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on the 30th of June 1861. After a short time spent on the GIBBS, JOSIAH WILLARD (1839-1903), American mathemissions of Baltimore, he was called to be secretary to Arch- matical physicist, the fourth child and only son of Josiah Willard bishop Martin J. Spalding and assistant at the cathedral. When Gibbs (1790–1861), who was professor of sacred literature in in 1866 the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore considered the Yale Divinity School from 1824 till his death, was born at New matter of new diocesan developments, he was selected to organize Haven on the uth of February 1839. Entering Yale College the new Vicariate Apostolic of North Carolina; and was con- in 1854 he graduated in 1858, and continuing his studies there secrated bishop in August 1868. During the four successful years was appointed tutor in 1863. He taught Latin in the first two spent in North Carolina he wrote, for the benefit of his mission years, and natural philosophy in the third. He then went 10 work, The Faith of our fathers, a brief presentation of the Europe, studying in Paris in 1866–1867, in Berlin in 1867 and doctrincs of the Roman Catholic Church, especially intended to in Heidelberg in 1868. Returning to New Haven in 1869, he reach Protestants; thc books passed through more than forty was appointed professor of mathematical physics in Yale College editions in America and about scventy in England, and an in 1871, and held that position till his death, which occurred at answer was made to it in Faith of our Forefathers (1879), by New Haven on the 28th of April 1903. His first contributions Edward J. Stearns. Gibbons was transferred to the sec of to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in Richmond, Virginia, in 1872, and in 1877 was made coadjutor, the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on “Graphical with the right of succession, to the Archbishop (James R. Bayley) Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids,” and “Method of of Baltimore. In October of the same year he succeeded to the Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties archbishopric. Pope Lco XIII. in 1883 sclected him to preside of Substances by mcans of Surfaces." His next and most imover the Third Plenary Council in Baltimore (1884), and on the portant publication was his famous paper “On the Equilibrium 30th of June 1886 crcated him a cardinal priest, with the title of Heterogeneous Substances” (in two parts, 1876 and 1878), of Santa Maria Trastevere. His simplicity of life, soresight which, it has been said, founded a new department of chemical and prudence made him a power in the church. Thoroughly science that is becoming comparable in importance to that created American, and a lover of the people, hc grcatly altered the atti. by Lavoisier. This work was translated into German by W. tude of the Roman Catholic Church toward the Knights of Labor Ostwald (who styled its author the “ founder of chemical and other labour organizations, and his public utterances dis- cnergetics ") in 1891 and into French by H. le Chatelier in played the true instincts of a popular leader. He contributed | 1899. In 1881 and 1884 he printed some notes on thc clements frequently to periodicals, but as an author is known principally of vector analysis for the use of his students; these were never by his works on religious subjects, including Our Christian formally published, but they formed the basis of a text-book on Herilage (1889) and The Ambassador of Christ (1896). For Veclor Analysis which was published by his pupil, E. B. Wilson, many years an ardent advocaic of the establishment of a in 1901. Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain Catholic university, at the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to (1884) he saw thc rcalization of his desires in the establish the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American ment of the Catholic University of America at Washington, of Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in which he becamc first chancellor and president of the board Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902. The name of Willard of trustees.

