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A. ABERDEEN ACT, introduced by the earl of Aberdeen, and passed, 1845, to enforce the observance of a convention made with Brazil in 1826 to put down the slave trade. It was repealed in April, 1869.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT, discovered by James Bradley, through his observation of an apparent motion of the fixed stars, 1727.

ABRANTES (Portugal). By a treaty between France and Portugal, signed here 29 Sept., 1801, the war was closed, and the French army withdrew; a money compensation having been agreed to, and territories in Guiana ceded to France.

ABSCONDING DEBTORS' ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

ABYSSINIA (p. 4).
The captives relieved of their chains, 29 March, 1868 | Death of Theodore's queen

10 May, 1868 Sir R. Napier arrives before Magdala

2 April, »

Henry Dufton of the intelligence department Theodore massacres about 300 native prisoners shot by Shosho robbers

9 April, Immediate return of the troops ;-all had emBattle of Arogee or Fahla ; Theodore's troops barked

2 June, attack the British first brigade; defeated Troops arrive at Plymouth, 21 June ; sir R. with much slaughter (Good Friday), 10 April,

Napier at Dover

2 July, Theodore retires to his stronghold in Magdala, [Cattle said to have been employed in the expe

and requests Mr. Rassam to mediate ; lieut. dition : 45 elephants, 7417 camels, 12,920 Prideaux sent to Sir R. Napier returns with a mules and ponies, 7033 bullocks, 827 donkeys. letter; Theodore receives it indignantly, and Natives also were largely employed in the sends an insulting reply ; lieut. Prideaux transport service.) returning, meets Mr. Rassam with some of Theodore's son Alamayou, aged 7, arrives at the captives proceeding to the British camp, Plymouth, 14 July; presented to Queen

11 April, ,

Victoria Theodore sends a letter of apology offering a Pension of 3501. to coi. Cameron [he died 30

present of cattle ; Mr. Rassam understand- May, 1870]; 5000l. given to Mr. Rassam; ing this present to have been accepted, tells 2000l. to Dr. Blanc; 2000l. to lieut. Prithe king's minister; the rest of the captives,

deaux announced

23 Dec., , with their property, sent to the British camp,

Prince Alamayou sailed to India for education, 12 April,

26 Jan., 1869 Theodore rejects the terms offered; Magdala Expenses of the war: 5,000,00ol. voted 18 Dec., bombarded and stormed; Theodore kills 1868; 3,300,oool. more voted

4

Mar. himself

13 April

,, Report of a commission on the expenses of the [“I fail to discover a single point of view from expedition disclosed much waste, attributed

which it is possible to regard his removal to urgency and divided authority Aug. 1870

with regret."--Sir R. Napier 18 June,] Magdala burnt to the ground

17 April, ACACIANS. 1. Followers of Acacius, bishop of Cæsarea, in the fourth century, who held peculiar doctrines respecting the nature of Christ. 2. Partisans of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, promoter of the Henoticon (which see), 482-4.

ACCIDENTAL DEATHS in England and Wales ; in 1856, 9176; in 1860, 9225; in 1865, 11,397; in 1869, 10,725.

ACCOUNTANTS' INSTITUTE established at a meeting 30 July, 1870. William Quilter in the chair.

16 July, »

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ADMINISTRATIONS (p. II). In consequence of the majority of about 114 obtained by the Liberal party in the elections in Nov., 1868, the Disraeli Administration resigned, 2 Dec. and was succeeded by the Gladstone Administration (which see) 9 Dec. following.

9 ADMIRALTY (p. 12). Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, succeeded Henry Thomas Corry as first lord, 9 Dec., 1868.

ADULLAM (p. 13). The Adullamites (lord Elcho and Mr. Wyld excepted) voted with Mr. Gladstone for the disestablishment of the Irish Church, 1 May, 1868.

ADULTERATION OF SEEDS ACT passed 11 Aug. 1869.

ALFRIC SOCIETY (founded 1842, stopped 1856), published homilies of Ælfric, archbishop of Canterbury, and other works in Anglo-Saxon.

ÆDILES. Roman city officers of three degrees, said to owe their name to having had charge of the cedles or temple of Ceres. 1. Two plebeian ædiles were appointed with the tribunes, to assist them in looking after buildings, weights and measures, the supply of provisions and water, &c., 494 B.C. 2. The ædiles curules, at first patricians, were appointed 365 B.C. 3. Julius Cæsar appointed ædiles cereales for watching over the supply of corn. The ædiles became a kind of police under the emperors.

