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object at all, or it would effect something | alluded to the case of ensign Cowell, who far beyond that object; and required, was dismissed the service by the sentence therefore, great nicety in the wording, of a court-martial, for not sending a mes. and many other clauses to explain and sage in an affair in which he supposed limit it. Supposing abuses to exist, a himself the aggressor. The hon. gentle. shorter and a more expedient way would man related the affair, by which it apbe for Parliament, if it thought an indi- peared that Mr. Cowell went a little heated vidual to be greatly aggrieved, to address with wine to a theatre at Bourdeaux, and the Crown upon the subject, and to obtain meeting Mr. Harvey, the paymaster of the removal of those ministers who had the regiment, from whom he ihought he 80 advised the Crown. "To deprive the bad received some slight, he behaved to Crown of its prerogative of controlling the bim in something of a hostile manner. army, so far as the power of dismissing However, reflecting on his conduct, and its officers went, would introduce as great perceiving that he had been wrong, he an anomaly into the constitution as that made a submission to Mr. Harvey. Yet which was pretended to exist in the pre- though he acted with such real spirit, and sent system. As the army could not exist with so much of what ever distinguished without the power of Parliament, so it the man of true bravery and honour, from could not be put in motion without the the bully or the coward, he was brought power of the Crown; that was the coun- to a court-martial and dismissed. The terpoise provided by the constitution; but sentence, the hon. gentleman said, was that balance would be partly destroyed not only pernicious to military discipline, if the proposition of the noble lord were but at direct variance with the laws of carried. He should therefore vote against the land. What, he asked, would bave it.

been Mr. Cowell's situation had he sent Mr. Wynn thought, that as the Mutiny a message, and killed his antagonist, in Bill provided many of the temporary re. an affair in which he conceived himself gulations of the army, and as, under its the aggressor? It was ever the sign of provisions, courts-martial were held, it true magnanimity not to be afraid to make could not be improper to introduce into it a concession for an injury; and only a a clause such as the noble lord had pro- want of real bravery would risk taking posed. He could not agree with the right away the injured person's life rather than hou. gentleman, that the House could submit to confess a fault. The hon. genproperly investigate the case of this lieu- tłeman concluded by repeating his wish tenant or that major in order to address that military duels should have some mark the Crown in any particular instance of of disapprobation affixed to them. abuse. The course now proposed would The report was ordered to be brought be preferable. He should therefore sup up to-morrow. port the clause.

The clause was negatived without a division.

HOUSE OF COMMONS. Mr. Whitbread complained of the power

Wednesday, March 8. which magistrates had of sending persons EMIGRATION.] Mr. Horner begged to confessing themselves to be deserters to put a question to the right hon. gentleman the dépôc at the Isle of Wight without over the way, which might be in some any record; and said, that when the degree connected with the Corn Bill. clause allowing such a power came to be Much had been said, in the course of the read, he should move an amendment. debates, of the danger of emigration by

Lord Palmerston said, that this power our artisans and mechanics; and an adverwas allowed, lo prevent the collusion, tisement had been put into his hand, which sometimes took place, when one which, if correct, would imply that minisinformed against another for being a de. lers had been aiding in promoting the deserter, and received the reward, while the parture of our manufacturers and others person informed against had never been in from this country. This advertisement the army, and only shared the reward was from a person who styled himself, in a with the informer.

Scotch newspaper, “ government commis. Mr. Wynn wished that there should be sioner and general agent in Scotland;" and some mark of disapprobation affixed to it stated that it was the intention of miois. duels in the army, especially as some ters to encourage settlers in the British courts-martial now promoted duels. He provinces of North America, and that for


that purpose ships were ready in the Clyde | House-proved so clearly the insufficiency to take in passengers, &c. The bon, and of the present representation of the counlearned member wished to know whether try, as the number of petitions which had government had given any authority or been on this occasion submitted to parlia. instructions to the individual who had put ment, without producing any effect wbatforth this advertisement ?