Gibbs, who was the most distinguished American mathematical GIBBONS, ORLANDO (1583–1625), English musical composer, physicist of his day, is cspecially associated with the “ Phase was the most illustrious of a family of musicians all more or Rule," of which some account will be found in the article less able. We know of at least three generations, for Orlando's ENERGETICS. In 1901 the Copley medal of the Royal Society father, William Gibbons, having been one of the waits of Cam- of London was awarded him as being “the first to apply the bridge, may be assumed to have acquired some proficiency in second law of thermodynamics to the exhaustive discussion theart. His three sons and at lcast one of his grandsons inherited of the relation between chemical, electrical and thermal energy and further developed his talent. The eldest, Edward, was made and capacity for external work.” bachelor of music at Cambridge, and successively held important A biographical sketch will be found in his collected Scientific musical appointments at the cathedrals of Bristol and Exeler; Papers (2 vols., 1906). Ellis, the second son, was organist of Salisbury cathedral, and GIBBS, OLIVER WOLCOTT (1822-1908), American chemist, is the composer of two madrigals in the collection known as the was born at New York on the 21st of February 1822. His The Triumphs of Oriana. Orlando Gibbons, the youngest and father, Colonel George Gibbs, was an ardent mineralogist; the by far the most celebrated of the brothers, was born at Cambridge mineral gibbsite was named after him, and his collection was in 1583. Where and under whom he studied is not known, but finally bought by Yale College. Entering Columbia College in his twenty-first year he was sufficiently advanced and cele in 1837, Wolcott (the Oliver he dropped at an carly date) brated to receive the important post of organist of the Chapel graduated in 1841, and, having assisted Robert Hare at PennRoyal. His first published composition Fantasies in three sylvania University for several months, he next entered the parts, composed for viols," appeared in 1610. It seems to have College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, qualifying as been the first piece of music printed in England from engraved a doctor of medicine in 1845. Leaving America he studied in plates, or “cut in copper, the like not heretofore extant." In Germany with K. F. Rammelsberg, H. Rose and J. von Liebig, 1622 he was created doctor of music by the university of Oxford. and in Paris with A. Laurent, J.B. Dumas, and H. V. Regnault, For this occasion he composed an anthem for eight parts, O clap returning in 1848. In that year he became professor of chemistry your Hands, still extant. In the following year he became at the Free Academy, now the College of the City of New York, organist of Westminster Abbey. Orlando Gibbons died before and in 1863 he obtained the Rumford professorship in Harvard the beginning of the civil war, or it may be supposed that, like University, a post retained until his retirement in 1887 as prohis eldest brother, he would have been a staunch royalist. In fessor emeritus. He died on the 9th of December 1908. Gibbs' a different sense, however, he died in the cause of his master; researches were mainly in analytical and inorganic chemistry, for having been summoned to Canterbury to produce a com- the cobaltammines, platinum mctals and complex acids being position written in celebration of Charles's marriage, he there especially investigated. He was an excellent teacher, and fell a victim to smallpox on the 5th of June 1625.

contributed many articles to scientific journals. For a full list of his compositions, see Grove's Dictionary of Music.

See the Memorial Lecture by F. W. Clarke in the J.C.S. (1909).

p. 1299. His portrait may be found in Hawkins's well-known History. His vocal picces, madrigals, motets, canons, &c., are admirable, and GIBEON, a town in Palestine whose inhabitants wrested a prove him to have been a great master of pure polyphony. We truce from Joshua by a trick (Josh. ix., x.); where the champions have also some specimens of his instrumental music, such as the six

of David fought those of Ish-bosheth (2 Sam. ii. 12-32); where pieces for the virginals published in Parthenia, a collection of instrumental music produced by Gibbons in conjunction with Dr Bull Joab murdered Amasa (ib. xx. 8-10); and where Johanan went and Byrd.

against Ishmael to avenge the murder of Gedaliah (Jer. xli. 12).

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Here was an important high place (1 Kings iii. 4) where for a | by land from the north or by a tunnel through the Rock from the time the tabernacle was deposited (2 Chron. i. 3). The present dockyard; from Catalan Bay to Europa Point the way is barred name is El-Jib; this is a small village about 5 m. N.W. of by impassable cliffs. On the west side of the Rock the slopes are less Jerusalem, standing on an isolated hill above a flat corn valley. steep, especially as they near the sea, and on this side lie thetowa, The village is famous for its springs, and the reputation seems the Alameda or public gardens, the barracks and the dockyard ancient (cf. 2 Sam. ii. 13; Jer. xli. 12). The principal spring Geology.-The rock of Gibraltar consists, for the most part, of issues from under a cliff on the south-east side of the hill, and pale grey limestone of compact and sometimes crystalline structure, the water runs to a reservoir lower down. The sides of the generally stratified but in places apparently amorphous. Above the hill are rocky, and remarkable for the regular stratification beds of grit, mudstone and limestone. Both limestone and shales

limestone are found layers of dark grey-blue shales with intercalated of the limestone, which gives the bill at a distance the appear-are of the Lower Jurassic age. Professors A. C. Ramsay and James ance of being terraced. Scattered olive groves surround the

ISTES place.

