History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in 1852

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Contents

Effects of the change upon the colonial empire of England
9
Still greater results of the Freetrade policy of England
10
Vast extension of the United States of America
12
Vast increase of Russia during the same period
13
Continued increase of Russia from the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
14
necessity
15
Their great frequency and extent
16
Causes of the fall of Louis Philippe
17
Calamitous effects of the Revolution of 1848 in Europe
18
Extreme violence of the Revolution in Germany
19
Successful stand against the revolutionary spirit in England and France
20
Restoration of military power in Austria
21
Restoration of military despotism in France by Louis Napoleon
22
Great increase of external dangers from the effects of the Revolution of 1848
23
Disastrous effects of this Revolution on the cause of freedom 24
26
Extraordinary change in the national mind in this respect
27
Dangers springing from the Freetrade system
28
Dangers arising from the change in our foreign policy
30
Gold mines of California and Australia
32
Way in which this is brought about
33
Europe in the sixteenth century
34
Vast effects of the expansion of the currency during the war
35
the peace
36
Amount of that contraction
37
What if California had not been discovered?
39
Vast blessings which its discovery has introduced
42
Immense effect of the application of steam to mechanical labour
43
What if the case had been otherwise ?
45
Influence of this law on the fate of particular nations
47
Great effect upon the fortunes of the species ib 47 Effect of general education on general morality
48
Proof of this from various countries
50
Reasons of this peculiarity in human nature
52
General power of thought over mankind
54
Great consequent influence of mind on human affairs
55
Ease with which the press may be perverted to the purposes of des potism
56
Great effect of the discovery of steam and electric communication
57
Increased corresponding activity in the principles which counteract evil
58
Way in which this was brought about
59
General longing after representative institutions ib 57 Doubts which their general failure has excited among men
60
Effect of representative institutions in Britain
61
Its effects in America
63
Rise of divisions and passions of race
64
Great error in supposing national character depends on institutions
65
Wars of races are the great passion of Eastern Europe
66
Doubts as to the wisdom of representative institutions
67
Real character good and evil of representative institutions
68
Great effect of the social passions of Europe in propelling its inhabitants to the New World
69
And of the discovery of the gold mines of California and Australia
71
What if the case had been otherwise?
72
Increasing influence of Russian conquest
73
Migratory propensities of men in the youth of civilisation
75
Corresponding moving propensities in the maturity of civilisation
76
Necessity of republican institutions to colonial settlements
77
Adaptation of the Sclavonic and AngloSaxon character to the parts assigned them in their progress
78
Destiny of the race of Japhet in reference to Christianity
79
Increasing influence of religion in Europe
81
Differences of the era of this history and that of the last
82
The age of general causes has succeeded that of great men
83
Answer on the part of the Ministerialists 614
87
This general suffering was not owing to the transition from war to peace
93
Argument against the Property Tax by the Opposition
99
Miss ONeil
104
Reflections on this subject
105
Which is coldly received by the Chamber
108
Increasing liberalism of the higher ranks
110
Establishments ultimately voted
115
Ephemeral decorations of such literature
116
Measures of Government in regard to the restriction of cash payments
125
Extraordinary insensibility to right conclusions which then prevailed
131
Votes for public monuments
136
Monuments to Sir T Picton and others
137
Grants to the officers and men employed in the war
138
New coinage
139
Reflections on the preceding parliamentary narrative
140
Efforts of the factious to stir up sedition ib 67 Spafield riots
142
Expedition to Algiers
143
Outrages which led to it
144
Description of Algiers
147
Lord Exmouths preparations for an attack
148
The manning and fitting out of the fleet
149
Departure of the fleet and voyage to Algiers
150
Preparations of the Algerines
151
Arrival of the fleet off Algiers
152
Commencement of the battle
153
Continuance of the action and positions taken by the ships
154
Destruction of the enemys ships and flotilla
155
The fleet moves out of the bay
156
Results of the battle and killed and wounded
157
The Algerines submit and peace is concluded
158
Honours bestowed on Lord Exmouth and the fleet
159
Reflections on this battle and the commencement of the ascendant of Christianity over Mahommedanism
161
Progressive ascendant of Christianity over Mahommedanism
162
CHAPTER III
163
Difficulties arising from the changeable disposition of the French people
164
Important effects this produced in 1815 and causes of the violence of opinion
165
Unbounded humiliation and sufferings of France at this time
166
Which occasions a universal reaction against Napoleon and his adhe rents
167
Difficulties which these feelings threw in the way of the new Govern ment
168
Difficulties of Louis XVIII in the choice of his Ministers
169
Talleyrand and Fouché are appointed to the Ministry
170
Formation of the Ministry and retirement of Chateaubriand
171
The Kings proclamation from Cambray
172
His entry into Paris
174
Violence of the Royalists and difficulties of Louis
175
Difficulty in regard to the convocation of the Chambers and debates on it
176
authority
177
Royal ordinance changing the modes and rules of election
178
Disunion between the King and the Duke dAngoulême and Count dArtois as to the prefects
179
The freedom of the press is restored in all but the journals
181
necessary
182
Reasons which rendered the punishment of the leading Napoleonists 19 Lists of persons to be accused prepared by Fouché and sanctioned by a royal ...