AERO-STEAM-ENGINE. The invention of George Warson, a mechanic of Nottingham, who, by employing compressed air united with steam, is said to have effected the saving of 47 per cent. of fuel. The plan was reported to the British Association, at Exeter, in Aug. 1869, and was said to act successfully in a tug-steamer (for China) in the Thames, 26 March, 1870.

AFGHANISTAN (p. 15). The sirdar Mahomed Yakoob Khan defeated Interview with the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, troops of the reigning Ameer, took Candahar,

at Umballah

27 March, 1869 and proclaimed Shere Ali sovereign of Afghan

Insurrection of the ameer's son, Yakonh, about istan

April, 1868

24 Aug. ; it fails, and he retreats, Nov. ; reShere Au defeats his nephew, Abdul-rahman, ported as still resisting

12 or 13 Nov. AFRICA (p. 15). Letter from Dr. Livingstone dated 2 Mar. 1867; | Letter dated 30 May 1869, published heard of down to

Dec. 1867 | Uncredited reports of his murder by negroes, His despatch to lord Clarendon, dated, July,

Jan. 1870 1868; read to the Royal Geographical Society, His probable safety reported by Dr. Kirk,

8 Nov. 1869 22 June; said to be at Mozambique, Nov. AGRICULTURAL HALL, Islington (p. 17). Excellent horse-shows held here May, 1868, Workmen's International exhibition opened by 1869, 1870 the Prince of Wales

16 July, 1870 Theatrical bull-fights here stopped, on account of cruelty

28 Mar. AID TO THE SICK AND WOUNDED, NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR. On 4 Aug. 1870 soon after the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war, a meeting was held in London, which established this society, for immediate communication with the international society established at Geneva, see Geneva Convention. The queen became patron and the prince of Wales president; the duke of Manchester, the earl of Shaftesbury, lords Overstone and Bury, sir John Burgoyne, and col. Loyd Lindsay being very energetic supporters. The operations have been directed chiefly by capt. H. Brackenbury and sir Vincent Eyre. Capt. Douglas Galton and Mr. Henry Bonham Carter went to the seat of war as commissioners, in Sept. Col. Loyd Lindsay conveyed to Versailles and sions of distress, the help of the English public Paris from the society 40,000l., equally divided has been poured

out with a liberal and an imbetween the Germans and French (gratefully partial hand. The gifts which have been acknowledged)

about 11 Oct. 1870 offered in a truly Christian spirit have excited The crown-prince of Prussia wrote to colonel a feeling of heartfelt gratitude among those Loyd Lindsay:-"In this, as on other occa- on whose behalf I speak"

2 Nov. 1870 Subscription Lists published :3rd, 17 Aug. 2,3771. 30th, 17 Sept. 153,2141.1 55th, 17 Oct.

252,4161. 10th, 25 Aug.

3501 23 Sept.

185,790
both, 26 Oct.

260,849 15th, 31 Aug. 41,789 40th, 29 Sept.

208,147
65th, 9 Nov..

270,096 20th, 6 Sept.

68,677
45th, 5 Oct.
228,039 70th, 30 Nov.

280,598 25th, 12 Sept. 109,292 50th, 11 Oct.

243, 444 38th 7Jan.(recvd.to31Dec.)289,674 ALBERT MEDAL (Gold), awarded by the Society of Arts to sir Rowland Hill, 1864; Napoleon III. 1865; Michael Faraday, 1866; Charles Wheatstone and William Fothergill Cooke, 1867; Joseph Whitworth, 1868; Justus Liebig, 1869; Ferdinand de Lesseps, 1870.

Dec. 1869

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ALCOLEA (Andalusia, S. Spain). Near the bridge a sharp engagement took place between the royalists under general Pavia y Lacy, marquis de Novaliches, and the insurgents under marshal Serrano, 27 Sept. 1868. The former was defeated, and, being severely wounded, surrendered 28 Sept. About 600 were killed on both sides.

ALEXANDRA PARK (p. 22). Horse races held here, 30 June, 1 July, 1868.

ALGIERS (p. 24). Insurrection of the Arabs; 4000 defeated by col. Sounis, 2 Feb. 1869; a state of siege was proclaimed 15 Aug. 1870.

ALIENS (p. 24). Their status in the United Kingdom was again defined in the Naturalization Act, passed 12 May, 1870.

