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by noise and tumult, from adopting that, the price with which it would be most which they conceived to be a wise mea- proper to fill up the blanks. He trusted sure. The times pressed hard on the the House would permit no farther delay grower of corn, and on every individual in the progress of this business. The who was connected with the agriculture of measure was of the first importance, since the country. They had laid out their it went to render England independent of money for the general benefit, and it foreign countries, with respect to a conwould be most unjust if they were not now stant supply of grain. It was only insupported. If the agricultural interest tended to secure to the farmer such a fair were suffered to decay, the ruin of the remuneration for his ļabour, as would in. manufacturer, who would be unable to duce him to pursue the system of cultisell bis goods in consequence, would soon vation; and, so far from any blame being follow. It was most important, in a na-attached to ministers for the part they tional point of view, that the country had taken on this occasion, he conceived should be rendered adequate to the supply they deserved the thanks of the country of its population, instead of depending on for their exertions. foreign states, for an article of the first Mr. St. Paul explained. He meant not importance. So desirable a state of things to attribute any ill intention to the memcould only be produced by affording a bers of that House. He had spoken merely fair remuneration to the farmer; and all of the probable effect of the Bill, without the provisions of the present Bill went, any improper reference to the motives of he contended, to procure for the manu. those who supported it. facturers, and for the people in general, General Gascoyne said, that as it seemed an abundant supply of bread at a per. that no lower price would satisfy the supmanently cheap rate. It was well said porters of the Bill than 80s. he should opby the celebrated Swift, that he was the pose the Speaker's leaving the chair. The best statesman, who made three blades of assertion of the right hon. gentleman, that grass grow where only one grew before ; the effect of the measure would be to lower and certainly he who caused two blades the price of corn was so extraordinary, of corn to grow, where ordinarily but one that he bad at the time thought he must appeared, was worthy of great praise. It have misconceived it; but it had been was to produce this effect that the Bill explained by the surveyor-general of was brought forward; and such an object, woods and forests, that in the next ten he conceived, ought to be generally sop.. years the average price would be lower ported. It seemed to be imagined by than it had been in the last ten years. As many, that there was no fear of the few of the members of the House might farmer giving up the cultivation of grain survive to disprove this assertion, the pro. on his land. But if the manufacturer was phecy was a safe one. If the right hon. not properly remunerated for his skill and gentleman could persuade the people that Jabour, would he continue to expend his ibe effect of the Bill would be to lower the capital? Certainly he would not. And, price of corn, there would be little opposiif the farmer was not protected, why iion to it from them; but, on the other should it be supposed that he would con- hand, what the farmers complained of was tinue a losing trade ?

the low price, so that they would be ill Mr. Cartwright spoke in favour of going satisfied, unless the right hon. gentleman into the committee, which was the proper could shew them that it would raise the place for settling what the protecting price. If the present measure were care price ought to be. He was extremely ried, a Bill might be next introduced on surprised that any gentleman should use the part of the apothecaries, to oblige the language he had heard in that House. the people to take a certain quantity of It was said, by an hon. member, that it physic for ten years, that they mighi bave was intended, by this measure, to starve the less to take the ten years after. It was the people. Such assertions, he knew, clear that the present effect of the Bill were calculated to occasion a ferment in would be to raise the price, whatever the the public mind; but he would beg gen- future effect might be. He moved as an tlemen lo recollect, that when a ferment amendment, that the House do resolve was once raised, it was not an easy matter itself into the committee on the first day to cool it. He again pressed upon the after the Easter recess. House the necessity of going into the com Mr. Robinson said, he had been much mittee, wbere they might deliberate on misunderstood by the gallant general, but

ideasure.

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the present was not the time to go again that the popular feeling was changed, and through the whole of his former speech, that the measure was a very proper one. If the gallant general supposed that he was Since that time, however, petitions bad capable of holding different lines of argu- poured in from every part of the country, ment to different classes of persons, he expressive of the strongest hostility to the must have been but ill acquainted with his

Now, if the silence of the peocharacter.

ple in the first instance, was insisted on as Mr. Buller stated, that he had in his a proof of the excellence of ihe measure, hand a petition, signed by 20,000 persons, he thought their disapprobation, powerfrom the place which he bad the honour fully expressed as it had been, ought to to represent, against any alteration in the have some weight in the opposite scale. present corn laws. He hoped the House He was very anxious that a little more would not act precipitately.

