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military authorities to relieve suffering among them, and reimbursement made by this Department upon accounts presented.

"If the military authorities shall find it necessary to furnish these Indians with food and supplies to prevent starvation among them while they continue to remain away from their home and wander about within the territory of the United States this Department will take such action as the facts then reported will warrant, and especially on the question of reimbursement of the expense which may be incurred on that account."

While it is true that these Indians have no rights on this side of the international line, and are not under the care of any agent of the Indian Department, still I regard it as the special province and duty of this office, not only to notice their presence and be watchful of their doings on this side of the line, but to pay suitable regard to the pitiable stories told of their poverty and suffering, especially as they are to some extent related by blood to our Indians, and hold constant communication with them in their wanderings through the country, and I think a generous public sentiment would sustain any efforts that might be made by this Department tending to relieve their sufferings even though they are not natives of our soil; and I think it is fitting that this office should take the initiative in providing some way for their very pressing needs, or at least in proposing such relief. Therefore, I have to respectfully suggest that the case of these refugees be called to the attention of the War Department, and that the Honorable Secretary of War be advised of the willingness of the Department to reimburse any proper expenditure that may be incurred by that Department in furnishing food and supplies to pre. vent starvation among them, upon the presentation of proper accounts therefor, as expressed in your letter to this office of October 27, 1887.

The fugitives number about 200-men, women, and children-and are reported to be on Dupuyer Creek, about 75 miles northwest from Fort Shaw, Mont., and not far from the Blackfeet Agency, though not, I believe, on the reservation.

I inclose a copy of this report.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. D. C. ATKINS, Commissioner.


[See pp. 5, 979, and p. 120, Vol. VI.]


May 27, 1896.

[Senate Report No. 1073.]

Mr. Lodge, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, submitted the following report:

The Committee on Foreign Relations, to whom was referred the bill (S. 1187) to provide for the reorganization of the consular and diplomatic service, submit the following report:

The following report was made by Mr. Morgan on February 6, 1895, to accompany this bill when it was reported to the Senate at that time. It covers entirely all the essential points in regard to the proposed reorganization:

The consular service of the United States, like that of other nations, developed gradually out of the necessities of commerce and the willingness of merchants in foreign countries to represent other governments than their own and to discharge certain fiscal and other duties for the sake of the fees to be collected for such services. While the other great commercial nations of the world have at intervals down to recent times been active in the improvement of their consular service, in order to meet satisfactorily the exigencies of a steadily increasing competition in international trade, the consular system of the United States has remained practically unchanged since the time it was called into existence on a small scale by the acts of July 1, 1790, and of April 14, 1792, and kept alive by a number of subsequent unimportant acts.

The act to remodel the diplomatic and consular system" of March 1, 1855, is entitled to be regarded as an improvement only so far as it slightly enlarged the service and corrected certain abuses therein by a closer supervision of the fees. It in no way, however, effected a change in the principle of consular representation or in the system of appointment. Apart, therefore, from the act of June 20, 1864, which provided for the establishment of a small body of thirteen consular clerks with a permanent tenure of office, a measure which at its inception was intended to form the nucleus of an entire reform of the service on that basis, this institution, so important to our foreign trade, has suffered the oversight and indifference of Congress.

This neglect is the more striking and the less excusable when our foreign trade of half a century ago is contrasted with that of to-day. In 1850 the combined value of our imports and domestic exports amounted to $308,409,759; in 1893 it reached the figure of $1,697,431,707. But notwithstanding these present vastly increased and far more intricate commercial relations indicated by these figures, no step whatever to increase the efficiency of the consular service, to which the direction and fostering of these relations are intrusted, has been taken. That this has entailed a great loss annually to our foreign trade can not be questioned; that there is also an urgent necessity to correct this want of efficiency is equally apparent.

Even more applicable to the industrial and commercial conditions of to-day, but with reference to those of a decade ago, Secretary Frelinghuysen said in 1884:

"Until recently the demands of Europe, which consumed the greater portion of our exports, and the condition of the producing countries, were such as to give us control in the supply of certain products, such as breadstuffs, provisions, cotton,

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petroleum, etc. The demands of Europe for all these products, and of the other continents for petroleum especially, were so positive, and our producing conditions so favorable, as to give us practically a monopoly for their supply.

