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been secured by giving timely notice, and putting our ves. sels on their guard. But the dey refused to listen to it, and repeated his first orders.

*On leaving the palace I reflected upon the very critical and alarming situation of our affairs with the regency, which was not only brought on in the most unexpected manner, but without any reasonable or justifiable cause of complaint on the part of the dey. It appeared to me that he was determined to take a measure which I had for some time past apprehended, and which I had more than once the honour of intimating to the honourable the Secretary of State, particularly in my letter of the 29th May last, viz. That after having concluded a truce with Portugal, and seeing Sicily under the protection of the British, he must make war upon some other nation, with or without a cause, in order to employ his cruisers; and that the extended and unprotected commerce of the United States offered greater prospects of advantage from plunder and captures than he could expect from any other nation. The ultimate consequence of such conduct he would never calculate; neither would he be restrained by any sense of shame, or of the flagrant injustice of the act.

" In this state of embarrassment, and with these reflection's, I was still determined to try all possible means to accommodate the present difficulties, before the ultimate period fixed by the dey should arrive; bat if that could not be effected, I should prepare, if possible, to pay the balance demanded in money, to prevent the loss of the ship and cargo, the detention of all Americans in Algiers, and the immediate capture of others.

“In order to raise the money I proposed to sell the cargo of the ship, as the dey would not receive it, and pay him the proceeds in cash towards the balance, but he absolutely forbid the sale of any article on board her. Thus situated I had no other means left but to endeavour to obtain the money on my bills, and while I was using every sneans in my power, and through every channel that could be devised, to have matters accommodated before they came to the last extremity, I was not inattentive to the necessity I might be under of procuring the money in the last moment.

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56 As the discussions on our business had taken place either at the marine or in the palace, in presence of all those usually attending there, it was no secret ; and I had the satisfaction of hearing a general sentiment of disapprobation expressed on account of the dey's conduct, more strongly than I could have supposed it would have been done, when it was known in what awe and dread every one beheld the present dey, whose severity is almost without example.

“ The only quarter from which money could be obtained at any rate, was the house of Bacri, and upon application to him to know if I could depend upon him in the last extremity, he raised many difficulties on account of the limited time, of the many very heavy payments which they had been obliged to make lately for the cargoes of the Greek prizes purchased by them, which had entirely absorbed their cash, &c. He also made some objection to the security of such bills, on account of my being obliged to leave the regency: to that I answered, that I should not desire any one to become my security, as the same objection would naturally occur to them, and that if I should give bills, I must candidly say that if the vessel should not afterwards be permitted to depart with her cargo (as I had some apprehensions from the shameful conduct of the dey, migh: be the case, in violation of his word) the bills would not be paid, as the proceeds of the cargo, at the place to which she might go, must be depended upon towards discharging such bills. He said he would consider the subject and give me an answer on Friday as to the practicability of getting the money, if it must be had, and the terms which would be expected for it.

" On Friday I made the last effort to effect an accommodation, and flattered myself with some little prospect of success, as the minister of the marine and some others of the principal officers of the regency, had expressed their regret at what had happened, and had promised to do every thing in their power to induce the dey to alter his determination, if the dey should introduce the subject before them, on this day when they all met him

at the palace to go with him to the mosque, it being the Mahomedan sab. bath ; but they candidly acknowledged that if he did not bring the matter forward, no one would dare to introduce VOL. IX.



it, as they knew the obstinacy of his teinpèr, and dreaded the effects of his resentment.

“ I had communicated to the minister of the marine the proposition which I made in the palace on Wednesday, for the dey to take this cargo on account, and to pay the balance, if any, in cash, &c. which he did not hesitate to declare he thought highly reasonable, and such as should be satisfactory ; but at the same time remarked on the inflexible obstinacy of the dey, when he had once taken his resolution.

“ At one o'clock my drogerman brought me a message from the dey, which he said was his last, and irrevocably. fixed, viz. That I should to-morrow morning pay into the treasury 27,000 Spanish dollars, which he claimed as the balance of annuities from the United States, and then depart from the regency with my family, and all other citizens of the United States in Algiers, in the ship which had brought the stores, in fulfilment of treaty stipulations, and which he had refused to receive; or that the ship and cargo, with all other Americans now in Algiers, should be detained, the former confiscated, the latter kept in slavery, and that war should be instantly declared against the United States.