ALIZARINE, a crystalline body, the colouring principle of madder, discovered in it by Robiquet and Colin in 1831. Schunck showed that all the finest madder colours contained only alizarine combined with alkalies and fatty acids. Graebe and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869. The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in coal oils by Dumas and Laurent in 1832. See Madder.

ALMONER (p. 26). The Rev. Dr. Wellesley, dean of Windsor, was appointed queen’s almoner 28 May, 1870, succeeding the present bishop of Winchester.

ALPS: CENIS TUNNEL: 8498 metres excavated 1 July, 1868; completed, 4.15 P.M., 25 Dec. 1870.

ALSACE (p. 28) was nearly all conquered by the Germans in the war, Aug.–Sept., 1870; and its acquisition made a condition of peace by them.

ALSEN (Denmark). Besieged by the Prussians and heroically defended by the Danes, 26 June; captured 29 June, 1864.

ALTENKIRCHEN (Prussia). The French, who had defeated the Austrians here, 4 June, 1796, were themselves defeated, and their general, Marceau killed, 19 Sept., following.

ALTONA (Holstein, N. Germany), acquired by the Danes, 1660, and made a city, 1664. It was occupied first by the German federal troops, 24 Dec. 1863, and then by the Prussians the federal diet protesting, 12 Feb. 1864.

AMIENS (p. 31), after a battle in which the French were defeated, 27 Nov., surrendered to the Germans, under Von Gæben, 28 Nov. 1870.

AMYL, an alcohol radicle, first isolated by Professor Edward Frankland in 1849.

ANNUITY TAX (Edinburgh), (p. 36). Its abolition was provided for in an act passed 9 Aug., 1870.

ANORTHOSCOPE, a new optical apparatus, described by Dr. Carpenter in 1868. In it, distorted figures lose their distortion when put into rapid motion.

APOLOGIES FOR CHRISTIANITY were addressed by Justin Martyr to the emperor Antoninus Pius about 139, and to the Roman senate about 164. Other apologies were written by the early fathers of the Church.

APPORTIONMENT ACT (for rents) passed 1 Aug., 1870.

ARCHÆOPTERYX (ancient bird); the name given to the earliest known remains of a bird, found in the lithographic slate of Solenhofen, by Herman von Meyer, and Dr. Häberlein in 1861. Its structure approximated more to that of a reptile than that of modern birds does. It was described by Owen in 1863.

ARCHITECTURAL MUSEUM, Westminster, opened 21 July, 1869.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (p. 45). Col. Dominique F. Sarmiento was elected president for six years, 12 Oct. 1868. Urquiza, a former president, was murdered 12 April, 1870.

ARMY, BRITISH (p. 49).
Sir Henry Storks appointed Controller-in. 1868. 15,418,5821. ; 1869, 15,000,000l. ; 1870,

1 Jan. 1868
13,575,4001.

186) Flogging abolished in time of peace, by an Royal commission on military education apamendment in the Mutiny Act

pointed, 23 June, 1868 ; report with recomRoyal commission on the purchase system, ác.,

mendations issued about appointed 5 April; report recognises the Army Service Corps, to be composed of volun"over regulation payments" hitherto ignored teers commanded by regular officers, estabAug. 1869 lished by royal warrant

12 Nov. Regulations under the new Army Enlistment 2,000,000l. voted to increase the army by 20,000 Act" issued 12 Aug.

1 Aug. 1870 Sum voted for the army: 1867, 14,675,5401.;

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AROGEE, OR FAHLA, see Abyssinia. Here Sir Rohert, since lord, Napier totally defeated the Abyssinians, who lost about 700 killed and wounded, 10 April, 1868. The British had 20 wounded

ARTILLERY (p. 50). Royal Artillery Institution at Woolwich, established 1838; building completed 1840. The great deficiency of artillery in the British army discussed Sept. 1870.

ARTIZANS' AND LABOURERS' DWELLINGS Act, “ to provide better dwellings," passed 31 July, 1868.

ASAPH, ST. Bishop T. Vowler Short resigned Feb., 1870, and was succeeded by Dr. Joshua Hughes.

ASSESSED TAXES (p. 54). An act to provide for uniformity in the assessment of rateable property in the metropolis was passed 9 Aug. 1869. The“ Court of General Assessment" first met 19 May, 1870.

ASSIZE OF JERUSALEM, a code of laws compiled under the direction of Godfrey of Bouillon, king of Jerusalem, about 1100. A fine edition of these laws, edited by the comte Beugnot, was published by the French government in 1841.