(R. A. S. M.) GIBEONITES, the inhabitants of Gibeon, an Amorite or Hivite stronghold, the modern El-Jib, 5 m. N.W. from Jerusalem. According to Joshua xviii. 25 it was one of the cities of Benjamin. When the Israelites, under Joshua, invaded Canaan, the Gibeonites by a crafty ruse escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai and secured protection from the invaders (Joshua ix.). Cheyne * Commercial Hole thinks this story the attempt of a later age to explain the long independence of Gibeon and the use of the Gibeonites as slaves in Solomon's temple. An attempt on the part of Saul to exterminate the clan is mentioned in 2 Sam. xxi., and this slaughter may possibly be identified with the massacre at Nob recorded in i Sam. xxii. 17-19 (see Ency. Bib. col. 1717). The place is also associated with the murders of Asahel (2 Sam. ii. 12), Amasa (2 Sam. xx. 8) and Gedaliah (Jer. xli. 12), and with the wrathful intervention of Yahweh referred to by Isaiah (xxviii. 21), which we may identify with the memorable victory of David over the Philistines recorded in 2 Sam. v. 25 (reading Gibeon for Geba). Gibeon was the seat of an old Canaanitish sanctuary afterwards used by the Israelites; it was here that Solomon, immediately after his coronation, went to consult the oracles and had the dream in which he chose the gift of wisdom (1 Kings üi.).

GIBRALTAR, a British fortress and crown colony at the western entrance to the Meditersanean. The whole territory is rather less than 3 m. in length from north to south and varies in width from 4 tom. Gibraltar is called after Tariq (or Tarik) ben Zaid, its name being a corruption of Jebel Tariq (Mount Tariq). Tariq invaded Andalusia in A.D. 711 with an army of 12,000 Arabs and Berbers, and in the last days of July of that year destroyed the Gothic power in a three days' fight on the banks of the river Guadalete near where Jerez de la Frontera now stands. In order to secure his communications with Africa he ordered the building of a strong castle upon the Rock, known to the Romans as Mons Calpe. This work, begun in the year of the great battle, was completed in 742. It covered a wide area, reaching from the shores of the bay to a point half-way up the northwestern slope of the rock; here the keep, a massive square

GIBRALTAR tower, still stands and is known as the Moorish castle. The Rock itself is about 2 m. in length, and at its northern end

Bay, rises almost perpendicularly from the strip of flat sandy ground which connects it with the Spanish mainland. At the north end, on the crest of the Rock 1200 ft. above sea-level, is the Rock gun, famous in the great siege. Some six furlongs to the south is the signal station (1255 st.), through which the names and

6. Exchange

Europa Point messages of passing ships are cabled to all parts of the world. Rather less than m. south of the signal station is O'Hara's Tower (1408 st.), the highest point of the Rock. South of O'Hara's Geikie (Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, August Tower the ground falls steeply to Windmill Hill, a fairly even 1878) found also in the superficial formations of the Rock various surface about } of a sq. m. in area, and sloping from

400 to 300 ft. features of interest to the

students of Pleistocene geology, including above the sea-level. South of Windmill Hill are Europa Flats, massive accumulations of limestone breccia or agglomerate, bone a wall-like cliff 200 ft. or more in height dividing them. Europa breccias, deposits of calcareous sandstone, raised beaches and loose Flats, sloping south, end in cliffs 50 ft. high, which at and around breccia of Buena Vista, devoid of fossils and apparently formed Europa Point plunge straight down into deep water. Europa under the stress of hard frosts, indicating conditions of climate of Point is the most southern point of the Rock, and is distant great severity. To account for frosts like these, it is suggested that u nautical miles from the opposite African coast. On Europa the surface of the Rock must have been raised to an elevation much Point is the lighthouse in 5° 21' W. and 36° 6' 30" N. On the would probably have been connected by an isthmus across some part Mediterranean side the Rock is almost as steep and inaccessible of the present site of the Straits, and there would have been a wider as it is from the north. Below the signal station, at the edge of area of low ground round the base of the Rock. The low ground at the Mediterranean, lies Catalan Bay, where there is a little village this, and probably at a later period, must have been clothed with a chiefly inhabited by fishermen and others who make their fauna, whose remains have been found in the Genista caves. After living upon the waters; but Catalan Bay can only be approached this there would seem to have been a subsidence to a depth of some

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700 ft. below the existing level. This would account for the ledges wells. Many of the better class of houses have their own rainand platforms which have been formed by erosion of the sea high above the present sea-level, and for the deposits of calcareous sand

water tanks, and there are large tanks belonging to the naval stone containing sea shells of existing Mediterranean species. and military authorities. Large storage tanks have been conThe extent of some of these eroded ledges shows that pauses of long structed by the sanitary commissioners with specially prepared duration intervened between the periods of depression. The Rock collecting areas high up the Rock. The collecting areas cover 16 that at which it now stands: Europe and Africa would then again acres, and

the storage tanks have a capacity of over six million have been united. At a later date still the Rock sank once more to gallons. The tanks are excavated in the solid rock, whereby its present level.