The Chancellor of the Exchequer could Sir James Graham said, he had never not give any information with regard to heard of this petition, as bis constituents at the particular advertisement'; but he did Carlisle bad never favoured him with a heir certainly know, that it had been in the opinions or intentions upon the subject. contemplation of the Secretary of State for the whole population of that place was not the Colonial department to take measures much more than 9,000. With respectiothe to prevent emigration to the United States, corn laws, he owned that he in part agreed and for that purpose to promote it to our' with them. He had made it bis business own settlements in North America. to inquire particularly into the subject

Mr. Horner gave notice that on an early during the course of the last 12 months ; day he would bring the subject under the he had spoken to many persons connected consideration of the House.

with agriculture in most parts of the

country; and this he would state to the PETITIONS RESPECTING THE Corn Laws.] House, that from the greatest proprietors Numerous petitions were presented relat- of land downwards, he found they would ing to the proposed alteration in the Corn be satisfied with an average price of 72s. Laws.


quarter, so as to have 80 or 85s. for the Mr. Baring rose for the purpose of pre- best wheat in the market. He bad heard senting a petition, signed by between 5 from the best surveyors, that if the average and 6,000 inhabitants of the city of Car. price was 72s. the best market wheat lisle and its immediate neighbourhood; a would be 80 or 85s.; and he was astonumber which comprized, with very little nished that Parliament should think of exception, the whole of the grown popula- tixing 80s. as the importation price. This tion of the district he had mentioned. The was not only the language of honest surprayer of the petition was similar to that veyors throughout the country, but of the which had been so frequently stated dur greatest landed proprietors, persons who ing the evening, namely, that no altera. possessed more landed property than most tion should be made in the Corn Laws. consumers. He was therefore astonished The petitioners had, however, made re when he heard gentlemen in that House marks on a variety of other subjects; and say that nothing less than 80s. the quarter they seemed to think, that the Board of would satisfy the agricultural interest. He Agriculture was a very great nuisance. was no less astonished to hear it asserted They expressed their conviction, that the that rent was not material in this question; members of that board, by tampering there could be no doubt that rent was very with the Corn Laws, from time to time, material. If the tythes were at a moderate bad rather occasioned evil than good. compensation, and rents somewhat lowerThe petition, though it did not absolutely ed, the farmer would undoubtedly be also pray for parliamentary reform, yet touched able to lower the price of grain.' Libour indirectly on that subject. The sentiments must fall, the taxes had been diminished, of the inhabitants of Carlisle were thus ex. and would be diminished still more. And pressed: “ Your petitioners," say they, was corn alone to be kept up? The truth « are satisfied, that any hope of success in was, that corn bad already fallen one-third restricting the importation of corn, must in most parts of the country. If corn was arise from the people not being fairly to be kept up by a vote of the House of represented—from the want of parliamen- Commons, the price would fall so heavy on tary reform.” And they recommended the manufacturing interest, that they to them, by "granting no more public would be driven out of the couniry. If money than was absolutely necessary, and they could find proper protection in Flanby doing away the corn laws, to shew ders, he had no doubi that they would that they were really ready to support the leave this country; for 1$ would be im. interests of the people.” He agreed with possible for them to exisi in it. It had them in the view they had taken of the been said laat it was impossible to raise subject; for no argumentano fact that corn on the South Downs, Dartmoor, and ever before had been submitted to that some such places, without a great expense;



and that the farmer could not be remune. | time thought that a lower average would rated for his trouble, unless he were secured have been sufficient; but having heard all by such an importation price as that in the the debates on the subject, he was satisfied present Bill. If the farmer of these diso that the price now proposed was not betricts could only raise three quarters of yond what was necessary in order to give wheat at an expense of 181. it was a pity the farmer a fair profit. He knew ihat he should ever think of laying out so much there were many who had their lands inmoney on such ground. No price could closed, and peculiarly calculated for the ever secure an adequate return to such ex. raising of wheat, who might be desirous travagant speculations; and even 150s. a that this measure should not pass ; for if quarter could never produce any profit to itdid not pass, much land not so fit for the the agriculturist. This was

purpose of raising wheat must be left unwhich had been proposed, and supported cultivated, and then their good lands in the House by those who were connected would procure an inordinate price. He with land, and it ought not to be borne was not at all surprised, therefore, that with. He knew well that wheat had been there were many great land-owners adselling in the country at 58. a bushel, but verse to this measure. Now the state of this wheat was not fit to be eaten by man. the question appeared to him to be this : Oats, 100, had been selling at 12s. and 15s. it was agreed on all hands that here was a quarter; but they were not fit food for a party in distress, and the only question horses. All this arose from the badness of was as to the relief. On the one side was the season; and it would be most absurd the great body of the agricultural interest; to force that to be eaten by man which on the other many well-informed persons was 'not fit to be eaten by pigs. He could certainly, and also a great number of the assert, that the best wheat was now selling lower orders, who were utterly unable to at 80s. and had never been selling at less reason accurately on the subject. Who than 80s. in several parts of the country was to decide between them? The Legis. with which he was acquainted; and that lature unquestionably. He had endeathe people, for the best wheat, were satis-voured to form the inost correct opinion fied with that price. It had been said they on the question, and should vote accordought not to be deterred by clamour from ing to his conscience and the best of his passing this Bill; he would not be de- understanding. Having once clearly asterred by clamour from doing what he certained what was his duty, he should be conceived to be right, but neither would ashamed to shrink from it, and if he had he pass a bill merely because there was a represented the most populous place, he clamour against it. He implored the should decide exactly in the saine way, House only to delay passing this Bill for and tell his constituents that they had no some time, and to inquire of honest sur- right to control his judgment and vote. veyors and agriculturists, not those sur- Mr. Calcraft said, that though the lower veyors who were employed merely to raise orders were not perhaps judges of all the rents, but those who decided fairly be minute details of a question of this kind, tween landlord and tenant, what the pro- they knew, from experience, that whentecting price ought to be. If they were ever the subject of wheat, bread, or proto call some of the largest landholders in visions was mentioned in that House, it the country, they would find that they had always the effect of raising the price would be contented with much less than of them to the consumer. With regard 80s. It was his own firm belief, that 72s. to the inferior lands which had been alwas quite susficient; and he should never luded to by the hon, baronet, whatever give his vote for more.

