in Geerard-duivelsteen (château of Gerard the Devil), a 13th-century the year 600 Dymphna, an Irish princess, was executed here by tower formerly belonging to one of the patrician families, now her father, and in consequence of certain miracles she had restored and used as the office of the provincial records. Of effected she was canonized and made the patron saint of the modern buildings may be mentioned the University (1826), insane. The old Gothic church is dedicated to her, and in the the Palais de Justice (1844), and the new theatre (1848), all choir is a shrine, enclosing her relics, with fine panel paintings designed by Roelandt, and the Institut des Sciences (1890) by representing incidents in her life by, probably, a contemporary A. Pauli. In the park on the site of the citadel erected by of Memling. The colony of the insane is established in the Charles V. are some ruins of the ancient abbey of St Bavon and farms and houses round the little place within a circumference of a 12th-century octagonal chapel dedicated to St Macharius. of 30 m. and is said to have existed since the 13th century. In the park is also situated the Museum of Fine Arts, completed This area is divided into four sections, each having a doctor and in 1902. a superintendent attached to it. The Gheel system is regarded One of the most interesting institutions of Ghent is the great as the most humane method of dealing with the insane who have Béguinage (Begynhof) which, originally established in 1234 no homicidal tendencies, as it keeps up as long as possible their by the Bruges gate, was transferred in 1874 to the suburb of interest in life.

St Amandsberg. It constitutes a little town of itself, surrounded GHENT (Flem. Gent, Fr. Gand), the capital of East Flanders, by walls and a moat, and contains numerous small houses, 18 Belgium, at the junction of the Scheldt and the Lys (Ley): convents and a church. It is occupied by some 700 Beguines, Pop. (1880) 131,431, (1904) 162,482. The city is divided by women devoted to good works (see BEGUINES). Near the station the rivers (including the small streams Lieve and Moere) and by is a second Béguinage with 400 inmates. In addition to these canals, some navigable, into numerous islands connected by there were in Ghent in 1901 fifty religious houses of various orders. over 200 bridges of various sorts. Within the limits of the town, As a manufacturing centre Ghent, though not so conspicuous which is 6 m. in circumference, are many gardens, meadows as it was in the middle ages, is of considerable importance. and promenades; and, though its characteristic lanes are The main industries are cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, cottongloomy and

there are also broad new streets and fine printing, tanning and sugar refining; in addition to which quays and docks.

The most conspicuous building in the city there are iron and copper foundries, machine-building works, is the cathedral of St Bavon? (Sint Baafs), the rich interior of breweries and factories of soap, paper, tobacco, &c. As a trading which contrasts strongly with its somewhat heavy exterior. Its centre the city is even more important. It has direct communicacrypt dates from 941, the choir from 1274-1300, the Late Gothic tion with the sea by a ship-canal, greatly enlarged and deepened choir chapels from the 15th century, and the nave and transept since 1895, which connects the Grand Basin, stretching along the from 1533-1554. Among the treasures of the church is the north side of the city, with a spacious harbour excavated at famous “Worship of the Lamb" by Hubert and Jan van Terneuzen on the Scheldt, 211 m. to the north, thus making Eyck. Of the original 12 panels, taken to France during the Ghent practically a sea-port; while a second canal, from the Revolutionary Wars, only 4 are now here, 6 being in the Berlin Lys, connects the city via Bruges with Ostende. museum and two in that of Brussels. Among the other 55 Among the educational establishments is the State University, churches may be mentioned that of St Nicholas, an Early Gothic founded by King William I. of the Netherlands in 1816. With building, the oldest church in date of foundation in Ghent, and it are connected a school of engineering, a school of arts and that of St Michael, completed in 1480, with an unfinished tower. industries and the famous library (about 300,000 printed In the centre of the city stands the unfinished Belíry (Beffroi), volumes and 2000 MSS.) formerly belonging to the city. In a square tower some 300 ft. high, built 1183-1339. It has a addition there are training schools for teachers, an episcopal cast-iron steeple (restored in 1854), on the top of which is a gold seminary, a conservatoire and an art academy with a fine dragon which, according to tradition, was brought from Con- collection of pictures mainly taken from the religious houses of the stantinople eit her by the Varangians or by the emperor Baldwin city on their suppression in 1795. The oldest Belgian newspaper, after the Latin conquest. Close to it is the former Cloth-hall, the Gazel van Gent, was founded here in 1667. a Gothic building of 1325. The hôtel-de-ville consists of ïwo