the water is kept in the dark and cool. A large quantity of Many caves, some of them of great extent, penetrate the interior brackish water for flushing purposes and baths is pumped from of the rock; the best known of these are the Genista and St Michael's the sandy flats of the north froni on the Spanish side of the Rock. caves. St Michael's cave, about 1100 ft. above sea-level at its mouth, slopes rapidly down and extends over 400 st. into the Rock; its

The Town.—The modern town of Gibraltar is of comparatively extreme limits have not, however, been fully explored. It consists recent date, nearly all the older buildings having been destroyed of a series of five or more chambers of considerable extent, connected during the great siege (1779-1783). The town lies, with most of by narrow and crooked passages. height and 200 in length, with massive pillars of stalactite reaching the Rock, and covers only about one-ninth part of the whole

The outermost cave is 70 ft: in its buildings crowded together, at the north-western corner of from roof to floor. The second cave was named the Victoria cave by its discoverer Captain Brome; beyond these are three caves area; only a small part of it is on level ground, and those of its known as the Leonora caves." Nothing," writes Captain Brome, narrow streets and lanes which are at right angles to the line wall, can exceed the beauty of the stalactites; they form clusters of

or sea front, are for the most part, except at their western ends, every imaginable shape-statuettes, pillars, foliages, figures," and he adds that American visitors have admitted that even the Mammoth little more than ramps or rough stairs formed of rubble stones, cave itself could not rival these giant stalactites

in picturesque beauty, contracting in places into stone steps. The mammalian remains of the Genista cave have been described by G. Busk (“ Quaternary Fauna of Gibraltar " in Trans. of Zool. interest. The “ Convent” rebuilt upon the remains of an old

The public buildings present few, if any, features of general Soc. vol. X. p. 2, 1877). They were found to contain remains of a bear, probably Ursus fossilis of Goldfuss; of a hyena, H. crocula or

Franciscan monastery is the official residence of the governor. spelaea; of cats varying from a leopard to a wild cat in size; of a The Anglican cathedral is a poor imitation of Moorish archirhinoceros, resembling in species remains found in the Thames tecture. The garrison library has excellent reading rooms and valley; two forms of ibex; the hare and rabbit. No trace has

a large number of volumes of miscellaneous interest. The civil been

found as yet of Rhinoceros tichorinus, of Ursus spelacus or of the reindeer; and of the elephant only a molar tooth of Elephas antiquus. hospital is a well-planned and roomy modern building. The court

Further details may be found in the Quarterly Journ. of Geol. Soc. house and exchange buildings are suited to the needs of the town. (James Smith of Jordanhill), vol. ii. and in vol. xxi. (Fossil Contents The antiquary may here and there find the remains of a Moorish of the Genista Cave, G. Busk and Hugh Falconer; reprinted in bath forming part of a stable, or fragments of a sculptured stone

Flora.-The upper part of the Rock is in summerburnt up and gateway bearing the arms of Castile or of Aragon built into the brown, but after the first autumn rains and during the winter, wall of a modern barrack. In a small disused graveyard, near spring and early summer, it abounds in wild flowers and shrubs. Southport gate, lie buried a number of those who fell at Trafalgar. In the public and other gardens on the lower ground, where there

To the south of the town are the Alameda parade and gardens, is a greater depth of soil, the vegetation is luxuriant and is only limited by the supply of water available for summer irrigation. a lunatic asylum, the dockyard, graving docks and the naval Dr E. F. Kelaart (Flora Calpensis, London, 1846) enumerates more and military hospitals. than four hundred varieties of plants and ferns indigenous to Population.—The inhabitants of Gibraltar are of mixed race; Gibraltar, and about fifty, more which have been introduced from after the capture of the town by the British nearly the whole of Rock. The stone-pine and wild-olive are perhaps the only trees the former Spanish population emigrated in a body and founded, found growing in a natural state. In the public and private gardens 6 m. away, the little town of San Roque. Most of the native and by the roadside may be seen the pepper tree, the plane, the white inhabitants are of Italian or Genoese descent; there are also a poplar, the acacia, the bella-sombra (Phylolacca dioica), the eucalyptus number of Maltese, and between two and three thousand Jews. or blue gum tree, and palms of different species; and, of fruit trees. The Jews never intermarry with other races and form a distinct flowering aloe and prickly pear are common, and on the eastern side of society of their own. The language of the people is Spanish, not the Rock the palmitoor dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis) is abundant. very correctly spoken. English is learnt as a foreign language