183
Ordinances regarding the Chamber of Peers
184
The peerage is declared hereditary
185
Arrival of the Allied Sovereigns in Paris
186
Army of the Loire
187
Its submission
188
Disbanding of the army of the Loire
189
Reorganisation of the army into departmental legions
190
Breaking up of the Museum ib 28 Desperate state of the finances
191
Settlements of the allied troops in France and their exactions
193
Reaction in the south
194
Departure of Marshal Brune for Paris
196
He is murdered at Avignon
197
Farther massacres in the south
198
Atrocities at Nimes and the surrounding country
199
Persecution of the Protestants by the Roman Catholics
200
Temper of France during the elections
202
Their ultraRoyalist character ib 39 Dismissal of Fouché from the Ministry
203
Fall of Fouché and his death
205
Fall of Talleyrand and his Ministry
206
Ministry of the Duke de Richelieu
207
Life of the Duke de Richelieu
208
His character
209
Biography of M Decazes
210
Difficulties of the negotiations with the allied powers
211
Exorbitant demands of Austria and the lesser powers
213
Treaty of Paris
214
Convention of 20th November between the allied powers for the exclusion of Napoleon and his family from the throne of France
216
The Holy Alliance and causes which led to it
217
Treaties regarding the Ionian Isles a Russian subsidy and Napoleon Buonaparte
220
Reflections on these treaties
221
Violent ter er and disposition of the Chamber of Deputies
223
Composition and parties in the Chambers
224
The extreme Royalists and their leaders
225
The provincial deputies ib 58 The Opposition and its leaders
227
Composition of the Chamber of Peers
228
Opening of the Chamber and speech of the King
229
Manner in which the speech was received by the Chamber
231
Difficulties at taking the Oath of Fidelity
232
Answer of the Chamber of Deputies ib 64 Law against seditious cries
233
Discussion on it in the Chambers
235
Vehement discussion on the law against seditious cries
236
Law establishing courtsmartial for political offences
237
Proposal for rendering the inferior judges removable during a year
238
Discussion on the acts in the Peers
239
Answer of M de Fontanes and M de Brissac ib 72 Argument against the law on seditious cries
240
Speech of Chateaubriand on the subject
241
Reflections on the deaths of Ney and Labedoyère ib 75 External influences exerted against the Government
242
Considerations which weighed with the Court
243
Measures of the Government to give the accused persons the means of escape
244
Treachery of Colonel Labedoyère
245
His trial and condemnation
246
His death
247
Trial of Marshal Ney His treacherous conduct
249
His departure from Paris and arrest at Bossonis
250
His trial before the Chamber of Peers
251
His defence and condemnation ib 86 Appeal to the capitulation of Paris
253
He is found guilty and sentenced to death
255
His death determined on by the King ib 89 His execution
256
Reflections on this event
257
And on the Duke of Wellingtons share in the transaction
258
Trial of Lavalette
261
He escapes from prison by the aid of his wife and in her dress
262
Sir Robert Wilson Mr Hutchinson and Mr Bruce enable him to escape from France
263
Mode in which they effect his escape and their trial ib 97 Adventures of Murat after the battle of Waterloo
265
He embarks and lands in Corsica
266
A general amnesty
276
Project of the Royalists
283
Answer of the Ministers and their counter project
290
Exaggerations of General Donnadieu and needless severities
296
Adoption of these principles by the King and preparations for carrying
302
The whole Chambers were elected by royal ordinance
308
CHAPTER IV
314
Which in ignorance are supported by the operative manufacturers
319
Reason of this frequent disappointment of general wishes
320
Continued distress and discontent in the country
321
Plan formed of a general insurrection
322
Meeting of Parliament and attack on the PrinceRegent
323
Report of the secret committee in both Houses
324
Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act and passing of the Seditious Meet ings Act
325
Measures of Government to suppress the insurrection which breaks out at Derby
326
Extension of the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act
327
Restoration of confidence and improved prospects towards the close of the year
328
Finance accounts of 1817 compared with 1816
329
Mr Peels Irish Insurrection Act
330
Trial by jury in civil causes in Scotland
331
Its entire failure
332
Acquittal of Watson and Hone
334
Reflections on this subject Error at that period in the English law
335
Good effects of the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act