History.--The history of the city is closely associated with distinct parts. The northern façade, a magnificent example of that of the countship of Flanders (q.v.), of which it was the seat. Flamboyant Gothic, was erected between 1518 and 1533, It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin restored in 1829 and again some fifty years later. The eastern of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted façade overlooking the market-place was built in 1595-1628, by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, in the Renaissance style, with three tiers of columins. It contains built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt. a valuable collection of archives, from the 13th century onwards. This was captured in 949 by the emperor Otto I. and was occupied On the left bank of the Lys is the Oudeburg (s'Gravenstein, by an imperial burgrave for some fifty years, after which it was Château des Contes), the former castle of the first counts of retaken by the counts of Flanders. Under their protection, Flanders, dating from 1180 and now restored. The château of and favoured by its site, the city rapidly grew in wealth and the later counts, in which the emperor Charles V. was born, population, the zenith of its power and prosperity being reached is commemorated only in the name of a street, the Cours des between the 13th and 15th centuries, when it was the emporium Princes.

of the trade of Germany and the Low Countries, the centre of a To the north of the Oudeburg, on the other side of the Lys, is great cloth industry, and could put some 20,000 armed citizens the Marché du Vendredi, the principal square of the city. This into the field. The wealth the burghers during this period was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to were frequent,-against the rival city of Bruges, against the

counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-6. 653), patron saint of Ghent, wa the patrician governing class. Of these risings the most notable a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders. He lived first as an anchorite in the forest of Mendonk, and after

was that, in the earlier half of the 14th century, against Louis wards in the monastery founded with his assistance by Amandus at

de Crécy, count of Flanders, under the leadership of Jacob van Ghent.

Artevelde (9.0.).

The earliest charter to the citizens of Ghent was that granted | it with ruin; but improved sanitation, the provision of a supply by Count Philip of Flanders between 1169 and 1191. It did little of pure water and the demolition of a mass of houses unfit for more than arrange for the administration of justice by nominated habitation soon effected a radical cure. jurats (scabini) under the count's bailli. Far more compre- See L. A. Warnkönig, Flandrische Staats- und Rechtsgeschickle bis hensive was the second charter, granted by Philip's widow 1305 (3 vols., Tübingen, 1835-1842), and Gueldorf, Hist. de Goed, Mathilda, after his death on crusade in 1191, as the price paid for translated from Warnkönig, with corrections and additions (Brussels the faithfulness of the city to her cause. The magistrates of the 1946); Fi de Potter, Gent van den oudsten lijd tot heden (6 vols, city were still nominated scabini (fixed at thirteen), but their (Brussels, 1886); de Vlaminck, Les Origines de la ville de Gand duties and rights were strictly defined and the liberties of the Brussels, 1891); Annales Gondenses, ed. G. Funck-Brentano citizens safe-guarded; the city, moreover, received the right to

(Paris, 1895). Vuylsteke, Oorkondenboek der stad Gen! (Gheat, This charter was confirmed and extended by Count Baldwin VIII. Bibliography, including monographs and published documents, see fortify itself and even individuals within it to fortify their houses. 1900, &c.; Karl Hegel, Städte und Gilden (Leipzig, 1891), vol. i. when he took over the city from Mathilda, an important new Ulysse Chevalier, Répertoire des sources. hist. Topo-bibliogr., sv. provision being that general rules for the government of the city

Cand." were only to be made by arrangement between the count or his GHETTO, formerly the street or quarter of a city in which Jews officials and the common council of the citizens. The burghers were compelled to live, enclosed by walls and gates which were thus attained to a very considerable measure of self-government. locked each night. The term is now used loosely of any locality A charter of 1212 of Count Ferdinand (of Portugal) and his wife in a city or country where Jews congregate. The derivation of Johanna introduced a modified system of election for the scabini; the word is doubtful. In documents of the 17th century the Jer. a further charter (1228) fixed the executive at 39 members, quarters in Venice and Salerno are styled “Judaca" or " Judaincluding scabini and members of the commune, and ordained caria.” At Capua in 1375 there was a place called San Nicolo that the bailli of the count and his scrvientes, like the podcsids ad Judaicam, and later elsewhere a quarter San Martino ad of Italian cities, were not to be natives of Ghent.