time should be allowed for considering Lord Compon entered into a short state the question. They had been so conment, to prove the fallacy of the argu- stantly employed in debating, that no time ments adduced by an hon. baronet (sir had been left for thinking. By a little James Shaw) on a former night. He con- delay they would be enabled to come to a tended that ihe hon. baronet's data led to decision more consistent with their own conclusions quite different from those he dignity, and infinitely more satisfactory 10 had drawn from them. He was sure the the public. Impressed wilh these sentihon. baronet had no wish to mislead the ments, he should vote for the amendment. House, but when statements were made, Mr. Calcraft thought that precipitation which would probably have a great effect was altogether unjustifiable under the on the public mind, gentlemen ought to present circumstances, when the ports take care that they were well founded. were shut for three months. He must obThe noble Icrd then proceeded to argue serve, that on former occasions the legislain favour of the Bill, wbich he conceived ture was not so precipitate. In 1773, the absolutely necessary for the protection of bill which was introduced on the 1st of the agricultural interest, and consequently December was not out of the House till for the benefit of the country in general. the month of April. In 1791, the bill was

Mr. Alderman C. Smith expressed himself brought in the 16th of December, and was in favour of the amendment. He had been not passed till the 27th of May following. informed, by several farmers, and be be- In 1904, the bill was brought in the 14ih lieved it to be the fact, that the measure of May, and although it was late in the would be of no service to them, though it session, it was not passed until the 26th would essentially benefit the great land- of July. He thought that if the Bill could holders.

be arrested in ils course, only for a few Mr. Protheroe supported the amend. short days, as proposed by the hon. genement. It would afford an opportunity for ral, some terms of conciliation might be considering whether a medium price might | fixed on. The feeling of the people on not be taken, which would relieve the lbis subject was well known; and although agiculturists, and yet meet the general the legislature were not to be overawed by feeling of the country. As to the obser- the expression of this feeling, yet the voice vation of a ferment being not easy to be of the people was deserving their most appeased, he would certainly say, ihat the serious attention. He denied that the price appearance of precipitation was not the of grain was falling in the way many genbest way of appeasing it.

tlemen had stated; and, in proof of his Sir W. W. Wynn contended, that it was position, he quoted the returns published absolutely necessary something should be in the Gazette, from which it appeared, done for the relief of the cultivators of the that in Javuary last corn was 59s. per soil. He should certainly vote for the Bill quarter, and by the last return it was going into a committee, although he would 678. 3d. not pledge himself to the adoption of any Mr. William Smith declared, that he had particular protecting price. He was in: often told his constituents that on a ques. clined to think that 758. a quarter would lion of a local nature he should solicitously be an eligible sum.

obey their instructions, but that on Mr. Marryalt observed, that when the affecting the whole community, while he business was first introduced, the fact of no listened to their opinion, be must be perpetitions having been presented against it, mitted to exercise bis own judgment. In was advanced as an argument to prove this case, however, although he had not

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received any instructions from his consti. , lutely necessary for the protection of our tuents he had reason to believe that their agriculturists, he could not see upon what opinion and his own coincided. On | grounds they could support it. the best examination into which he had Mr. Western expressed bis anxiety to been able to enter of all the evidence go to the utmost possible extent, short of on the table, he was convinced that 80s. rendering the measure a nullity, in order was too high a protecting price. He to make it one of conciliation. He felt should therefore vote for the postponement. how important it was to convince the -The House divided on general Gas- people of the fact, namely, that parlia. coyne's motion : Yeas, 61; Noes, 187. A ment were legislating as much for their second division then took place, on the interest as for that of any particular class question, that the Speaker do now leave of the community; but he would not conthe chair, when the numbers were: Yeas, sent to give up the efficacy of the Bill for 194; Noes 54. The House then went the purpose of consulting a temporary into the committee. The first and second feeling. His persuasion on the subject resolutions were agreed to.

On the reso was founded, not on theory, but on expeJution being read, which went to fix the rience, and that the experience of nearly price at which corn might be imported, a century. For 79 years, during which

Mr. Robinson rose, to propose that the period the duty on the importation of foblank sliould be filled up, by inserting the reign corn amounted almost to a prohi. sum of 80s. a quar!er. This subject had bilion, corn in this country was at a price already been so fully discussed in different lower than it had been at anterior, and stages of the measure, that he thought that than it was at subsequent periods. This the House would not now expect himn to was a fact on which the opponents of the go over the argument again.

measure ought to dweil. One hon. genGeneral Gascoyne said, that he should tleman who had noticed it, attributed it to follow the example of the right hon. gen. the poverty of the country at ibat time, tleman. In proposing an amendment to but of this there was no proof. On the the motion, be thought it unnecessary to contrary, from 1710 (the period at which repeat the arguments that had already the system he had described was in full been advanced; but in order to conciliate operation) down 10 1764, not only did the feelings of the people with the mea agriculture improve, but commerce and sure proposed, he should move, as an manufactures kept pace with it. Agriamendment, that the blank should be filled culture had, in fact, so much improved up with the words 74s. instead of sos. within thai interval, that bread was cheaper

Mr. Brooke supported the amendment. than it had been at any anterior or subse.