336
Motion of Mr Brougham regarding the trade and manufactures of the country
337
Establishment of savings banks and diminished severity of punishment in criminal cases
339
Mr Horners life and character
340
His character as an orator and political philosopher
341
Marriage of the Princess Charlotte of Wales 136
342
Universal grief of the nation at this event
343
Improved condition of the country in the end of 1817 and spring of 1818
344
Cause of this increased prosperity
345
Steps of the Bank towards cash payments
346
3437 Argument for the resumption of cash payments by the Opposition 347349
347
3840 Answer by the Ministers 350351
350
Bill of Indemnity for persons seized under the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act
353
Military and naval forces voted and revenue
355
Grant of a million to build new churches
357
Treaty with Spain for the abolition of the slave trade
359
Alien Bill and Mr Broughams committee concerning charities
360
Efforts of Sir Samuel Romilly to obtain a relaxation of our criminal code
361
Death of Sir Samuel Romilly
362
His character ib 50 Death and character of Lord Ellenborough
365
his early life
366
Favourable aspect of affairs at the opening of 1819 and disasters at
370
The succours to the insurgents still continue Reflections on this sub
415
CHAPTER V
421
Progress in other branches of manufacture
426
Brilliant eras in literature which generally succeed those of great public dangers
427
Literary character of Sir Walter Scott
428
Peculiar character of his writings
429
Their elevated moral character
430
The defects of his later writings ib 11 Lord Byron
431
His merits and defects
432
His dramas and Don Juan
433
Moore as a lyric poet
434
His Oriental turn and satirical verses
435
his vast and noble genius
437
His lyrical poems
438
Rogers Pleasures of Memory
439
his peculiar character
440
His merits as a historian and moralist
441
his character as a writer and great fame
442
Parallel between him and Goethe ib 23 Coleridgehis poetic character and Shelley
443
Mrs Hemans
445
Crabbe ib 26 Joanna Baillie
447
Tennyson ib 28 Character of the prose compositions of the period
448
Dugald Stewart
449
His want of original thought
450
Dr Brown
451
Paley ib 33 Sir William Hamilton
453
what led to his doctrines ib 35 Great influence and rapid spread of his doctrines
455
His errors and subsequent demonstration of them
456
His character as a political philosopher
457
Ricardo MCulloch Senior and Mill
458
Davy Brunel Telford Rennie Stephenson
459
Herschel Playfair DIsraeli Alison
460
Buckland Sedgewick Sir Charles Lyell and Sir David Brewster
461
Rise of the learned reviews and lengthened essays
463
Rise of the Edinburgh Review Quarterly Review and Blackwoods Maga zine
464
Jeffrey
465
Brougham
467
Sir James Mackintosh
468
Sydney Smith
469
Macaulay
470
Lockhart
471
Wilson
472
Change in the style of history Hallam
474
Napier
480
Lord Mahon 59 Macaulays History
481
Miss Strickland
483
Miss Martineau
484
Lord Campbell
485
Mitford
486
Grote
487
Thirlwall
488
Arnold
489
Mill
490
The new school of novelists 69 Miss Edgeworth 70 Mr James
493
Sir Edward B Lytton 72 His merits as a poet and dramatic writer 73 Disraeli
496
Dickens
497
Thackeray
498
Miss Austen and Miss Sinclair 77 Mrs Norton
500
Mr Warren
501
Carlyle
502
Dr Croly
503
Hazlitt 82 Bentham
504
Sir John Sinclair
505
Chalmers
506
Monckton Milnes and Aytoun
507
E L Warburton and the author of Eothen 87 The Fine ArtsArchitecture
508
Revival of Gothic Architecture 89 Sir Thomas Lawrence
510
Turner
511
Copley Fielding Williams Thomson
512
Grant Pickersgill Swinton Eastlake and Thorburn 93 Landseer
515
Wilkie 95 Martin
516
Danby 97 Chantrey
517
Flaxman
518
Gibson 100 Marochetti
519
Mrs Siddons
520
John Kemble
521
Miss F Kemble
522
Internal government after the coup détat of 5th September
541
It is passed
551
More liberal system in the army
557
occupation
562
The Budget of 1817
563
476 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 500 ib 501 502 503 504
564
Law regarding bequests to the Church
565
3637 Answer of the Ministerialists
568
Result of the debate
569
Modification of the Ministry
570
Biography and character of Count Molé ib 41 Gouvion de St Cyr
571
The elections of 1817
572
State of public opinion
573
State of public opinion and of the press
574
The Orléanists
575
the law of recruiting
576
The law of recruiting proposed by Government
577
4850 Argument in support of the project by Ministers 578580
578
5153 Argument on the other side by the Royalists 580582
580
The bill is passed into a law
582
Law regarding the liberty of the press
583
