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idea of a commercial life and resolved to devote himself entirely | and Demosthenes on the affair of Ctesiphon. After this he began to literature. His repudiation of the political poetry of 1841 the study of medicine, and having proved his scientific attainand its revolutionary ideals attracted the attention of the king ments by various treatises was appointed a lecturer on chemistry of Prussia, Frederick William IV., who, in 1842, granted him at Oxford in 1704. In the following year he accompanied the a pension of 300 talers a year. He married, and, to be near bis English army, under the earl of Peterborough, into Spain, and friend Emanuel Geibel, settled at St Goar. Before long, however, on returning home in 1707, wrote an account of the expedition, Freiligrath was himself carried away by the rising tide of liberal- which attained great popularity. Two years later he published ism. In the poem Ein Glaubensbekenninis (1844) he openly his Prelectiones chimicae, which he dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton. avowed his sympathy with the political movement led by his old Shortly after his return in 1713 from Flanders, whither be had adversary, Georg Herwegh; the day, he declared, of his own accompanied the British troops, he took up his residence in poetic trifling with Romantic themes was over; Romanticism London, where he soon obtained a great reputation as a physician. itself was dead. He laid down his pension, and, to avoid the In 1916 he became fellow of the college of physicians, of which inevitable political persecution, took refuge in Switzerland. he was chosen one of the censors in 1718, and Harveian orator As a sequel to the Glaubensbekenntnis he published Ça ira! (1846), in 1720. In 1722 he entered parliament as member for Launceston which strained still further his relations with the German in Cornwall, but, being suspected of favouring the cause of the authorities. He fled to London, where he resumed the com- exiled Stuarts, he spent half of that year in the Tower. During mercial life he had broken off seven years before. When the his imprisonment he conceived the plan of his most important Revolution of 1848 broke out, it seemed to Freiligrath, as to all work, The History of Physic, of which the first part appeared the liberal thinkers of the time, the dawn of an era of political in 1725, and the second in the following year. In ihe latter year freedom; and, as may be seen from the poems in his collection of he was appointed physician to Queen Caroline, an office which he Politische und soziale Gedichle (1849-1851), he welcomed it with held till his death on the 26th of July 1728. unbounded enthusiasm. He returned to Germany and settled

A complete edition of his Latin works, with a Latin translation of in Düsseldorf; but it was not long before he had again called the History of Physic, edited by Dr John Wigan, was published in down upon himself the ill-will of the ruling powers by a poem, | London in 1732. Die Tolen an die Lebenden (1848). He was arrested on a charge FREINSHEIM (FREINSHEMIUS), JOHANN (1608-1660), German of lèse-majesle, but the prosecution ended in his acquittal. New classical scholar and critic, was born at Ulm on the 16th of difficulties arose; his association with the democratic movement November 1608. After studying at the universities of Marburg, rendered him an object of constant suspicion, and in 1851 he Giessen and Strassburg, he visited France, where he remained judged it more prudent to go back to London, where he remained for three years. He returned to Strassburg in 1637, and in until 1868. In that year he returned to Germany, settling first in 1642 was appointed professor of eloquence at Upsala. In 1647 Stuttgart and in 1875 in the neighbouring town of Cannstatt, he was summoned by Queen Christina to Stockholm as court where he died on the 18th of March 1876.