was done by the House, it would be imMr. Fawcett said, that he had received possible to keep them in cultivation, unless letters from several landholders, stating a similar stimulus should be applied from that they had no desire to have the im- time to time; and even this stimulus portation price fixed so bigh.

would be insufficient to keep them in cul. Sir J. Graham, in answer to a question tivation to the amount wished. Nothing by Mr. Cawthorne, stated, that wheat was could be more impolitic than such a sysselling at 10s. the bushel in Yorksbire and tem. Had they not seen other things Cumberland.

raised to an immoderate beight, by the Mr. Wortley Stuart said, he knew that it , number of acres which had been conhad been at 10s. the bushel, but thal it verted from pasture to arable ? He said had since fallen back. He had at one he had been bighly pleased to hear the



hon. baronet express himself as he did, had been made out to justify the inter-
because he was a man of great experience, ference of Parliament to this extent.
had a knowledge of all parts of the coun. Mr. Baring hoped the inhabitants of all
try, and was connected with some very the petitioning towns would receive such
great estates. The bon. baronet bad fixed support as had been given by the hon.
on the same sum as he himself had fixed member for Carlisle to their constituents.

After the statement which the House The hon. baronet, who was so well ac-
had done him the honour to listen to the quainted with the country, had told them,
other night, and which the right hon. that if a committee of impartial and fair
gentleman (Mr. Huskisson) had not re- men were appointed, much less would be
futed in any part, he should trouble the found requisite than 80s. a quarter.
House very shortly at present. It was he had always argued from the partial
monstrous io hear the arguments made use report itself, that the price ought to be
of in that House. Among the ditterent much less. An hon. gentleman whose
burtbens of poor-rates, taxes, and tythes, displeasure he had formerly incurred, had
with which the farmer was loaded, no even himself said that something less than
mention was made of rent as a burthen on SOs. would do. He had only to regret
the farmer. He would say that he had that those who thought 80s. too much,
had conversations and held correspon- when there was a question for leaving out
dence with farmers in different parts of 80s. were generally in the majority.
the kingdom; and they all disclaimed Mr. Philips presented a petition from
that the present Bill was a cause of theirs. certain journeymen tailors, assembled at
He wished the House to consider this sub. their house of call, the Peacock, in Clare.
ject more maturely, and not make such a market, against any alteration in the Corn
respectable body of men as the agriculo Laws ;—which was ordered to lie on the
turists of this country, odious in the eyes

table. of their fellow-citizens.

It was the prayer of all of them that a measure of such great Corn Bill.] On the motion that the importance, might not be precipitated. report of the committee on the Corn Bill,

Mr. J. Graham said, he had not advised be now brought up, the withdrawing of land from cultivation; Sir Gilbert Heathcote rose, and after he had merely said, that if land was cul- stating that he was afraid to trust his feel. tivated at 181. an acre, the cultivator neverings on this occasion, he proceeded to obcould he repaid. He had not said that serve, that, when he willnessed such a the agriculturist ought not to be pro- multitude of petitions laid on the table of tected ; agriculture and manufactures that House, and saw how little they were ought equally to be protected; but if a attended to by those who, no doubi, were preference were necessary, it ought to be desirous of being considered the represengiven to agriculture, as it was productive tatives of the people, he could not help of more moral good.

believing that the people had just reason Mr. Methuen wished the House to bear to complain that they were not freely and in mind that it had been admitted by an fairly represented. Those who were ene. hon. member, that the present Bill had mies to parliamentary reform ought to already raised the price.

