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other guns are nine and six pounders. The corvettes and brigs carry twelve, nine, and six pounders : none of them have carronades.
“ The large frigate is about six years old, and the best of the squadron. She is about the size of our 36 gun frigates. Three of the others are very old ships, hardly seaworthy, about the size of our 32 gun frigates. That of 38 guns is a new ship, launched at Algiers about two months since, and is about 500 tons burden. The two corvettes of 24 guns are Greek prizes, converted into truizers, about 400 tons burden each. The corvette of 22 guns is an old vessel of about 350 tons. The two brigs are about 250, and the xebeck 200 tons. Four of the frigates, one corvette, and the two brigs, are coppered.
“ The Algerines have not another vessel of war, besides those mentioned, excepting three gun-boats, of the size of those sent out, which are unfit for service. All their small open gun-boats for the defence of the bay, are either broken up or entirely unfit for service.
" The squadron before mentioned is commanded by their famous captain rais Hammida, who bears the title of admiral. He is a bold, active, enterprising commander, but entirely unacquainted with any regular mode of fighting; he has not the advantage of being a Turk, or even an Algerine by birth, and his advancement, which has been owing entirely to his activity, enterprise, and singular good fortune, has excited the jealousy and hatred of the other commanders, who are far inferior to him in point of talents; but he is much beloved by the sailors (if such they may be called who go out in their cruisers.) He is an Arab of the mountains, of one of the tribe of Carbiles; he came to Algiers when a boy, to seek a livelihood, as is the custom of those people, and going out in one of the cruisers, became attached to that mode of life, and has risen to his present rank. He is about 40 years old.
“ The crews of their cruisers consist principally of the lowest and most miserable order of people in Algiers, known by the name of Biscaries and Carbiles, from the tribes to which they belong. They are either taken from the streets at the moment when a cruiser is about to sail, or if a previous cruise has been fortunate, they go on board
voluntarily in great numbers, hoping to obtain plunder or prize money. As the last cruise of their corsairs was esteemed fortunate by the capture of a number of Greek vessels loaded with wheat, and each man shared about fifty dollars, the vessels have been crowded with volunteers on the present cruise. - Besides these there are a few who may be called good seamen for Algerines; and about ten or twelve Turkish soldiers to every one hundred men on board the vessel.
“ They know nothing of regular combat at sea, and if kept from boarding distance, they could not withstand one half their own force on board another vessel, which should be tolerably well managed in the usual mode of sea fighting. It is on boarding that they depend entirely to overcome an equal or any force that will contend with them. These attempts they sometimes make with a desperation bordering on madness; but if foiled in that, they have no other resource.
“After this account of the Algerine cruisers and their crews, which is faithful and correct, I am sure that our brave officers and seamen would rejoice to meet them with only half their force, if circumstances should make a recurrence to arms necessary on our part, and our ships could come freely into this sea.
"Enclosed is the account of the settlement of the cargo of the brig Paul Hamilton, made at the palace on the 22d instant; and although the prices allowed for the cordage and cables are at a great loss to the United States, yet those given for the plank and turpentine, &c. make the settlement upon the whole as good as usual, and had the cargo of the ship Allegany been received at the same rate, it would have paid the balance up to September next, which completes the seventeenth year of our treaty, according to our computation of time. The account of annuities between the United States and Algiers, as per treaty, stands simply thus :
Dr. The United States to the Dey and Regency of Algiers. To 17 annuities ending Sept. 5, 1812, at $21,600 per year
old sequins By the amount of stores brought by the brig Paul Hamilton, as per settlement July 22d, 1812
Balance due to the regency of Algiers on the 5th
“ The regency of Algiers counting the time by the Mahometan computation of 354 days to the year, make 173 years, which is an addition of half a year, or $10,800 to the above balance, which makes their balance $26,637 to the 5th of September, 1812, for which the dey demands. $27,000 in round numbers."
FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TO CON
GRESS. Nov. 18, 1812. I TRANSMIT to Congress copies of a communication from Mr. Russell to the Secretary of State. It is connected with the correspondence accompanying my message of the 12th instant, but had not at that date been received.
Ur. Russell to Mr. Monroe. Washington, November 16,
1812. SIR,_I have the honour to hand you herewith an account of the conversation alluded to in a postscript to my letter of the 19th of September, and which I had not sufficient time then to copy. I have the honour to be, &c.
JONA. RUSSELL, 'The Hon. James Monroe, &c. &c. &c.
Mr. Russell to the Secretary of State. London, September
17, 1812. SIR,“On the 12th instant, I had the honour to receive your letter of the 27th of July last. I called immediately at the foreign office to prepare lord Castlereagh, by imparting to him the nature and extent of my instructions, for the communication which it became me to make to him. His lordship was in the country, and I was obliged to write to him without previously seeing him. I however accompanied my official note (X,*) with a private letter (B,*) offering explanation, if required, and soliciting despatch.
I waited until two o'clock, the 16th instant, without hearing from his lordship, when I was much surprised at receiving a note (C,*) from Mr. Hamilton, the under secretary, indefinitely postponing an official reply. To give more precision to the transaction, I instantly addressed to him an answer (D,*) and a little before five o'clock, on the same day, I received an invitation (E,*) from lord Castlereagh to meet him at his house that evening at nine o'clock.
I waited on his lordship, at the time appointed, and found him, in company with Mr. Hamilton, at a table loaded with the records of American correspondence, which they appeared to have been examining.
The notes referred to have already been communicated to Congress, See present vol. pp, 120, 121, 122, 123.
I'was courteously received, and after a conversation of a few minutes on indifferent subjects, I led the way to the business on which I came, by observing that I had once more bcen authorized to present the olive branch, and hoped it would not be again rejected.
His lordship observed, that he had desired the interview to ascertain, before he submitted my communication of the 16th instant to the prince regent, the form and nature of the powers under which I acted. To satisfy him at once on both these points, I put into his hands your letter of the 27th July. I the more willingly adopted this mode of procedure, as, besides the confidence which its frankness was calculated to produce, the letter itself would best define my authority and prove the moderation and conciliatory temper of my government.
His lordship read it attentively. He then commented at some length both on the shape and substance of my powers. With regard to the former he observed, that all my authority was contained in a letter from the Secretary of State, which, as my diplomatic functions had ceased, appeared but a scanty foundation on which to place the important arrangement I had been instructed to propose. With regard to the extent of my powers, he could not perceive that they essentially differed from those under which I had brought forward the propositions contained in my note of the 24th of August. He considered that to enter with me into the understanding, required as a preliminary to a convention for an armistice, he would be compelled to act on unequal ground, as from his situation, he must necessarily pledge his government, when from the nature of my authority, I could give no similar pledge for mine. He could not therefore think of committing the British faith and leaving the American government free to disregard its engagements. Besides it did not appear to him, that, at the date of my last instructions, the revocation of the orders in council, on the 23d of June, had been received at Washington, and that great hopes were entertained of the favourable effect such intelligence would produce there. The question of impressment, he went on to observe, was attended with difficulties of which neither 1, nor my government appeared to be aware. “ Indeed," he continued, “ there has evidently been much misappre- lo