librarian and historiographer. In 1650 he resumed his professorAs a poet, Freiligrath was the most gifted member of the ship at Upsala, but early in the following year he was obliged German revolutionary group. Coming at the very close of the to resign on account of ill-health. In 1656 he became honorary Romantic age, his own purely lyric poetry re-echoes for the most professor at Heidelberg, and died on the 31st of August 1660. part the familiar thoughts and imagery of his Romantic pre- Freinsheim's literary activity was chiefly devoted to the Roman decessors; but at an early age he had been attracted by the work historians. He first introduced the division into chapters and of French contemporary poets, and he reinvigorated the German paragraphs, and by means of carefully compiled indexes illuslyric by grafting upon it the orientalism of Victor Hugo. In this sirated the lexical peculiarities of each author. He is best known reconciliation of French and German romanticismlay Freiligrath's for his famous supplements to Quintus Curtius and Livy, containsignificance for the development of the lyric in Germany. Hising the missing books written by himself. He also published remarkable power of assimilating foreign literatures is also to critical editions of Curtius and Florus. be seen in his translations of English and Scottish ballads, of FREIRE, FRANCISCO JOSÉ (1719-1773), Portuguese historian the poetry of Burns, Mrs Hemans, Longfellow and Tennyson and philologist, was born at Lisbon on the 3rd of January (Englische Gedichte aus neuerer Zeil, 1846; The Rose, Thistle 1719. He belonged to the monastic society of St Philip Neri, and Shamrock, 1853, 6th ed. 1887); he also translated Shake- and was a zealous member of the literary association known as speare's Cymbeline, Winler's Tale and Venus and Adonis, as well the Academy of Arcadians, in connexion with which he adopted as Longfellow's Hiawatha (1857). Freiligrath is most original the pseudonym of Candido Lusitano. He contributed much in his revolutionary poetry. His poems of this class suffer, to the improvement of the style of Portuguese prose literature, it is true, under the disadvantage of all political poetry-purely but his endeavour to effect a reformation in the national poetry temporary interest and the unavoidable admixture of much that by a translation of Horace's Ars poetica was less successful. The has no claim to be called poetry at all-but the agitator Freili-work in which he set forth his opinions regarding the vicious grath, when he is at his best, displays a vigour and strength, a taste pervading the current Portuguese prose literature is entitled power of direct and cogent poetic expression, not to be found in Maximas sobre a Arte Oratoria (1745) and is preceded by a chronoany other political singer of the age.

logical table forming almost a social and physical bistory of Freiligrath's Gedichte have passed through some fifty editions, and Portugal. His best known work, however, is his Vida do his Gesammelte Dichtungen, first published in 1870, have reached a Infante D. Henrique (1758), which has given him a place in the sixth edition (1898). Nachgelassenes (including a translation of Byron's Mazeppa) was published in 1883. A selection of Freili

first rank of Portuguese historians, and has been translated into grath's best-known poems in English translation was edited by his French (Paris, 1781). He also wrote a poetical dictionary daughter, Mrs Freiligrath-Krocker, in 1869; also Songs of a Revolu- (Diccionario poetico) and a translation of Racine's Athalie (1762), tionary. Epoch were translated by J. L. Joynes in 1888. Cp. E. Schmidt-Weissenfels, F. Freiligrath, eine Biographie (1876); W.

and his Réflexions sur la langue portugaise was published in 1842 Buchner, F. Freiligrath, ein Dichterleben in Briefen (2 vols., 1881): by the Lisbon society for the promotion of useful knowledge. G. Frciligrath. Erinnerungen an F. Freiligrath (1889): P. Besson, He died at Mafra on the 5th of July 1773. Freiligraih (Paris, 1899); K. Richter, Freiligrath als Übersetzer PREISCHÜTZ, in German folklore, a marksman who by a (1899).

U. G. R.)

compact with the devil has obtained a certain number of bullets FREIND, JOHN (1675-1728), English physician, younger destined to hit without fail whatever object he wishes. As the brother of Robert Freind (1667-1751), headmaster of West-legend is usually told, six of the Freikugeln or “ free bullets" minster school, was born in 1675 at Croton in Northamptonshire. are thus subservient to the marksman's will, but the seventh is He made great progress in classical knowledge under Richard at the absolute disposal of the devil himself. Various methods Busby at Westminster, and at Christ Church, Oxford, under were adopted in order to procure possession of the marvellous Dean Aldrich, and while still very young, produced, along with missiles. . According to one the marksman, instead of swallowing Peter Foulkes, an excellent edition of the speeches of Aeschines I the sacramental host, kept it and fixed it on a tree, shot at it



and caused it to bleed great drops of blood, gathered the drops who constructed many of their dwellings out of the ruined Roman
on a piece of cloth and reduced the whole to ashes, and then with buildings. The ancient harbour (really but a portion of the
these ashes added the requisite virtue to the lead of which his lagoons, which had been deepened) is now completely silted
bullets were made. Various vegulable or animal substances had up. Even in early times a canal had to be kept open by perpetual
the reputation of serving the same purpose. Stories about the digging, while about 1700 this was closed, and now a sandy
Freischütz were especially common in Germany during the 14th, and partly cultivated waste extends belween the town and the
15th and 16th centuries; but the first time that the legend was seashore.
turned to literary profit is said to have been by Apel in the See J. A. Aubenas, Histoire de Fréjus (Fréjus, 1881): Ch. Lenthéric,
Gespensterbuch or " Book of Ghosts.” It formed the subject La Provence Maritime ancienne el moderne (Paris, 1880), chap. vii.
of Weber's opera Der Freischütz (1821), the libretto of which

(W. A. B. C.) was written by Friedrich Kind, wbo had suggested Apel's story FRELINGHUYSEN, FREDERICK THEODORE (1817-1885), as an excellent theme for the composer. The name by which the American lawyer and statesman, of Dutch descent, was born at Freischütz is known in French is Robin des Bois.