Fauna. -The fauna of Gibraltar, from want of space, is necessarily and is rarely, if ever, spoken by the people in their own homes. scanty. Europe, are still to be found on the upper part of the Rock, but in Gibraltar being primarily a fortress and naval base, every very reduced numbers; about the beginning of the 20th century effort, in view of war contingencies, is made by the authorities four or five only remained, which were said to be all females; a to prevent the natural increase of the population. Sanitary and young male, however, was brought from Africa. The last male of building regulations, modelled upon English statutes designed the original stock, an old patriarch, who had died shortly before this with quite different objects, are administered with some ingenuity A small variety of pigeon breeds in the steep cliffs at the north end and not a little severity. In this way the house room available of the Rock. A few red-legged partridges, some rabbits, two or three for the poorer classes is steadily reduced. The poor are thus foxes and a badger or two will complete the list.

being gradually pushed across the frontier into the neighbouring Climale.—The climate of Gibraltar is pleasant and healthy, Spanish town of La Linea de la Concepcion, itself a mere suburb mild in winter, and only moderately hot in summer; but the of Gibraltar, whose population, however, is nearly double that heat, though not excessive, is lasting. The three months of June, of the parent city. A large army of workers come daily from July and August are almost always without rain, and it is not the Lines "into Gibraltar, returning at“ first evening gunfire" often that rain falls in the months of May and September. The shortly after sunset, at which time the gates are closed and first autumn rains, however, which sometimes begin in September, locked for the night. Aliens are not allowed to reside in Gibraltar are usually heavy. From October to May the climate is for the without a special permit, which must be renewed at short inmost part delightful, warm sunshine prevailing, tempered by tervals. By an order in council, taking effect from November cool breezes; the spells of bad weather, although blustering 1900, the like disabilities were extended to British subjects not enough at times, are seldom of more than a few days' duration. previously resident. The thermometer in summer does not often reach 90° F, in the The recorded births, marriages and deaths over a period of 23 shade; from 83° to 85° may be taken to be the average maximum years are as follows:for July and August, and these are the hottest months of the

Yearly Average.

Marriages. Deaths. year. The average yearly rainfall is 34.4 in., and in fifty years

1883-1885 from 1857 to 1906 the greatest recorded rainfall was 59.35 in.,



167 and the smallest 16.75 in. The water supply for drinking and 1891-1895 cooking purposes is almost wholly derived from rain-water



629 stored chiefly in underground tanks; there are very few good




513 514 460


186 201 201




total 3237

The numbers of the population from causes which have been referred The money, weights and mcasures in legal use are British. Before to are almost stationary, showing a slight tendency to decrease. 1898 Spanish money only was in use. The great depreciation of the There are no available statistics later than those of a census taken Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1646 in 1901, from which it appeared that the population then numbered to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money 27.460, of whom the garrison and its families amounted to 6595, of Gibraltar. Notwithstanding this change the Spanish dollar stí the civil population, being British subjects, to 17,818, and aliens remains in current use; much of the retail business of the town resident under permits to 3047. The latter are chiefly working men being done with persons resident in Spain, the dollar fully holds and domestic servants.

its own. Constitution.-Gibraltar is a crown colony. Of local govern- Harbour and Fortifications.-Great changes were made in the ment properly so called there is none. There is a sanitary defences of Gibraltar carly in the 20th century. Guns of the commission which is vested with large powers of spending and newest types replaced those of older patterns. The heavier with the control of buildings and streets and other matters pieces instead of being at or near the sea-level, are not managed by local authorities in England. Its members are high up, many of them on the crest line of the Rock; their appointed by the governor. An appeal from their decisions, so lateral range and fire area has thereby been greatly increased far as they affect individuals, lies to the supreme court. Apart and their efficiency improved in combination with an elaborate from the garrison and civil officials there are comparatively system of range finding. few members of the Anglican Church. The great majority of With the completion of the new dockyard works the value the people belong to the Church of Rome. The Jews have i of Gibraltar as a naval base has greatly increased. It can not four synagogues. The Protestant dissenters have two places undertake all the ordinary repairs and coaling of a large fleet. of worship, Presbyterian and Wesleyan. Education is not There is an enclosed harbour in which a fleet can safely anchor compulsory for the civil population, but most of the children, if secure from the attacks of torpedo boats. A mole, at first not all, receive a fair education in private or private aided intended for commercial purposes, closes the north end of the schools. The number of the children on the rolls of the private new harbour. The Admiralty, however, soon found that their and private aided schools was in 1905: boys, 1504; girls, 1733; } needs had outgrown the first design and the so-called Commercial