Judaicam. Hence it has been suggested Judaicam became Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristo- Italian Giudeica and thence became corrupted into ghetto. cratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been Another theory traces it to "gietto," the common foundry at united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the Venice near which was the first Jews' quarters of that city. magistrates were chosen. By the 14th century, however, the More probably the word is an abbreviation of Italian borghetto democratic craft gilds, notably that of the weavers, had asserted diminutive of borgo a “borough." themselves; the citizens were divided for civic and military The earliest regular ghettos were established in Italy in the purposes into three classes; the rich (i.e. those living on capital), 11th century, though Prague is said to have had one in the the weavers and the members of the 52 other gilds. In the previous century. The ghetto at Rome was instituted by Paul civic executive, as it existed to the time of Charles V., the deans IV. in 1556. It lay between the Via del Pianto and Ponte dd of the two lower classes sat with the scabini and councillors. Quattro Capi, and comprised a few narrow and filthy streets.

The constitution and liberties of the city, which survived its It lay so low that it was yearly flooded by the Tiber. The Jens incorporation in Burgundy, were lost for a time as a result of the had to sue annually for permission to live there, and paid a yearly unsuccessful rising against Duke Philip the Good (1450). The tax for the privilege. This formality and tax survived till 1850. citizens, however, retained their turbulent spirit. After the During three centuries there were constant changes in the opdeath of Mary of Burgundy, who had resided in the city, they pressive regulations imposed upon the Jews by the popes. In forced her husband, the archduke Maximilian, to conclude the 1814 Pius VII. allowed a few Jews to live outside the ghetto, and treaty of Arras (1482). They were less fortunate in their opposi- in 1847 Pius IX. decided to destroy the gates and walls, but tion to Maximilian's son, the emperor Charles V. In 1539 they public opinion hindered him from carrying out his plans. In refused, on the plea of their privileges, to contribute to a general 1870 the Jews petitioned Pius IX. to abolish the ghetto; but it taxlaid on Flanders, and when Charles's sister Mary, the governess was to Victor Emmanuel that this reform was finally due. The of the Netherlands, seized some merchants as bail for the pay- walls remained until 1885. ment, they retaliated by driving out the nobles and the adherents During the middle ages the Jews were forbidden to leave the of Charles's government. The appearance of Charles himself, ghetto after sunset when the gates were locked, and they were however, with an overwhelming force quelled the disturbance; also imprisoned on Sundays and all Christian holy days. Where the ringleaders were executed. and all the property and privileges the ghetto was too small for the carrying on of their trades, a site of the city were confiscated. In addition, a fine of 150,000 golden beyond its wall was granted them as a market, e.g. the Jewish gulden was levied on the city, and used to build the “ Spanish Tandelmarkt at Prague. Within their ghettos the Jews were Citadel " on the site of what is now the public park.

left much to their own devices, and the more important ghettos, In the long struggle of the Netherlands against Spain, Ghent such as that at Prague, formed cities within cities, having their took a conspicuous part, and it was here that, on the 8th of own town halls and civic officials, hospitals, schools and rabbinical November 1576, was signed the instrument, known as the courts. Fires were common in ghettos and, owing to the Pacification of Ghent, which established the league against narrowness of the streets, generally very destructive, especially Spanish tyranny. In 1584, however, the city had to surrender as from fear of plunder the Jews themselves closed their gates on onerous terms to the prince of Parma.