Millstone, New Jersey, on the 4th of August 1817. His grandSee Kind, Freyschützbuch (Leipzig, 1843); Revue des deux mondes father, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent (February 1855); Grässe, Die Quelle des Freischütz (Dresden, 1875). lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution,

FREISING, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 on the Isar, 16 m. by rail N.N.E. of Munich. Pop. (1905) 13,538. and 1782-1783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, Among its eight Roman Catholic churches the most remarkable and in 1793-1796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, is the cathedral, which dates from about 1160 and is famous for Theodore (1787–1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey its curious crypt. Noteworthy also are the old palace of the from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New bishops, now a clerical seminary, the theological lyceum and the Jersey in 1829–1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president town-hal!. There are several schools in the town, and there is a on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university statue to the chronicler, Otto of Freising, who was bishop here of New York in 1839-1850 and president of Rutgers College from 1138 to 1158. Freising has manufactures of agricultural in 1850-1862. Frederick Theodore, left an orphan at the age of machinery and of porcelain, while printing and brewing are carried three, was adopted by his uncle, graduated at Rutgers in 1836,

Near the town is the site of the Benedictine abbey of and studied law in Newark with his uncle, to whose practice Weihenstephan, which existed from 725 to 1803. This is now he succeeded in 1839, soon after his admission to the bar. He a model farm and brewery. Freising is a very ancient town and became attorney for the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the is said to have been founded by the Romans. After being Morris Canal and Banking Company, and other corporations, destroyed by the Hungarians in 955 it was fortified by the emperor and from 1861 to 1867 was attorney-general of New Jersey. Otto II. in 976 and by Duke Welf of Bavaria in 1082. A bishopric In 1861 he was a delegate to the peace congress at Washington, was established here in 724 by St Corbinianus, whose brother and in 1866 was appointed by the governor of New Jersey, as Erimbert was consecrated second bishop by St Boniface in 739. a Republican, to fill a vacancy in the United States senate. Later on the bishops acquired considerable territorial power in the winter of 1867 he was elected to fill the unexpired term, and in the 17th century became princes of the Empire. In but a Democratic majority in the legislature prevented his 1802 the see was secularized, the bulk of its territories being re-election in 1869. In 1870 he was nominated by President assigned to Bavaria and the rest to Salzburg, of which Freising Grant, and confirmed by the senate, as United States minister had been a suffragan bishopric. In 1817 an archbishopric to England to succeed John Lothrop Motley, but declined the was established at Freising, but in the following year it was mission. From 1871 to 1877 he was again a member of the United transferred to Munich. The occupant of the sce is now called States senate, in which he was prominent in debate and in comarchbishop of Munich and Freising.

mittee work, and was chairman of the committee on foreign See C. Meichelbeck, Historiae Frisingensis (Augsburg, 1724-1729. affairs during the Alabama Claims negotiations. He was a strong new and enlarged edition 1854).