Mrr Courlency supported the amendment. quent periods, while our exports and imHe had conversed with many members ports had advanced from 10 to 25,000,000/. on this subject; and neither from conver. per annum. But the great cause which sations, nor from any thing that had fallen called for the interposition of the House in ibat House, was he able to learn upon upon this subject in order to encourage what grounds any member bad fixed upon agriculture was the amount of our taxa80s, as the proper price. If it was not tion, which so far exceeded that of France, apparent why 80s. was the proper price that it was impossible our agriculture could for England, it was much less evident that go on, unless it was adequately protected. it was the proper price for Ireland. If it with a view to that protection the present was said that the English cultivators could measure was brought forward; and the not bring their corn into market under effect of that measure would, he was con80s. he believed that no Irish gentleman fident, be in the end to lower the price of would say, that the Irish cultivators could corn. Coosequently it would serve to not afford it cheaper. In the county that benefit the public, and therefore, he he was most connected with iu England, trusted, that no popular clamour, which it was generally supposed that corn could must be temporary, would prevent the be afforded at a lower rate than SOs.; and legislature from adopting a measure, the from his knowledge of Ireland, he was bappy results of which must be permasure that it could be grown there much nent. For bis part, he had no hesitation cheaper. The Irish cultivators whom he in stating, that the popular clamour should had conversed with did not conceive such be withstood, and the more so because he a price to be necessary. Unless members was persuaded that it was mainly the were satisfied tbal 80s. was a price abso effect of delusion, He estimated the opi.

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nion of the people as highly as any man; ples of the constitution, that he should
but he would never give up his own righi move that the House do immediately ad-
of judgment, and he hoped that such was journ.
the resolution of every man who heard Lord Castlereagh said, that if the hon.
him. For if otherwise, they must give gentleman had bestowed a little more
up even the government of the country. consideration upon his motion, he would
Not only the present administration, but have been aware that it was not in a com-
any other, must give way if the will of mittee that it ought to be brought for-
the people were to be uncontrollable. He ward. The hon. gentleman should also
trusted, therefore, that the House would have taken the pains of informing himself,
maintain its honour and character by per whether this military force which he bad
severing in the course which it deemed to seen was or was not under the command
be right; that it would not allow itself to of a civil magistrate. (Hear, hear!) He
be swayed by petitions, for the people might have also informed himself what
might as well petition for the abolition of was the cause of the civil magistrale
their liberties as for the abandonment of having called in the aid of the military,
the measure under consideration, which and whether it was not in consequence of
involved their dearest interests.

the House being surrounded by a nume-
notorious that the people were too easily rous and tumultuous mob, who had been
misled; that there were but too many al. brought into the neighbourhood of the
ways ready to misguide and inflame House of Commons for the purpose of
them: those, however, who were most for- menacing the members of that House.
ward to flatter the people, were, they if this was the true state of the case, that
might rest assured, very willing to deceive magistrate had done his doly who had
them. He knew that the people were brought the military into the neighbour-
deceived upon this subject, and therefore hood of the House. He hoped that the
he would not capitulate to their wishes. | bon. gentleman would feel that it was
But his right to decide for himself on all highly proper to defend the civil power
public questions, was the doctrine which of the country; and what higher duty had
he always avowed. When he became that civil power to perform, than to de-
candidate for Essex, he told the electors fend the Parliament of the country from
that he went into parliament from and for the menaces of a mob? If the members
them; but that he would not obey them, of that House were to be intimidated in
that he would be governed on all occasions the discharge of their public duties by the
by his own judgment and opinion, while clamour and menaces of a mob, they
he would never cease to consult their in. would soon cease to be the representa-
terest. That interest he consulted in this tives of the people, and would be dege-
instance ; for it was his firm conviction nerated and degraded to the condition of
that the present measure, if carried with being themselves a part of thut mob. He
due efficacy, would tend most materially hoped, before the hon. member gave the
to their benefit. But the measure was countenance of his name to a complaint
egregiously misunderstood. When the against the employment of the military,
people called out for cheap bread, they that he would be satisfied they had been
did not understand the meaning of their called out in an unconstitutional manner,
cry; for the true meaning of cheap bread and not for the due support of the civil
was nothing else than cheap labour; and power, and the protection of the indepen-
if so generally comprehended, he had no dence of Parliament.
doubt that the general cry would be in Mr. Lamblon said, in reply to the
favour of the measure before the committee. noble lord, that in coming to performa his

duty in the House, he found bimself mePROCEEDINGS UPON COMPLAINT THAT naced by a military force, and considering THE APPROACHES TO THE HOUSE WERE this highly unconstitutional, he thought OCCUPIED BY A Military Force.] Mr. some explanation was due to Parliament. Baring was proceeding to animadvert on Lord Castlereagh said, that the force was, the observations of Mr. Western, when called out in aid of the civil magistrate,