on such occasions and refused assistance. On the 14th of June The horrors of war and of religious persecution, and the conse- 1711 a fire, the largest ever known in Germany, destroyed quent emigration or expulsion of its inhabitants, had wrecked the within twenty-four hours the ghetto at Frankfort-on-Main. prosperity of Ghent, the recovery of which was made impossible Other notable ghetto fires are that of Bari in 1030 and Nikolsby the closing of the Scheldt. The city was captured by the burg in 1719. The Jews were frequently expelled from their French in 1698, 1708 and 1745. After 1714 it formed part of ghettos, the most notable expulsions being those of Vienna the Austrian Netherlands, and in 1794 became the capital of the (1670) and Prague (1744-1745). This latter exile was during French department of the Scheldt. In 1814 it was incorporated the war of the Austrian Succession, when Maria Theresa, on the in the kingdom of the United Netherlands, and it was here that ground that “they were fallen into disgrace," ordered Jews to Louis XVIII. of France took refuge during the Hundred Days. leave Bohemia. The empress was, however, induced by the Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace protests of the powers, especially of England and Holland, to between Great Britain and the United States of America. After revoke the decree. Meantime the Jews, ignorant of the revoca1815 Ghent was for a time the centre of Catholic opposition to tion, petitioned to be allowed to return in payment of a yearly Dutch rule, as it is now that of the Flemish movement in Belgium. tax. This tax the Bohemian Jews paid until 1846. The most During the 19th century its prosperity rapidly increased. In 1866- important ghettos were those at Venice, Frankfort, Prague and 1867, however, a serious outbreak of cholera again threatened | Trieste. By the middle of the 19th century the ghetto system

for money.

was moribund, and with the disappearance of the ghetto at Rome human nature. He appears to have cared as little as Donatello in 1870 it became obsolete. See D. Philipson, Old European Jeuries (Philadelphia, 1894);

Benvenuto Cellini's criticism on Ghiberti that in his creations Israel Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (1896); S. Kahn, of plastic art he was more successful in small than in large figures, article “Ghetto" in Jewish Encyclopedia, v. 652.

and that he always exhibited in his works the peculiar excellences GHIBERTI, LORENZO (1378-1455), Italian sculptor, was born of the goldsmith's quite as much as those of the sculptor's art, at Florence in 1378. He learned the trade of a goldsmith under is after all no valid censure, for it merely affirms thai Ghiberti his father Ugoccione, commonly called Cione, and his stepfather faithfully complied with the peculiar conditions of the task imBartoluccio; but the goldsmith's art at that time included all posed upon him. More frequent have been the discussions as varieties of plastic arts, and required from those who devoted to the part played by perspective in his representations of themselves to its higher branches a general and profound know- natural scenery. These acquired a fresh importance since the ledge of design and colouring. In the early stage of his artistic discovery of the data, from which it appeared that Paolo Uccello, career Ghiberti was best known as a painter in fresco, and when who had commonly been regarded as the first great master of Florence was visited by the plague he repaired to Rimini, where perspective, worked for several years in the studio or workshop he executed a highly prized fresco in the palace of the sovereign of Ghiberti, so that it became difficult to determine to what Pandolfo Malatesta. He was recalled from Rimini to his native extent Uccello's successful innovations in perspective were due to city by the urgent entreaties of his stepfather Bartoluccio, who Ghiberti's teaching. informed him that a competition was to be opened for designs Cicognara's criticism on Ghiberti, in his History of Sculplure, has of a second bronze gate in the baptistery, and that he would do supplied the chief materials for the illustrative text of Lasinio's wisely to return to Florence and take part in this great artistic They consist of 42 plates in folio, and were published at Florence by contest. The subject for the artists was the sacrifice of Isaac; Bardi in 1821. Still more vivid representations are the reproand the competitors were required to observe in their work a ductions on a very large scale by the photographic establishment of certain conformity to the first bronze gate of the baptistery; (1864), and A. F. Rio, in his Art chrétien (1861-1867), have treated

Alinari. Both C. C. Perkins, in his History of Tuscan Sculplure executed by Andrea Pisano about 100 years previously. Of Ghiberti's works with much fulness, and in a spirit of sound appreciathe six designs presented by different Italian artists, those of tion. See also the chapter expressly devoted to the history of the Donatello, Brunelleschi and Ghiberti were pronounced the best, competition for the baptistery gates in Hans Semper, Donatello (1887); and of the three Brunelleschi's and Ghiberti's superior to the

the articles by Adoll Rosemberg in Dohme's Kunst und Künstler

des Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1877): Leader Scott, Ghiberli and Donatello third, and of such equal merit that the thirty-four judges with (1882). In the Sammlung ausgewählter Biographien Vasari, ed. whom the decision was left entrusted the execution of the work Carl Frey, vol. iji. (1886), is given Ghiberti's commentary on art. to the joint labour of the two friends. Brunelleschi, however, GHICA, GHIKA or GHYKA, a family which played a great withdrew from the contest. The first of his two bronze gates for part in the modern development of Rumania, many of its the baptistery occupied Ghiberti twenty years.