opponent of the reconstruction measures of President Johnson, FRÉJUS, a town in the department of the Var in S.E. France. for whose conviction he voted (on most of the specific charges) Pop. (1906) 3430. It is 28, m. S.E. of Draguignan (the chief in the impeachment trial. He was a member of the joint comtown of the department), and 22} m. S.W. of Cannes by rail. It mittee which drew up and reported (1877) the Electoral Comis only important on account of the fine Roman remains that it mission Bill, and subsequently served as a member of the comcontains, for it is now a mile from the sea, its harbour having been mission. On the rath of December 1881 he was appointed silted up by the deposits of the Argens river. Since the 4th secretary of state by President Arthur to succeed James G. century it has been a bishop's see, which is in the ecclesiastical Blaine, and served until the inauguration of President Cleveland province of Aix en Provence. In modern times the neighbouring in 1885. Retiring, with his health impaired by overwork, 10 fishing village at St Raphaël (2} m. by rail S.E., and on the sea. his home in Newark, he died there on the 20th of May, less than shore) has become a town of 4865 inhabitants (in 1901); in 1799 three months after relinquishing the cares of office. Napoleon disembarked there on his return from Egypt, and re- FREMANTLE, a seaport of Swan county, Western Australia, embarked for Elba in 1814, while nowadays it is much frequented at the mouth of the Swan river, 12 m. by rail S.W. of Perth. as a health resort, as is also Valescure (2 m. N.W.on the heights It is the terminus of the Eastern railway, and is a town of above). The cathedral church in part dates from the 12th cen. some industrial activity, shipbuilding, soap-boiling, saw-milling, tury, but only small portions of the old medieval episcopal palace smelting, iron-founding, furniture-making, flour-milling, brewing are now visible, as it was rebuilt about 1823. The ramparts of and tanning being its chief industries. The harbour, by the the old town can still be traced for a long distance, and there construction of two long moles and the blasting away of the rocks are fragments of two moles, of the theatre and of a gate. The at the bar, has been rendered secure. The English, French and amphitheatre, which seated 12,000 spectators, is in a better statc German mail steamers cail at the port. Fremantle became a of preservation. The ruins of the great aqueduct which brought municipality in 1871; but there are now three separate municithe waters of the Siagnole, an afluent of the Siagne, to the town, palities--Fremantle, with a population in 1901 of 14,704; can still be traced for a distance of nearly 19 m. The original | Fremantle East (2494); and Fremantle North (3246). At Roul. hamlet was the capital of the tribe of the Oxybii, while the town nest Island, off the harbour, there are government salt-works of Forum Julii was founded on its site by Julius Caesar in order and a residence of the governor, also penal and reformatory to secure to the Romans a harbour indcpendent of that of establishments. Marseilles. The buildings of which ruins exist were mostly PRÉMIET, EMMANUEL (1824- ), French sculptor, born built by Caesar or by Augustus, and show that it was an important in Paris, was a nephew and pupil of Rude; he chiefly devoted naval station and arsenal. But the town suffered much at the himself to animal sculpture and to equestrian statues in armour. hands of the Arabs, of Barbary pirates, and of its inhabitants, I His earliest work was in scientific lithography (osteology), and


for a while he served in times of adversity in the gruesome office His report of this expedition upon his return to Washington, of painter to the Morgue.” In 1843 he sent to the Salon a D.C., in 1844, aroused much solicitude for California, which, it study of a “ Gazelle," and after thrat date was very prolific in his was feared, might, in the event of war then threatening between works. His “Wounded Bear” and “Wounded Dog” were the United States and Mexico, be seized by Great Britain. In produced in 1850, and the Luxembourg Museum at once secured the spring of 1845 Frémont was despatched on a third expedition this striking example of his work. From 1855 to 1859 Frémiet for the professed purposes of further exploring the Great Basin was engaged on a series of military statuettes for Napoleon III. and the Pacific Coast, and of discovering the easiest lines of He produced his equestrian statue of “ Napoleon I.” in 1868, communication between them, as well as for the secret purpose and of “ Louis d'Orléans” in 1869 (at the Château de Pierrefonds) of assisting the United States, in case of war with Mexico, to and in 1874 the first equestrian statue of “ Joan of Arc," erected gain possession of California. He and his party of sixty-two in the Place des Pyramides, Paris; this he afterwards (1889) arrived there in January 1846. Owing to the number of American replaced with another and still finer version. In the meanwhile immigrants who had settled in California, the Mexican he had exhibited his masterly" Gorilla and Woman ” which won authorities there became suspicious and hostile, and ordered him a medal of honour at the Salon of 1887. Of the same Frémont out of the province. Instead of obeying he pitched character, and even more remarkable, is his “Ourang-Outangs his camp near the summit of a mountain overlooking Monterey, and Borneo Savage ” of 1895, a commission from the Paris fortified his position, and raised the United States flag. A few Museum of Natural History. Frémiet also executed the statue days later he was proceeding toward the Oregon border when of “ St Michael ” for the summit of the spite of the Eglise new instructions from Washington caused him to retrace his St Michel, and the equestrian statue of Velasquez for the Jardin steps and, perhaps, to consider plans for provoking war. The de l'Infante at the Louvre. He became a member of the extent of his responsibility for the events that ensued is not Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1892, and succeeded Barye as wholly clear, and has been the subject of much controversy; professor of animal drawing at the Natural History Museum of his defenders have asserted that he was not responsible for the Paris.