“ This message determined the business and closed every door of hope for an accommodation. It was confirmed by the minister of marine, who said that the subject having been introduced by the dey in their presence, he and the other ministers had urged every thing they dared, to induce the dey to alter his determination, and to accept my proposition, but in vain. He was inflexible, and the alternative must be taken immediately.

“I had now my ultimate choice to make, between the payment of the money, if it could be obtained, and the certain loss of the vessel and cargo, worth much more than the sum claimed by the dey, and the immediate slavery of more than twenty Ainerican citizens (including myself and family) now in Algiers, with the highest probability of many American vessels and their crews being captured before it would be possible to give notice of what had happened, to enable them to consult their safety by remaining in port, as the port of Algiers had been shut since the sailing of their cruisers on the 13th

instant, and of course no opportunity had offered to communicate an account of these transactions to any of our consuls in the Mediterranean.

“ I therefore made my election to pay the money, if it could be obtained, especially as the departure of the Allegany would afford an opportunity of giving the most speedy information to every part of this sea, and guard American vessels against falling into the hands of the Algerine cruisers now out; as I can now have but little doubt of the dey's having given orders to his cruisers, on their sailing, to detain and send in such American vessels as they may find. For it must clearly be seen that he has no-reasonable or justifiable ground for his present demand and conduct, and I am in a great measure confirmed in my apprehensions entertained and expressed in my last letters to the honourable the Secretary of State, that after the truce with Portugal and the protection of the Sicilians by the English, he would make war upon some nation to employ his cruisers; and that none offered a better prospect than the vessels of the United States.

“ The present posture of affairs between the United States and Great Britain, just on the point of open hostilities, would afford another guard and security against our sending a force into this sea to protect our commerce now here, or revenge the insult and injury inflicted upon us; especially, too, as under present circumstances, he must suppose that it would be gratifying to the British, with whom, there is every reason to believe, he has a treaty offensive and defensive.

"I sent for Mr. Bacri, and informed him of my determination to pay the money and depart from Algiers, and should depend upon him for it. But that if, after paying the money, the vessel and Americans should not be allowed to depart from Algiers (which I had reason to apprehend from the dey's outrageous and extraordinary conduct might happen notwithstanding his declaration) the bills which I might draw would not be paid at Gibraltar; for, that I must depend upon the sale of the cargo of this vessel to meet the bills as far as it would go; and that I gave him this information, that he might know the ground on which he stood. He replied that he should have full faith in the bills on that condition, and then observed that the sacrifices which must be made to obtain the money at the moment, could not be less than twenty-five per cent. After some further discussion of the subject, and knowing the impossibility of obtaining the money from any other quarter, (about which I had made inquiry for two days past) I agreed to give him the advance, which brought the amount to 33,750 dollars; and in the evening gave him a bill, at thirty days sight, on John Gavino, Esq. consul of the United States at Gibraltar, in favour of Moise Levy Valensen, of Gibraltar, value received of Jacob Cain Bacri, of Algiers, on account of the United States of America, to pay a balance claimed by the dey of Algiers, for annuities from the United States, the dey having refused to receive the naval and military stores sent from the United States, agreeably to treaty stipulation, to pay such balance as might be due. I also stipulated with Mr. Bacri, that he should cause the money to be paid into the treasury tomorrow morning, so as not to give any ground for detaining the vessel, or raising any new difficulties on that account, which he promised to do.

"I gave to John Norderling, Esq. his Swedish majesty's agent general at Algiers, a letter, accepting his friendly offer to take care of my property left in Algiers, and also requesting his kindness to be extended to any American citizens who might arrive in Algiers after my departure, or be unhappily brought in by the cruisers of the regency

6 The following is an extract from my letter to Mr. Norderling.

“. As my departure from Algiers is compulsive, I leave no person directly charged with the affairs of the United States of America in this regency. But should any of our citizens arrive here, or be unhappily brought in, your kindness to them will be gratefully acknowledged, and the necessary and reasonable expenses for the support of such as are destitute will be paid by the government of the United States.'

“ Through the day of Friday, and in the evening, my acquaintance of all descriptions called upon me, and the unfeigned sorrow expressed by all of them of every denomination, sufficiently evinced the regard they had for us. And the undisguised disapprobation and disgust expressed

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