ATTORNEY-GENERAL (p. 59). Sir Robert Porrett Collier succeeded sir John Karslake, 12 Dec. 1868.

ATTORNEYS' AND SOLICITORS' ACT, passed 14 July, 1870.

AUSTRIA (p. 66). The empire was named the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy by decree 14 Nov. 1868. New ministry under prince Auersperg, 30 Dec. 1867 | The Reichsrath opened by the emperor at Civil marriages bill (annulling clerical jurisdic

Vienna

13 Dec. 1869 tion over them) passed by the upper house, Ministerial crisis, Jan. ; the Cis-Leithan minisafter sharp resistance, 21-23 March; received try resigns; Count Potocki prime minister, the emperor's assent 25 May, 1868

4 April, 1870 German sharp-shooting match, held at Vienna, Neutrality in the Franco-Prussian war an

nounced

30 July, Von Beust justifies the maintenance of an army

The concordat with Rome declared to be of 800,000, 11 Oct. ; is made a count Dec.

abolished in consequence of the promulgation Continued opposition of the clergy to the go- of the doctrine of papal infallibility, 30 July vernment

Jan. 1869 The Reichsrath opened by the emperor; no The crown prince of Prussia visits Vienna, deputies from Bohemia

17 Sept.

Dissension between the federal and national The emperor visits the East;—at Jerusalem, parties, 29 Sept. ; the Reichsrath adjourned, 10 Nov.; present at the opening of the Suez

Oct. canal

The ministry support Great Britain in opposing Successful insurrection against the conscription the Russian repudiation of the treaty of Paris in Dalmatia, Oct. ; ceased

Nov.
(See Russia)

Nov. Austrian army, 864,869 regulars ; 187,527 landwehr (militia).

Dec.

26 July, »

7 Oct.

17 Nov.

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BABYSM, a new Mahometan sect in Persia, founded in 1843 by Mirza Ali Mahomed, an enthusiast, at Shiraz. He termed himself the “ Bâb,” or “gate," of knowledge, and, giving a new exposition of the Koran, claimed to be the incarnate Holy Spirit. The destruction of himself and the greater number of his followers was due to Hossein, one of his disciples, combining political and warlike principles with their spiritual dogmas. The sect was tolerated by the shah Mohammed, but nearly exterminated by his successor in 1848-9. The Bâb himself was executed 15 July, 1849.

BACCON or BACON, see Orleans.

BADEN (p. 69). Meeting of the chambers; liberal measures Civil marriage made obligatory, 17 Nov. 1869

promised, 24. Sept. ; universal suffrage Baden joins Prussia in the war with France, adopted by the second chamber, 29 Oct. 1869

about 20 July, 1870 BALLOON (p. 71). The use of balloons for postal purposes was invented by Mr. G. Shepherd, C.E., in 1851. J. B. Lassie's model of an “aërial ship,” in M. Duruof conveyed the mail bags from Paris which the screw was used, was submitted to to Tours during the siege

23 Sept. 1870 the academy of sciences at Paris, 1859; and Postal balloons sent up from Metz and Paris, exhibited at Wasbington, U. S.

Sept.-Dec A great balloon exhibited at Ashburnham-park, Postal balloon sent up from Crystal Palace, London, escaped, and was captured at Boul- Sydenham (successful)

6 Oct. don, Bucks

25 May, 1869 M. Gambetta escaped from Paris in a balloon, Charles Green, aëronaut, said to have made and arrived at Rouen

8 Oct. about 600 ascents, died, aged 84 27 Mar. 1870 / Many balloons despatched since.

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BALLOT (p. 72). A ballot-box was used in the election of aldermen of London in 1526. Its use by the company of merchant adventurers, in electing an agent, was prohibited by Charles I. 17 Dec. 1637. A test-ballot was adopted at Manchester, and Ernest Jones was thus chosen as a candidate for representing the city in parliament, 22, 23 Jan. 1869. He died the next day. Mr. E. Leatham introduced a ballot bill into parliament, March, 1870, and Mr. Gladstone spoke in favour of the ballot, 27 July, 1870. The bill was withdrawn. The ballot was employed in electing the London school board in 9 districts, 29 Nov. 1870.