seizure of Sonoma or for the so-called “Bear-Flag War "; and FRÉMONT, JOHN CHARLES (1813–1890), American explorer, that he played a creditable part throughout. (For an opposite soldier and political leader, was born in Savannah, Georgia, on view see CALIFORNIA.) Commodore John D. Sloat, after seizing the 21st of January 1813. His father, a native of France, died Monterey, transferred his command to Commodore Robert when the boy was in his sixth year, and his mother, a member of Field Stockton (1795-1866), who made Frémont major of a an aristocratic Virginia family, then removed to Charleston, South battalion; and by January 1847 Stockton and Frémont completed Carolina. In 1828, after a year's special preparation, young the conquest of California. In the meantime General Stephen Frémont entered the junior class of the college of Charleston, Watts Kearny (1794-1848) had been sent by the Government and here displayed marked ability, especially in mathematics; to conquer it and to establish a government. This created a but his irregular attendance and disregard of college discipline conflict of authority between Stockton and Kearny, both of led to his expulsion from the institution, which, however, conferred whom were Frémont's superior officers. Stockton, ignoring upon him a degree in 1836. In 1833 he was appointed teacher Kearny, commissioned Frémont military commandant and of mathematics on board the sloop of war “Natchez, " and was governor. But Kearny's authority being confirmed about the so engaged during a cruise along the South American coast ist of April, Frémont, for repeated acts of disobedience, was which was continued for about two and a half years. Soon sent under arrest to Washington, where he was tried by courtaiter returning to Charleston he was appointed professor of martial, found guilty (January 1847) of mutiny, disobedience mathematics in the United States navy, but he chose instead to and conduct prejudicial to military discipline, and sentenced serve as assistant engineer of a survey undertaken chiefly for to dismissal from the service. President Polk approved of the the purpose of finding a pass through the mountains for a pro-verdict except as to mutiny, but remitted the penalty, whereupon posed railway from Charleston to Cincinnati. In July 1838 he | Frémont resigned. was appointed second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers in With the mountain-traversed region he had been exploring the United States army, and for the next three years he was acquired by the United States, Frémont was eager for a railway assistant to the French explorer, Jean Nicholas Nicollet (1786- from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in October 1848 he set out 1843), employed by the war department to survey and map a at his own and Senator Benton's expense to find passes for such large part of the country lying between the upper waters of the a railway along a line westward from the headwaters of the Rio Mississippi and Missouri rivers. In 1841 Frémont surveyed, for Grande. But he had not gone far when he was led astray by a the government, the lower course of the Des Moines river. In guide, and after the loss of his entire outfit and several of his the same year he married Jessie, the daughter of Senator Thomas men, and intense suffering of the survivors from cold and hunger, H. Benton of Missouri, and it was in no small measure through he turned southward through the valley of the Rio Grande and Benton's influence with the government that Frémont was then westward through the valley of the Gila into southern enabled to accomplish within the next few years the exploration California. Late in the year 1853, however, he returned to the of much of the territory between the Mississippi Valley and the place where the guide had led him astray, found passes through Pacific Ocean.

the mountains to the westward between latitudes 37° and 38° When the claim of the United States to the Oregon territory N., and arrived in San Francisco early in May 1854. From the was being strengthened by occupation, Frémont was sent, at conclusion of his fourth expedition until March 1855, when he his urgent request, to explore the frontier beyond the Missouri removed to New York city, he lived in California, and in December river, and especially the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the 1849 was elected one of the first two United States senators from South Pass, through which the American immigrants travelled the new state. But as he drew the short term, he served only Within four months (1842) he surveyed the Pass and ascended from the roth of September 1850 to the 3rd of March 1851. to the summit of the highest of the Wind River Mountains, since Although a candidate for re-election, he was defeated by the known as Frémont's Peak, and the interest aroused by his pro-slavery party. His opposition to slavery, however, together descriptions was such that in the next year he was sent on a with his popularity--won by the successes, hardships and dangers second expedition to complete the survey across the continent of his exploring expeditions, and by his part in the conquest of along the line of travel from Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia California-led to his nomination, largely on the ground of river. This time he not only carried out his instructions but, "availability,” for the presidency in 1856 by the Republicans by further explorations together with interesting descriptions, (this being their first presidential campaign), and by the National dispelled general ignorance with respect to the main features of Americans or "Know-Nothings.” In the ensuing election he the country W. of the Rocky Mountains: the Great Salt Lake, was defeated by James Buchanan by 174 to 114 electoral votes. the Great Basin, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the fertile Soon after the Civil War began, Frémont was appointed tiver basins of the Mexican province of California,