members being princes of Moldavia and Walachia. According Ghiberti brought to his task a deep religious feeling and the to Rumanian historians the Ghicas were of very humble origin, striving after a high poetical ideal which are not to be found in and came from Kiupru in Albania. the works of Donatello, though in power of characterization the 1. George or Gheorghe (c. 1600–1664), the founder of the second sculptor often stands above the first. Like Donatello, family, is said to have been a playmate of another Albanian he seized every opportunity of studying the remains of ancient known in history as Kúpruli Aga, the famous vizier, who reart; but he sought and found purer models for imitation cognized George while he was selling melons in the streets of than Donatello, through his excavations and studies in Constantinople, and helped him on to high positions. George Rome, had been able to secure. The council of Florence, became prince of Moldavia in 1658 and prince of Walachia in which met during the most active period of Ghiberti's artistic 1659-1660. He moved the capital from Tirgovishtea to career, not only secured him the patronage of the pontiff, who Bucharest. From him are derived the numerous branches of took part in the council, but enabled him, through the important the family which became so conspicuous in the history of connexions which he then formed with the Greek prelates and Moldavia and Walachia. magnates assembled in Florence, to obtain from many quarters 2. The Walachian branch starts afresh from the great ban of the Byzantine empire the precious memorials of old Greek art, Demetrius or Dumitru Ghica (1718-1803), who was twice which he studied with untiring zeal. The unbounded admira- married and had fourteen children (see RUMANIA: History). tion called forth by Ghiberti's first bronze gate led to his receiv- One of these, Gregory (Grigorie), prince of Walachia 1822–1828, ing from the chiefs of the Florentine gilds the order for the starts a new era of civilization, by breaking with the traditions second, of which the subjects were likewise taken from the Old of the Phanariot (Greek) period and assisting in the development Testament. The Florentines gazed with especial pride on these of a truly national Rumanian literature. His brother, Prince magnificent creations, which must still have shone with all the Alexander Ghica, appointed jointly by Turkey and Russia brightness of their original gilding when, a century later, Michel-|(1834-1842) as hospodar of Walachia, dicd in 1862. Under him angelo pronounced them worthy to be the gates of paradise. the so-called règlement organique had been promulgated; an Next to the gates of the baptistery Ghiberti's chief works still in attempt was made to codify the laws in conformity with the existence are his three statues of St John the Baptist, St Matthew institutions of the country and to secure better administration and St Stephen, executed for the church of Or San Michele. of justice. Prince Demetrius Ghica, who died as president of In the bas-relief of the coffin of St Zenobius, in the Florence the Rumanian senate in 1897, was the son of the Walachian cathedral, Ghiberti put forth much of his peculiar talent, and prince Gregory. though he did not, as is commonly stated, execute entirely 3. Another Gregory Ghica, prince of Moldavia from 1775 to 1777, the painted glass windows in that edifice, he furnished several paid with his life for the opposition he offered when the Turks of the designs, and did the same service for a painted glass ceded the province of Bukovina to Austria. window in the church of Or San Michele. He died at the age 4. Michael (Michail) (1794-1850) was the father of Elena

(1827–1888), a well-known novelist, who wrote under the name We are better acquainted with Ghiberti's theories of art than of Dora d'Istria. Brought up, as was customary at the time, with those of most of his contemporaries, for he left behind him under Greek influences, she showed premature intelligence and a commentary, in which, besides his notices of art, he gives much literary power. She continued her education in Germany and insight into his own personal character and views. Every page married a Russian prince, Koltsov Mazalskiy, in 1849, but the attests the religious spirit in which he lived and worked. Not marriage was an unhappy one, and in 1855 she left St Petersburg only does he aim at faithfully reflecting Christian truths in his for Florence, where she died in 1888. In that city she developed creations, he regards the old Greek statues with a kindred feeling, her literary talent and published a number of works characterized as setting forth the highest intellectual and moral attributes of | by lightness of touch and brilliance of description, such as

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