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E, The People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Juftice, infure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common Defence, promote the general Welfare, and fecure the Bleffings of Liberty to ourfelves and our Pofterity, DO ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH this CONSTITUTION for the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Sect. 1. ALL legislative powers herein granted, fhall be vefted in a Congrefs of the United States, which fhall confift of a Senate and Houfe of Reprefentatives.
Sect. 2. The Houfe of Reprefentatives fhall be composed of members chofen every fecond year by the people of the several states; and the electors in each ftate fhall have the qualifications requifite for electors of the most numerous, branch of the ftate legislature..
No perfon fhall be a Reprefentative who fhall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been feven years a citizen of the United States, and who fhall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that ftate in which he fhall be chofen.
Reprefentatives and direct taxes fhall be apportion
ed among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their refpective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free perfons, including those bound to fervice for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other perfons. The actual enumeration fhall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in fuch manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Reprefentatives fhall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each ftate fhall have at least one Reprefentative; and until such enumeration fhall be made, the state of New-Hampshire fhall be entitled to chufe three; Maffachusetts, eight; Rhode-Ifland and Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New-York, fix; NewJerfey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, fix; Virginia, ten; North-Carolina, five; South-Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.
When vacancies happen in the reprefentation from any state, the executive authority thereof fhall iffue writs of election to fill fuch vacancies.
The House of Reprefentatives fhall chufe their Speaker and other officers; and fhall have the fole impeachment.
Sect. 3. The Senate of the United States fhall be compofed of two Senators from each ftate, chofen by the legislature thereof, for fix years; and each Senator fhall
have one vote.
Immediately after they fhall be affembled, in confequence of the first election, they fhall be divided as equally as may be into three claffes. The feats of the Senators of the firft clafs fhall be vacated at the expiration of the fecond year, of the fecond clafs at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third clafs at the expiration ofthe fixth year, fo that one-third may be chofen every fecond year; and if vacancies happen by refignation, or otherwife, during the recefs of the legiflature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary
appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which fhall then fill fuch vacancies.
No perfon fhall be a Senator who fhall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who fhall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that ftate for which he shall be chofen.
The Vice-Prefident of the United States fhall be Prefident of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate fhall chuse their other officers, and alfo a Prefident Pro Tempore, in the absence of the Vice-Prefident, or when he fhall exercise the office of Prefident of the United States.
The Senate fhall have the fole power to try all impeachments. When fitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the Prefident of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall prefide: and no perfon fhall be convicted without the concurrence of twothirds of the members prefent.
Judgment in cafes of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and difqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, truft or profit under the United States; but the party convicted fhall nevertheless be liable and fubject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law.
Sect. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, fhall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof: But the Congress may at any time by law make or alter fuch regulations, except as to the places of chufing Senators.
The Congress fhall affemble at least once in every year, and fuch meeting fhall be on the firft Monday in De cember, unless they fhall by law appoint a different day.
Sect. 5. Each Houfe fhall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each fhall conftitute a quorum to do bufinefs; but a fmaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance
of abfent members, in fuch manner, and under fuch pe nalties, as each House may provide.
Each Houfe may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for diforderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
Each Houfe fhall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the fame, excepting fuch parts as may, in their judgment, require fecrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either Houfe on any queftion, fhall, at the defire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the feffion of Congrefs, fhall, without the confent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses fhall be fitting.
Sect. 6. The Senators and Reprefentatives fhall receive a compenfation for their fervices, to be afcertained by law, and paid out of the treafury of the United States. They fhall in all cafes, except treafon, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arreft during their attendance at the feffion of their refpective Houses, and in going to or returning from the fame; and for any fpeech or debate in either House, they shall not be quef tioned in any other place.
No Senator or Representative fhall, during the time. for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil of fice under the authority of the United States, which fhalf have been created, or the emoluments whereof fhall have been encreased during fuch time; and no person holding any office under the United States, fhall be a mem ber of either Houfe during his continuance in office.
Sect. 7. All bills for raifing revenue fhall originate in the House of Reprefentatives; but the Senate may propofe or concur with amendments as on other bills.
Every bill which fhall have paffed the Houfe of Reprefentatives and the Senate, fhall, before it become a law, be presented to the Prefident of the United States:) If he approve he fhall fign it; but if not he fhall return it, with his objections, to that Houfe in which it fhall