major-general and placed in command of the western department with headquarters at St Louis, but his lack of judgment and cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, of administrative ability soon became apparent, the affairs of safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet his department fell into disorder, and Frémont seems to have sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders. been easily duped by dishonest contractors whom he trusted. The total factory product was valued at $2,833,385 in 1905, On the zoth of August 1861 he issued a proclamation in which an increase of 23.4% over that of 1900. Fremont is on the site he declared the property of Missourians in rebellion confiscated of a favourite abode of the Indians, and a tradir.z post was at and their slaves emancipated. For this he was applauded by times maintained here; but the place is best known in history as the radical Republicans, but his action was contrary to an act the site of Fort Stephenson, erected during the War of 1812, of congress of the 6th of August and to the policy of the Adminis- and on the 2nd of August 1813 gallantly and successfully defended tration. On the nth of September President Lincoln, who by Major George Croghan (1791-1849), with 160 men, against regarded the action as premature and who saw that it might about 1000 British and Indians under Brigadier-General Henry alienate Kentucky and other border states, whose adherence he A. Proctor. In 1906 Croghan's remains were re-interred on the was trying to secure, annulled these declarations. Impelled by site of the old fort. Until 1849, when the present name was serious charges against Frémont, the president sent Mont. adopted in honour of J. C. Frémont, the place was known as gomery Blair, the postmaster-general, and Montgomery C. Meigs, Lower Sandusky; it was incorporated as a village in 1829 the quartermaster-general, to investigate the department; they and was first chartered as a city in 1867. reported that Frémont's management was extravagant and FRÉMY, EDMOND (1814–1894), French chemist, was born inefficient; and in November he was removed. Out of con- at Versailles on the 29th of February 1814. Entering Gay. sideration for the “Radicals,” however, Frémont was placed in Lussac's laboratory in 1831, he became préparaleur at the Ecole command of the Mountain Department of Virginia, Kentucky Polytechnique in 1834 and at the Collège de France in 1837. and Tennessee. In the spring and summer of 1862 he co-operated His next post was that of répétiteur at the Ecole Polytechnique, with General N. P. Banks against “Stonewall " Jackson in the where in 1846 he was appointed professor, and in 1850 he sucShenandoah Valley, but showed little ability as a commander, was ceeded Gay-Lussac in the chair of chemistry at the Muséum defeated by General Ewell at Cross Keys, and when his troops d'Histoire Naturelle, of which he was director, in succession to were united with those of Generals Banks and McDowell to form M. E. Chevreul, from 1879 to 1891. He died at Paris on the 3rd the Army of Virginia, of which General John Pope was placed of February 1894. His work included investigations of osmic in command, Frémont declined to serve under Pope, whom he acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c., and of ozone, outranked, and retired from active service. On the 31st of May attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused 1864 he was nominated for the presidency by a radical faction fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and of the Republican party, opposed to President Lincoln, but of a series of acides sul phazoles, the precise nature of which long his following was so small that on the 21st of September be with remained a matter of discussion. He also studied the colouring drew from the contest. From 1878 to 188r he was governor of matters of leaves and flowers, the composition of bone, cerebral the territory of Arizona, and in the last year of his life he was matter and other animal substances, and the processes of ferappointed by act of congress a major-general and placed on the mentation, in regard to the nature of which he was an opponent of retired list. He died in New York on the 13th of July 1890. Pasteur's views. Keenly alive to the importance of the technical

See J. C. Frémont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky applications of chemistry, he devoted special attention as a Mountains, 1842, and to Oregon and North California, 1843-1844 teacher to the training of industrial chemists. In this field he (Washington, 1845): Frémont's Memoirs of my Life (New York, 1887); and ), Bigelow, Memoirs of the Life and Public Services contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, of John C. Frémont (New York, 1856).