Expiry of the laws against personal freedom and the Prévotal Courts
584
Failure of the law for establishing the new concordat
585
The Budget
586
Conclusion of an arrangement regarding the indemnities
587
AixlaChapelle and its concourse of illustrious foreigners
589
Ambassadors there and instructions of Louis to the Duke de Richelieu
590
Brilliant concourse of strangers at AixlaChapelle
591
Conversation of Alexander with Richelieu ib 64 Conclusion of the treaty of AixlaChapelle
592
Secret treaty with the Allies
593
Answer of Louis XVIII
594
Secret military Protocol
595
Secret Royalist Memoir presented to the Allied Sovereigns at Aixla Chapelle
597
Evacuation of the French territory by the Allies
598
Noble conduct of the Duke of Wellington on this occasion
599
Attempted assassination of the Duke of Wellington
601
Visit of Alexander to Louis XVIII at Paris
602
Elections of 1818
603
Financial crisis
605
Difficulties of the Duke de Richelieu
606
Divisions in the Cabinet and breakup of the Ministry
607
Formation of the new Ministry
610
Measures of the new Ministers
611
General promotion of the Liberals in the civil service
612
Movement against the Electoral Law in the Peers
613
8891 Argument in support of M Barthélémys proposal 616618
616
9294 Argument of the Ministers on the other side 619620
619
Adoption of M Barthélémys proposition and defeat of Ministers on the fixing of the financial year
621
Measures of the Government
622
Great majority in the Chamber of Deputies for Ministers
623
Great and lasting results of the changes already made in France ib 99 Repeated coups détat in France since the Restoration
624
The coups détat were all on the popular side
625
Causes of this peculiarity
626

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Page 73 - And he said, BLESSED be the Lord God of Shem ; And Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, And he shall dwell in the tents of Shem ; And Canaan shall be his servant.
Page 315 - Still, where rosy pleasure leads, See a kindred grief pursue ; Behind the steps that misery treads, Approaching comfort view : The hues of bliss more brightly glow, Chastised by sabler tints of woe ; And blended, form with artful strife The strength and harmony of life.
Page 430 - That hangs his head, and a' that ? The coward-slave, we pass him by, We dare be poor for a' that ! For a' that, and a' that, Our toils obscure, and a' that ; The rank is but the guinea stamp ; The man's the gowd for a
Page 437 - Yes ! thy proud lords, unpitied land ! shall see That man hath yet a soul— and dare be free ! A little while, along thy saddening plains, The starless night of desolation reigns ; Truth shall restore the light by Nature given, And, like Prometheus, bring the fire of Heaven ! Prone to the dust Oppression shall be hurl'd, Her name, her nature, wither'd from the world...
Page 76 - Alas ! poor Caledonia's mountaineer, That want's stern edict e'er, and feudal grief, Had forced him from a home he loved so dear! Yet found he here a home, and glad relief, And plied the beverage from his own fair sheaf, That...
Page 95 - The annual supply of the precious metals for the use of the globe was tripled ; before a century had expired the prices of every species of produce were quadrupled. The weight of debt and taxes insensibly wore off under the influence of that prodigious increase...
Page 359 - Treaty, it shall not be lawful for any of the subjects of the Crown of Spain to purchase Slaves, or to carry on the Slave Trade on any part of the coast of Africa to the north of the Equator, upon any pretext or in any manner whatever...
Page 219 - Majesties consequently recommend to their people, with the most tender solicitude, as the sole means of enjoying that Peace which arises from a good conscience, and which alone is durable, to strengthen themselves every day more and more in the principles and exercise of the duties which the Divine Saviour has taught to mankind.
Page 34 - Columbus led the way in the career of renovation ; when he spread his sails across the Atlantic he bore mankind and its fortunes in his bark.
Page 456 - Roll on, ye stars ! exult in youthful prime, Mark with bright curves the printless steps of time ; Near and more near your beamy cars approach, And lessening orbs on lessening orbs encroach ; Flowers of the sky ! ye, too, to age must yield. Frail as your silken sisters of the field ! Star after star from heaven's high arch shall rush, Suns sink on suns, and systems systems crush, Headlong, extinct, to one dark centre fall, And death, and night, and chaos mingle all...

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