Mr. Lambton rose, and stated, that on and not with a view to menace the memcoming to the House in the discharge of bers of arliament. his duty, he saw the avenues to it sur. Mr. W. Fitzgerald stated, that when he rounded by the military force, which ap came down to altend bis duty in the peared to him so contrary to the princi. House, he saw no military force, but he

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saw a most tumultuous mob, by whom Mr. Lambion then rose and complained the members were collared and dragged to the House, that, in his way to the House about. They were challenged to tell this evening, he had been nearly rode their names, and which way they had over by a squadron of horse, who had voted on the former stages of the bill, and formed themselves in front of the door of how they meant to vote this night. See the House, and that the avenues thereto ing an hon. friend of his (Mr. Croker) were beset by a military force; and very rudely treated, and with difficulty that he thought it his duty to make this rescued from this mob, he deemed it his complaint, as he conceived it to be a duty to inform the Speaker, as the first breach of the constitution, and of the primagistrate in that House. It was probably vileges of the House, that the military in consequence of ibis information, that a power should be in a situation to overawe military force was brought into the neigh-their deliberations. bourhood of the House not to overawe its Mr. Croker said, that in coming to the proceedings, but to defend its members House his carriage was surrounded by a from violence. He was sorry that the tumultuous mob, who demanded his name, hon. gentleman had not come down to and requested to know how he proposed the House a few hours sooner; as in that to vote, or how he had voted upon the case, he would have been able to have Corn Bill? But to these questions he deformed a better judgment of the cause of clined to make any reply. However, on the military being brought into that his arrival at the door of the House, both neighbourhood.

doors of the carriage were opened, and Mr. Whitbread was not at all surprised he was dragged out by the collar. He that his bon. friend, on discovering a mili- then received several blows, bis assailanis tary force in the neighbourhood of the exclaiming that they would not let bim House, should have taken the earliest op- go, unless he declared his name and proportunity of stating that fact in his place; mised to vote against the Corn Bill. This and if he had done so with warmth, he promise, however, he refused to give, and considered that warmth as venial, inas- endeavoured, with all the strength of much as he was ignorant of the manner in which he was capable, to release himself; which they had come there. He con- which he did not think he should have curred with the noble lord and the right succeeded in effecting, if it were not for hon. gentleman, that if a tumultuous the violence and confusion that prevailed mob had insulted the members of that among the mob, who struck at one another. House on their approach to it, and the Thus be contrived to escape from them, civil power was incompetent to repel those and made his way into the House through insults, it was proper the aid of the mili- the coffee-room of the House of Lords, tary should be called in. But he thought there being no other avenue unimpeded by it was due to the dignity of the House to the mob. At the time he was so treated, be informed what had taken place, to in- he saw no soldier whatever about the duce the Speaker to issue the mandate to House; and he was sorry to say, that he which allusion had been made. With derived no protection from any constables, this view of the case, he thought the best who did not indeed seem competent to course to be pursued would be for the afford any adequate protection. Upon chairman to report progress, and ask leave coming into the House he thought it bis to sit again. The Speaker would then duty to communicate to the Speaker what have an opportunity of taking the chair, he had just stated, adding, that he underand explaining, no doubt to ihe satisfac- stood several other members had also been tion of the House, how it was that the ill treated by the mob, and he believed that military had been called in. The hon. the introduction of a military force to aid gentleman concluded by moving, -That the civil power had been the consequence the chairman report progress, and ask of such communication. Were not such leave to sit again.

means taken for the protection of the Lord Castlereagh concurred in the pro. members, he agreed with his noble friend priety of this suggestion, and said it would in thinking, that it would be quite absurd certainly be proper for the House to be to talk of the independence of that House, informed of the facts which had occurred, or to calculate upon the maintenance of from due authority.

its dignity, or capacity for free deliberaThe question was then put and carried, tion. and the Speaker took the chair,

Mr. Speaker then desired to state to the

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