sulphuric acid, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the FREMONT, a city and the county-seat of Dodge county, saponification of fats with sulphuric acid and the utilization of Nebraska, U.S.A., about 37 m. N.W. of Omaha, on the N. bank palmitic acid for candle-making. In the later years of his life of the Platte river, which here abounds in picturesque bluffs he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the and wooded islands. Pop. (1890) 6747; (1900) 7241 (1303 crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with foreign-born); (1910) 8718. It is on the main line of the Union the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in Pacific railway, on a branch of the Chicago, Burlington & physical properties. Quincy system, and on the main western line of the Chicago & FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER (1850- ), American sculptor, North-Western railway, several branches of which (including the was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 20th of April 1850, formerly independent Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley and the son of Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, who for a time was the Sioux City & Pacific) converge here. The city has an attrac- assistant-secretary of the United States treasury. After a year tive situation and is beautifully shaded. It has a public library at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, French spent a and is the seat of the Fremont College, Commercial Institute month in the studio of John Q. A. Ward, then began to work on and School of Pharmacy (1875), a private institution. here is commissions, and at the age twenty-three received from the considerable local trade with the rich farming country of the town of Concord, Massachusetts, an order for his well-known Platte and Elkhorn valleys; and the wholesale grain interests are statue“ The Minute Man," which was unveiled (April 19, 1875) especially important. Among the manufactures are flour, on the centenary of the battle of Concord. Previously French carriages, saddlery, canned vegetables, furniture, incubators had gone to Florence, Italy, where he spent a year with Thomas and beer. The city owns and operates its electric-lighting plant Ball. French's best-known work is “ Death Staying the Hand of and water-works. Fremont was founded in 1836, and became the Sculptor,” a memorial for the tomb of the sculptor Martin the county-seat in 1860. It was chartered as a city (second-class) Milmore, in the Forest Hills cemetery, Boston ; this received å in 1871, and became a city of the first class in 1901.

medal of honour at Paris, in 1900. Among his other works are: PREMONT, a city and the county-seat of Sandusky county; a monument to John Boyle O'Reilly, Boston; “ Gen. Cass,” Ohio, U.S.A., on the Sandusky river, 30 m. S.E. of Toledo. National Hall of Statuary, Washington; “Dr Gallaudet and his Pop. (1890) 7141; (1900) 8439, of whom 1074 were foreign-born; First Dcaf-Mute Pupil,” Washington; the colossal “Statue (1910 census) 9939. Fremont is served by the Lake Shore & of the Republic," for the Columbian Exposition at Chicago; Michigan Southern, the Lake Shore Electric, the Lake Eric statues of Ruíus Choate (Boston), John Harvard (Cambridge, & Western, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways. The river | Mass.), and Thomas Starr King (San Francisco, California), a is navigable to this point. Spiegel Grove, the former residence of memorial to the architect Richard M. Hunt, in Fifth Avenue, Rutherford B. Hayes, is of interest, and the city has a public opposite the Lenox library, New York, and a large Alma library (1873) and parks, in large measure the gifts of his uncle, Mater," near the approach to Columbia University, New York. Sardis Birchard. Fremont is situated in a good agricultural in collaboration with Edward C. Potter he modelled the region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city “Washington," presented to France by the Daughters of the bas various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, | American Revolution; the “General Grant" in Fairmount Park,





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Philadelphia, and the “General Joseph Hooker” in Boston. straight line until the delta of the Ogowé is (1901), the National Sculpture Society, the Architectural League, Mayumba, the roadstead of Loango, and the Pointe Noire may be French became a member of the National Academy of Design Lopez projects N.w. from this point the corneachel hermoso Cape

S.E. without presenting any striking features, though the Bay of and the Accademia di San Luca, of Rome.

syw od mentioned. A largę proportion of the coast region is occupied by FRENCH, NICHOLAS (1604-1678), bishop of Ferns, was an primeval forest, with trees rising to a height of 150 and 200 ft., but Irish political pamphleteer, who was born at Wexford. He there is a considerable variety of scenery open lagoons, mangrove was educated at Louvain, and returning to Ireland became a tangled underwood along the rivers, prairies of tall grass and patches

swamps, scattered clusters of trees, park-like reaches, dense walls of priest at Wexford, and before 1646 was appointed bishop of of cultivation. Behind the coast region is a ridge which rises from Ferns. Having taken a prominent part in the political disturb-3000 to 4500 ft., called the Crystal Mountains, then a plateau with ances of this period, French deemed it prudent to leave Ireland | an elevation varying from 1500 to 2800 ft., cleft with deep riverin 1651, and the remainder of his life was passed on the continent of Europe. He acted

16onsbe JanB 509024 as coadjutor to the archbishops of Saatiago

ANGLOde Compostella and Paris, and to the bishop of Ghent, and died at Ghent on the 23rd of August 1678. In 1676 he published his attack

YPTIAN on James Butler, marquess of Ormonde, 1 entitled “The Unkinde Desertor of Loyall Men and True Frinds," and shortly afterwards "The Bleeding Iphigenia.” The most important of his other pamphlets is the "Narrative of the Earl of Clarendon's Settlement and Sale 8 of Ireland ” (Louvain, 1668). The Historical Works of Bishop French, com

prising the three pamphlets already mentioned
and some letters, were published by S. H. Bindon
at Dublin in 1846. See T. D. McGee, Irish

For de pisser
Writers of the 17th Century (Dublin, 1846); Sir
J. T. Gilbert, Contemporary History of Affairs in 2
Ireland, 1641-1652 (Dublin, 1879-1880); and T.