Mole has been taken over for naval purposes, plans for a new Commerce.-Except in respect of alcoholic liquors and tobacco commercial mole being prepared. The funds for these extensive Gibraltar has been a free port since the year 1705-a distinction works were provided by the Naval Works Loan Acts of 1895 due, it is said, to the refusal of a sultan of Morocco to allow of much- and subsequent years. needed exports from Morocco to Gibraltar is full liberty of trade

The land space available for the purposes of dockyard extenwere not granted to his subjects. During the great wars of the beginning of the 19th century trade was most active in Gibraltar, sion being very limited, a space of about 64 acres was reclaimed and some large fortunes were made; but trade on a large scale has from the sea in front of the Alameda and the road to Rosia; almost disappeared. At the point of contact of two continents, some of the land reclaimed was as much as 40 st. under water. on the direct line of ocean trade with the far East, in regular steam

The large quantity of material required for this purpose was communication with all the great ports of Europe and with North and South America, Gibraltar. by its position, is fitted to be a trade obtained by runnelling the Rock from W. to E. and from quarries centre of the world, but the unrest and suspicion engendered in

above Catalan Bay village, to which access was gained through Morocco by the intrigues and designs of the European powers, and the tunnel. The graving docks occupy the dug-out site of the excessive protective duties and maladministration in Spain, have former New Molc Parade. There are three of these docks, done much to extinguish the trade of Gibraltar. There are, however; 850,550 and 450 st. in length respectively. The largest dock no trustworthy statistics of imports and exports. Before the 1898 wine, becr and spirits were the only goods which paid duty. In is divisible by a central caisson so that four ships can be docked that year a duty of id. per Ib was for the first time put upon at one time. The docks are all 95 st. wide at the entrance with tobacco and produced £1444; the duty was, however, in force only 351 ft. of water over the sills at low-water spring tides. The £7703. In 1902 the duty on tobacco was raised to 2d. perib pumping machinery can empty the largest dock, 105,000 tons and produced £29,311. In 1905 this duty produced £24.575. The of water, in five hours. There are two workshops for the chic chicf business of Gibraltar is the coaling of passing steamers; this constructor's and chief engineer's departments, each 407 st. long gives work to several thousand men. Goods are also landed for reexport to Morocco, but the bulk of the Morocco trade, much of there are buildings with 250,000 ft. of floor space. At the north

and 322 broad. For the staff captain's department and stores which formerly came to Gibraltar, is now done by lines of steamers trading to and from Morocco direct to British, German or French end of the yard are the administrative offices, slipways for ports. Nearly all the fresh meat consumed in Gibraltar comes from destroyers, a slip for small craft, an ordnance wharf and a boat Morocco, also large quantities of poultry and eggs. A fair amount of camber. The reclaimed area is faced with a wharf wall of conretail business is done with the passengers of ocean steamers which call on their way to and from the East and from North and South

crete blocks for an unbroken length of 1600 ft. with 33 ft. America.

water alongside at low tide; on this wharf are powerful shears The steam tonnage cleared annually since 1883 is shown in the and crancs. following table:

The enclosed harbour covers 440 acres, 250 of which have a Yearly Average. British. Foreign. Total.

minimum depth of 30 ft. at low water. It is closed on the S

and S.W. by the New Mole (1400 ft.) and the New Mole extension 1883-1885 3.525,135 817,926 4,343,061

(2700 ft.), together 4100 ft.; on the W. by the Detached Mole 1886-1890 4,507,101 908,419 5,415,520

(2720 ft.) and on the N. by the Commercial Mole. 1891-1895 3,710,856 975,390 4,686,2 46

The New Mole, so called to distinguish it from the Old Mole 1896-1900 3,281,165 1,063,367 4,344.532 1901-1905 2,810,849 | 1,309,649 4.120,498

and its later extension the Devil's Tongue at the north end of

the town, is said to have been begun by the Spaniards in 16:0. The main sources of revenue are (i.) duties upon wine, spirits, malt It was successfully assaulted by landing partics from the British liquors and tobacco; (ii.) port and harbour dues; (ii.) tavern fleet under Sir George Rooke at the capture of Gibraltar by the and other licences; (iv.) post and telegraph: (v.) ground and British in 1704. It was extended at different times, and before other rents; (vi.) stamps and miscellaneous. The returns before 1898 were made in pesetas (5 =$1). In the following table

the beginning of the new works was 1400 ft. in length. The these have been converted into sterling at an average of exchange New Mole, with its latest extension, has a width at top of 102 ft. 30 = £1.