BANK OF ENGLAND: (p. 75). Discot'NT. 1868. Raised to 24 per cent. Nov. 19; to

1870. Raised to 3), July 21; to 4, July 23; to 5 1869. Raised to 4, April 1; to 45, May 6; reduced to (Franco-Prussian War), July 28; to 6, Aug. 4;

4, June 10; to 3*, June 24; to 3, July 15; to 2, reduced to 5t, Aug. 11; to 4d, Aug. 18; to 4, Aug. Aug. 19; raised to

25; to 31, Sept. 1; to 3, Sept. 15; to 24, Sept. 29. BANKRUPTCY (p. 76). By the Bankruptcy Act passed 9 Aug. 1869, a new bankruptcy court was established in place of the commissioners',

which sat last time 31 Dec. 1869, when above 300 petitions of bankruptcy were received. The new judge, the hon. James Bacon, sat i Jan. 1870. Justice Giffard, the judge of the Bankruptcy Appeal Court, decided (in the case of the duke of Newcastle) that a peer can be made a bankrupt, Nov. 1869, which decision was affirmed on appeal to the house of lords in the following year; other petitions against peers have been filed.

BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT, St. near Smithfield. The building of the church is said to have begun 1102 ; restored by subscription and reopened, 29 Marck, 1868.

BATH AND WELLS (p. 82). Lord Auckland, the bishop, resigned 6 Sept. 1869, and was succeeded by the Hon. and Rev. Arthur Charles Harvey, 10 Nov. 1869.

BATTLES (p. 90). Arogee or Fahla (Abyssinians defeated), 10 April, 1863 | Before Paris (French defeated). 30 Sept. 1870 Magdala stormed Russians defeat Bokharians and occupy Samar

13 April,

Thoury (Germans surprised and repulsed). 5 Oct.
St. Rémy (French defeated)

6 Oct. cand

25 May,

Before Metz (ditto)
Alcolea (Spanish royalists defeated) 27, 28 Sept. Artenay (ditto)
Villeta (Lopez defeated by Brazilians), &c. 11 Dec. Cherizy (Germans repulsed)
Aquidaban (Lopez defeated and killed) 1 March, 1870 Orleans (French defeated)

11 Oct. FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR (which see).

Ecouis (indecisive) Saarbrück, taken by the French, and Prussians

Châteaudun (French defeated)

18 Oct. repulsed

2 Aug. 1870

Coulmiers, near Orleans (Germans defeated), Wissembourg (French drjeated)

9, 10 Nov. 4 Aug. Wörth (ditto)

Near Amiens (French defeated)

6 Aug Saarbrück or Forbach (ditto) .

6 Aug.

Villiers, before Paris (French retreat), 30 Nov. Courcelles or Pange (ditto) Strasburg (ditto)

16 Aug.

Before Orleans (French defeated) Vionville or Mars-la-Tour (ditio) 16 Aug.

Beaugency (ditto) Gravelotte or Rézonville (litto)

18 Dec. 18 Aug.

Nuits (French defeated) Beaumont (ditto)

30 Aug. »

Pont à Noyelles (French claim a victory), 23 Dec. Carignan (ditto)

31 Aug.

(For numerous skirmishes see Franco-Prussian Metz (ditto) :

31 Aug.

War, and for details of important engagements see Sedan (ditto).

31 Aug., 1 Sept. SC rate articles.) BAVARIA (p. 90). An international exhibition in a crystal palace The king announces his intention of joining opened

20 July 1869 Prussia in the war with France, about 20 July 1870 The chambers dissolved, as through a party

[See Franco-Prussian war). struggle no president was elected. 6 Oct. The king, in a letter to the king of Saxony, Resignation of the ministry, 25 Nov. : only proposes that the king of Prussia should be partially accepted by the king

9 Dec.

made emperor of Germany about 5 Dec. Vote of want of confidence in prince Hohenlohe, the president, 12 Feb.; he resigns 14 Feb. 1870

BAZEILLES, a village in the Ardennes, N.E. France. During the dreadful battle of Sedan, 1 Sept., 1870, Bazeilles was burnt by the Bavarians, and atrocious outrages committed. Of nearly 2000 inhabitants scarcely fifty remained alive, and these indignantly denied having given provocation. It appears that an old woman, whose husband and sons had been killed, had fired upon and killed two Bavarians. Much controversy ensued, but the above statements are generally considered authentic.

BAZOCHE-DES-HAUTES, near Orleans, central France. Here a part of the army of the Loire, under gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines, were defeated after a severe action, by the Germans under the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, 2 Dec. 1870. See Orleans.

BEAUMONT, a village near Sedan, department of Ardennes, N.E. France. Near here a part of the army of marshal MacMahon under De Failly, which, after vainly endeavouring to

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