12 Carte, Life of James, Duke of Ormond (new ed., Oxford, 1851).

FRENCH CONGO, the general name of the French possessions in equatorial Africa. They have an area estimated at 700,000 sq. m., with a population, also estimated, of 6,000,000 to 10,000,000. The whites numbered (1906) 1278, of whom 502 were officials. French Congo, officially renamed FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA

FRENCH CONGO in 1910, comprises (1) the Gabun Colony, 13


- SHIRT (2) the Middle Congo Colony, (3) the UbangiShari Circumscription, (4) the Chad Circumscription. The two last-named divisions form the Ubangi-Shari-Chad Colony. The present article treats of French Congol


B. Langitude East 24 of Greenwich as a unit. It is of highly irregular shape. It is bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. by the (Spanish) Muni valleys, the walls of which are friable, almost vertical, and in some River Settlements, the German colony of Cameroon and the places 760 ft. high. Sahara, E. by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and S. by Belgian on the higher portion of the plateau their course is over bare sand

The coast rivers flowing into the Atlantic cross four terraces. Congo and the Portuguese territory of Kabinda. In the greater on the second terrace, from 1200 to 2000 ft. high, it is over wide part of its length the southern frontier is the middle course of grassy tracts; then, for some 100 m., the rivers pass through virgin the Congo and the Ubangi and Mbomu, the chief northern Corest, and, lastly, they cross the shore region, which is about 10 m. affluents of that stream, but in the south-west the frontier broad. The rivers which fall directly into the Atlantic are generally

unna vigable. The most important, the Ogowé (q.v.), is, however, kceps north of the Congo river, whose navigable lower course navigable from its mouth to N’Jole, a distance of 235 m. Rivers to is partitioned between Belgium and Portugal. The coast line, the south of the Ogowe are the Nyanga, 120 m. long, and the Kwilu. some 600 m. long, extends from so S. to 1° N. The northern The latter, 320 m, in length, is formed by the Kiasi and the Luété; frontier, starting inland from the Muni estuary, after skirting the it has

a very winding course, flowing by turns from north to south, Spanish settlements follows a line drawn a little north of 2° N. west. It is encumbered with rocks and eddies, and is navigable

only and extending east to 16° E. North of this line the country is over 38 m., and for five months in the year. The mouth is 1100 it. part of Cameroon, German territory extending so far inland from wide. The Muni river, the northernmost in the colony, is obstructed the Gulf of Guinea as to approach within 130 m. of the Ubangi. by cataracts in its passage through the escarpment to the coast. From the intersection of the lines named, at which point French bank of the lower river is within French Congo. The greater part

Nearly all the upper basin of the Shari (q.v.) as well as the right Congo is at its narrowest, the frontier runs north and then east of the country belongs, however, to the drainage area of the Congo until the Shari is reached in 10° 40' N. The Shari then forms the river. In addition to the northern banks of the Mbomu and Ubangi, frontier up to Lake Chad, where French Congo joins the Saharan 330 m. of the north shore of the Congo itself are in the French pro regions of French West Africa. The eastern frontier, separating however, the right bank of the Sanga, the most important of these

tectorate as well as numerous subsidiary streams. For some 100 m. the colony from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, is the water-parting subsidiary streams, is in German territory (see CONGO). between the Nile and the Congo. The Mahommedan sultanates Geology.-Three main divisions are recognized in the French of Wadai and Bagirmi occupy much of the northern part of Congo :-(1) the littoral zone, covered with alluvium and superficial French Congo (see WADAI and BAGIRMI).

deposits and underlain by Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks; (2) the

mountain zone of the Crystal Mountains, composed of granite, Physical Features. The coast line, beginning in the north at metamorphic and ancient sediments; (3) the plateau of the northern Corisco Bay, is shortly afterwards somewhat deeply indented by portion of the Congo basin, occupied by Karroo sandstones. The the estuary of the Gabun, south of which the shore runs in a nearly core of the Crystal Mountains consists of granite and schists.

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