It is formed of rubble stone floated into position in barges. It

has a continuous wharf wall on the harbour side Yearly Average. i. ii.



3500 ft. long, with water alongside 30 to 35 ft. decp. 1886-1890 9,69217,070 5387 6,805

6485 2,873 48,312 On the outer side coal is stacked in sheds extending 1891-1895 9,250 13,157

4275 7.833 6208 10,113 50,836 nearly the whole length of the mole. 1896-1900 14,071 8.435 4136

10,016 5924 14,460 57,042 The Detached Mole is a vertical wall formed of concrete 1901-1905 35,900 6,028 3905 12,091 6945 15,859 80,728

blocks, each block weighing 28 tons. These blocks were Year 1905 36,554 5,872 4050

7489 17,007 87.523

built together on the sloping block system upon a rubble


foundation of stone deposited by barges and levelled by divers | Austria, but Sir George Rooke (9.0.), the British admiral, on his for the reception of the concrete blocks.

own responsibility caused the British flag to be hoisted, and The Commercial Mole is now chiefly used by the navy as a took possession in name of Queen Anne, whose government convenient wharf for destroyers. It encloses the harbour to ratified the occupation. A great number of the inhabitants of the the north and extends westward from the end of the Devil's town of Gibraltar abandoned their homes rather than recognize Tonguc. At the end nearest the town are large stores; there is the authority of the invaders. The Spaniards quickly assembled also a small wharf on its outer side which is used by the tenders an army to recapture the place, and a new siege opened in October of ocean steamers and by the small boats which ply to Algeciras. 1704 by troops of France and Spain under ihc marquess of

This mole is built of rubble, and at its western end it has an Villadarias. The activity of the British admiral, Sir John Lcake, arm about 1600 it. long running S. in the direction of the Detached and of the military governor, Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt Mole. Parallel with and inside the western arm are five jetlics. (who had commanded the land forces in July), rendered the The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are efforts of the besiegers useless. A notable incident of this siege faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft. was the gallant attempt made by 500 chosen volunteers to surprise with 20 to 30 ft. of water alongside. The Devil's Tongue was the garrison (31st of October), an attempt which, at first successan extension of the Old Mole, constructed during the great siege ful, in the end failed disastrously. Finally, in April 1705 the 1779-1783 in order to bring a flanking fire to bear upon part of French marshal de Tessé, who had replaced Villadarias, gave up the Spanish lines. It owes its name to the success with which the siege and retired. During the next twenty years there were it played its destined part.

(H. M.*) endless negotiations for the peaceful surrender of the fortress, History.-Gibraltar was known to the Greek and Roman varied in 1720 by an abortive attempt at a coup de main, which gcographers as Calpe or Alybe, the two names being probably was thwarted by thc resourcefulness of the governor of Minorca corruptions of the same local (perhaps Phoenician) word. The (Colonel Kane), who throw reinforcements and supplies into eminence on the African coast ncar Ceuta which bears the Gibraltar at the critical moment. In 1726 the Spaniards again modern English name of Apes' Hill was then designated Abyla; appealed to arms. But the count of las Torres, who had the and Calpe and Abyla, at least according to an ancient and widely chicf command, succeeded no better than his predecessors. The current interpretation, formed the renowned Pillars of Hercules place had been strengthened since 1705, and the defence of (Herculis columnac, 'Ipardious otņdar), which for centuries the garrison under Brigadier Clayton, the licutenant-governor, were the limits of enterprise to the scafaring peoples of the Brigadier Kane of Minorca, and the governor, the earl of PortMediterrancan world. The military history of thc Rock begins morc, who arrived with reinforcements, was so effective that the with its capture and fortification by Tariq in 711. In 1309 armistice of the 12th of June practically put a close to the siege, it was retaken by Alonzo Perez de Guzman for Ferdinand IV. though two years clapsed before the gencral pacification ensued. of Castile and Lcon, who, in order to attract inhabitants to the Neither in the War of the Austrian Succession nor in that of 1762 spot, offered an asylum to thieves and murderers, and promised did Spain endeavour to besiege the rock, but the War of American to levy no taxes on the import or export of goods. The attack Independence gave her better opportunities, and the

