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to do so, and that as regards the latter, the execution of this order is no longer a rigorous duty.

On the other side it is evident that John the VIth of Portugal, in fixing the provisional stay of the Infant Don Miguel at Vienna, had made use of his paternal authority to confide this Prince to His Majesty, the Emperor of Austria. Now, in the state of the respective rights, such as we have just defined it, is the Emperor of Austria, exercising the discretionary power which had been delegated to him by King John VI., under an obligation to engage this Prince to proceed to Rio Janeiro at the invitation of Don Pedro ? We do not think so, and it appears to us, on the contrary, that the observations, above presented, show that this obligation cannot exist.

To our doctrines as to the right, perhaps one may oppose the qualification of king hitherto given in Portugal, to Don Pedro, although the Infanta Donna Maria da Gloria is also there qualified as queen. The answer is easy. There cannot be two sovereigns at the same time in one country. The father cannot still be king when his daughter is already queen. This qualification granted to Don Pedro is then evidently an abuse.

Further, Don Pedro has not, as appears to us, the right to retain indefinitely near his person,

the Infanta Donna Maria de Gloria, for on the one hand, he has fixed in his act of abdication, the term of the stay of this Princess in Brazil, at the epoch when he should receive the official news of her betrothment, and of the oath taken to the Portuguese Charter ; on the other hand, the Infanta having become queen, belongs to the State which she must govern, and her absence, occasioned by the sole fact of a will paternal, it is true, but already foreign, would not assuredly appear either free or legal.

The Emperor of Brazil does not appear, either, to have the right to give orders in the name of the Queen of Portugal his daughter; for this queen, being a minor, according to the terms of the Charter of Don Pedro, only administers through the intermediary channel of a Regency, and the Emperor of Brazil could neither represent this Regency, nor indeed be a member of it in his quality of sovereign, and henceforward a foreign sovereign.

In fine, the rights of the Infant Don Miguel to the titles and functions of Regent are independent of his quality of the betrothed and future spouse of Donna Maria. He derives them from the rights of his birth, and from being the nearest relation of the queen, a minor. He derives them from Art. 92 of the Charter which his brother has just given to Portugal.

But notwithstanding all these circumstances, ought not the Allied Courts, and Austria at their head, to engage through other motives, the Infant Don Miguel to proceed to Brazil ? It is here that the question of interest presents itself.

Our intentions certainly will not create suspicion in the Cabinet of London, if we adopt with reference to these interests the opinions which it has itself put forward.

For the last two months, during his stay at Paris, on the occasion of the mission of M. de Neumann, and in his explanations with your Excellency, the principal Secretary of State of His Britannic Majesty, has constantly acknowledged and declared that a definitive separation between the kingdom of Portugal and the empire of Brazil was indispensable. It is one of the theses that we have sustained already. We may then affirm that on this point the rights are in accordance with the interests.

VOL. III.-NO, 18.


The Court of London seems equally of opinion, that it is urgent that the Queen of Portugal should repair to Europe.

It has approved of this point of the instructions of M. de Neumann, and has even charged Lord Ponsonby to obtain it.

We believe we have just proved the absolute legality of this measure. Therefore on this point also the same accord is manifested between the interests and the rights. : But it appears to us that this happy identity between that which is legitimate, and that which Great Britain regards as advantageous, extends much farther. And first, since a definitive separation between Brazil and Portugal is indispensable, since it is urgent that Queen Donna Maria da Gloria should repair to Europe, since after the act of abdication of Don Pedro, she ought not to remain in Brazil beyond the moment when the sovereign of this new empire would receive the news of her betrothment, and of the oath taken to the Charter, what, we ask, would be the motive of the voyage of the Infant Don Miguel, to Rio Janeiro ? Would this Prince traverse the Atlantic to ask for counsel ?

But is it the author of a Charter which the Bri

tish Ministry has qualified as defective and inopportune that can offer to him salutary counsels? Should he go to receive orders? But the Emperor of Brazil having ceased to be King of Portugal has he the power of giving him orders? Would the nuptial benediction be the object of his arrival ? But the act of abdication of his brother does not impose upon him the obligation of receiving it in Brazil. Would his object be to obtain the Regency ? but Art. 92 of the Portuguese Charter secures it to him. This voyage would not then be the effect of a necessity, and from that moment what interest commands it? What is the good which could result from it? The real good which we desire to effect, the major interest which we cannot lose sight of consists in restoring to Portugal a durable tranquillity. This, doubtless, is the noble intention of Great Britain; this its desire, since Mr. Canning has not concealed from

Mon Prince, that the English government would wish to abridge as much as possible the stay of the troops that it sends to this country, and nevertheless it cannot withdraw them so long as imminent dissensions shall make us apprehend new evils there. But would not the departure of the Infant


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