mark the powerful engine, which, by Mr. Alderman Atkins called the atten. their neglect, they placed in the bands of tion of House to the petitions which had those who contended that the representabeen presented on the one side and the tion was not what it ought to be. No other, and expressed his wish, that the person could suspect that he was hostile numbers on each side should be ascer- to the agricultural interest; but he could tained and stated. The petitions against not forget the great services which the the measure were not signed by the rabble commercial interest had performed for the who had committed those outrages which country; services by which the empire

all must abhor, but by a vast number of was enabled to make the effectual strug. . intelligent people, perfectly competent to gle which had been so gloriously termi

discriminate, and to form a correct judg- nated. The hon. baronet then proceeded ment on the question.

to animadvert on a speech delivered on a Mr. Shaw Lefevre stated, that wheat had former evening by Mr. Yorke, at the debeen rising in Reading market for these livery of which, he acknowledged he was four weeks past, and was now selling at not present. The right hon. gentleman, 888, the quarter. He thought that no case he observed, appeared all of a sudden to


forget the commercial interest entirely, as strongly as any man, that the delibera. and called on the House to support the tions of the House, to be useful to the agricultural interest alone. For his own country, must be unbiassed and unintimi. part, he thought it better to adhere to a dated ; and never would compromise the system already tried, and found efficient, freedom of so important an agency. But, than to adopt experiments, however beau- on the other hand, as an humble individual tiful the theory by which they were sup- sitting, that House, he could not consent ported. He should always prefer making that the people of England should be the amount of the rent depend on the thrust from the bar without time for peliprice of corn, rather than render the price tion, nor that the voices of those by whose of corn consequent on the aniount of the franchise genılemen sat there should be rent. He concluded by moving, “ That unheard or disregarded. Besides this the Report be brought up this day six view of the subject, on which he mainly months."

and readily rested his vole, there were Mr. Yorke denied that he had ever several considerations on which he should spoken of the commercial interest in the pause, both as to the justice and the policy manner attributed to bim.

of the measure. He thought that it was Lord Nugent rose to second the amend-imposing a high standard price on an ment. He said that on the same grounds article, which as it had fluctuated under on which the other night he had voted the burthens and chances of war, so would against going into a committee, he should it, under the influence of peace, find its now give his hearty and decided vote own proper and natural level. The mea. against receiving the report. Under an sure would, he thought, encourage to an impression of the difficulties with which alarming extent emigration among the the question was surrounded, and the im- middling orders, particularly among maportance of the interests involved, he had, nufacturers, who would export arts, enternot without some hesitation, arrived at a prize, and hands, to those countries where decided opinion by which to direct his sustenance was cheaper, and the wages of conduct. But the question, as it now labour corresponded better with the means stood, involved other considerations be of life. He thought no case had been sides those of the ultimate expediency of made out to convince the House that this the legislative measure. He thought the minimum standard would have the ultimate question had been hurried through the effect of keeping corn at a more moderate House, up to its present stage, in a manner level; but he was convinced that the immeindecorous to Parliament, and injurious to diate operation of it would be the reducing the people of England. On a question the labouring class to a more wretched deof such intricacy, and such importance to pendence on parochial assistance than the our commercial as well as landed interest, poor-laws had already placed them in. time ought to have been given to members It belonged to older men than himself to to instruct and satisfy their own minds, so recollect the good days of the English that, even should they be disposed to peasantry. The high and honourable concur in the necessity of the Bill, they pride which once kept the peasant from might have means and opportunity to stooping to parochial relief was now exreconcile, if possible, the wishes and feel- tinct, the possibility of his maintaining ings of their constituents. No such oppor himself and his family by honest labour lunity had been given, and the Bili had was now no more; and laws such as these been hurried through with a haste ill would perpetuate this wretched change, becoming the importance of the subject, would make it worse, and bring down a or the gravity of Parliament. The people free and gallant peasantry to the abject of England were at the doors; he meant state of serfs of the soil. The English not in riotous and tumultuous meeting, peasantry had done much in our support; but in respectful, constitutional, and right- had made many sacrifices, through a long, ful remonstrance, by way of petition. arduous, and, at one time, nearly hopeless This was not a moment for hurrying such We had animated their exertions a Bill, or for running as it were a race for by bidding them look to the blessings of time against the petitions of the people. peace, whenever, under Providence, peace He trusted he was as little disposed as any should arrive. They had abided with us, man who heard him to concede any thing and for us, the pelling of the storm. The to the outcry of a mob, which was as storm was overpast, and what was the contemptible as it was violent. He felt poor man's reward in peace? What were


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