Siege of of Ismail ben Ferez in 1315 (2nd siege) was frustrated; but in great sicge of 1779-1783 is justly regarded as one of 1333 Vasco Perez de Meyra, having allowed the fortifications the most memorable sieges of history. The governor, and garrison to decay, was obliged to capitulate 10 Mahomet IV. General Sir George Augustus Elliot (afterwards Lord (3rd siege) after a defence of five months. Alonzo's attempts IIcathfield), was informed from England on the 6th of July 1779 to recover possession (41h sicge) were sutile, though pertinacious that hostilities had begun. A short naval engagement in the and heroic; but after his successful attack on Algeciras in 1344 straits took place on the rith, and General Elliot made every he was encouraged to try his fortune again at Gibraltar. In preparation for resistance. It was not, however, until the month 1349 he invested the Rock, but the siege (5th siege) was brought of August that the Spaniards becamc threatening. The method to an untimely close by his death in March 1350. The next or of the besiegers appeared to be starvation, but the inicrval 6th siege resulted simply in the transference of the position from between strained relations and war had been well employed by the hands of the king of Morocco to those of Yussef III. of the ships, and supplies were, for the time at any rate, sufficient. Granada (1411), and the 7th, undertaken by the Spanish count of While the Spanish sicge batteries were being constructed the Niebla, Enrique de Guzman, proved fatal to the besieger and his fortress fired, and many useful artillery experiments were carried forces (1435). In 1462, however, success attended the efforts out by the garrison at this time and subsequently throughout the of Alonzo de Arcos (Sih siege), and in August the Rock passed sicge. On the 14th of November there took place a spirited naval once more under Christian sway. The duke of Medina Sidonia, action in which ihc privateer“ Buck," Captain Fagg, forced her a powerful grandce who had assisted in its capture, was anxious way into harbour. This was one of many such incidents, which to get possession of the fortress, and though Henry IV. at first usually arose from the attempts made from time to time by vessels managed to maintain the claims of the crown, the duke ultimately to introduce supplies from Tangier and elsewhere. December made good his ambition by force of arms (oth sicgc), and in 1469 1779, indeed, was a month of privation for the garrison, though the king was constrained to declare his son and his heirs perpetual of little actual fighting. In January 1780, on the rumour of an governors of Gibraltar.

In 1479 Ferdinand and Isabella made approaching convoy, the price of foods “fell more than twothe second duke marquess of Gibraltar, and in 1492 the third thirds," and Admiral Sir George Rodney won a great victory duke, Don Juan, was reluctantly allowed to retain the fortress. over De Langara and entered the harbour. Prince William At length in 1502 it was formally incorporated with the domains Henry (afterwards King William IV.) served on board the British of the crown. Don Juan tricd in 1506 to recover possession, flect as a midshipman during this expedition. Supplies and and added a roth to the list of sieges. In 1540 the garrison had reinforcements were thrown into the fortress by Rodney, and the to defend itself against a much more formidable attack (11th whole affair was managed with the greatest address both by the siege)-the pirates of Algiers having determined to recover the home government and the royal navy. " The garrison, "in spite Rock for Mahomet and themselves. The conflict was scverc, of the scurvy, "might now be considered in a perfect state of but resulted in the repulse of the besiegers. After this the defence,” says Drinkwater. Spaniards made great cfforts to strengthen the place, and they On the 7th of June took place an attack by Spanish fireships, succeeded so well that throughout Europe Gibraltar was regarded which were successfully dealt with by the naval force in the bay as impregnable, the engineer Daniel Speckle (1536-1589) being under Captain Lesley of H.M. frigate “ Enterprise." Up to chiefly responsible for the design of the fortifications.

October the state of things within the fortress was much what it Gibraltar was taken by the allied British and Dutch forces, had been after Rodney's success. " The enemy's operations on after a three days' siege, on the 24th of July 1704 (see SPANISH the land side had been for many months so unimportant as SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE). The capture was made, as the scarcely to mcrit our attention " (Drinkwater). Scurvy was, war was being fought, in the interests of Charles, archduke of | however, prevalent (sce Drinkwater, p. 121), and the supply

Gibraltar (1779. 1783).

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