"These conditions of international demand and supply are undergoing radical changes, which the near future will intensify.

"The efforts which have been made and which are being made by Europe to enlarge the field of supply in the above-mentioned products, aided by the ambition which prevails in all countries for the development of natural and artificial resources to meet their own wants and to supply the wants of others, have resulted in awakening competition for the supply even of those products which we have heretofore controlled. It is true that thus far this competition has not affected our trade to any appreciable extent, but the desire for development which is now abroad, and the ambition which prevails to increase the production (outside of the United States) of the foregoing articles, render consular supervision of absolute importance. The complex commercial relations and industrial interests which now prevail in Europe have originated hostility to American products in many countries, and afford additional reasons for the enlargement and perfection of the consular service.”

In 1888 Mr. Cleveland, in his message to Congress, expresses himself to the same effect when he says: "The reorganization of the consular service is a matter of serious importance to our national interests," and in 1893 he again refers to the subject as follows:

"During my former administration I took occasion to recommend a recast of the laws relating to the consular service, in order that it might become a more efficient agency in the promotion of the interests it was intended to subserve. The duties and powers of consuls have been expanded with the growing requirements of our foreign trade. Discharging important duties affecting our commerce and American citizens abroad, and in certain countries exercising judicial functions, these officers should be men of character, intelligence, and ability."

In addition to these expressions from a high official source, the necessity of a reform has been recognized by men of letters, eminent statesmen, journalists, and important boards of trade of this country.

It must be admitted that the present management of our foreign service is burdened with many drawbacks to its efficacy by considerations that relate to domestic politics. Partisan policy, when strictly carried out in making appointments in our foreign service, has no other meaning than that the consular offices are primarily regarded as rewards for political services. The real capacity and usefulness of a consul is too often a secondary consideration.

This important and indispensable part of the machinery by which our foreign intercourse is conducted is often employed to pension political favorites. That to subserve the interests of the service ought to be the sole end in view in the selection of incumbents can not be disputed. To consider the offices merely as sources from which these partisan officeholders may derive four years of maintenance is as absurd as it would be to construct a navy to defend the country and to intrust its command to landsmen without experience for whom we might desire to provide a living and comfortable quarters.

Such a purpose, or one not more gratifying, has often been put into practice in our diplomatic and consular service. To protect and promote in time of peace our varied foreign interests through the agency of a trained personnel is not a less-important subject for legislative consideration and provision than in time of war to defend them by the most efficient means at our command.

The object of this act is to provide a system by which persons shall be trained for the duties of the consular service, so that they shall be able to perform them in the best possible way at a reasonable expense to the Government. That this can not be obtained without removing the selection of persons for this service from the control of party politics is shown by our experience, if any proof were required to establish a conclusion so entirely true and indisputable.

Fitness of the candidate, permanency of tenure during good behavior, and an impartial method of selection and to govern promotion as reward for efficiency are the principles on which a useful consular service can alone be based, with an expectation of the best results.

Under our present system a consular or diplomatic officer has no sooner familiarized himself with the duties of his office and begun to acquire a knowledge of its business and fitness for his duties than he is removed to make room for another novice, who is likewise superseded as soon as his experience begins to enable him to discharge the duties of his office to the satisfaction of himself and others. Thus, in one generation the same post is frequently filled by a number of men, who are successively displaced as soon as they have learned to transact the business of their offices with something of professional knowledge and skill.

'Communication of the Secretary of State to the President, March 20, 1884.

This system is not only unjust to the people, but it is equally unjust to the agents, who are thrown back upon their own resources just at the time when a three or four years' preparation has fitted them to devote their energies and capacity with advantage to the foreign service.

To compete successfully with the agents of foreign powers, and to conduct advantageously the political and commercial affairs of our own country, the appointee to this service should be familiar not only with the laws, customs, industries, manufactures, and natural products of our own land, but they should be instructed in the laws, pursuits, language, the contributions to commerce, and the character of the people to whom they are accredited. To this should be added a competent knowledge of the law of nations and of commercial law. As long as these officers are transferred from pursuits and associations which have no connection with commerce or the foreign service, however able and skillful they may be in other things, they can not possess the special knowledge and skill which will render their labors either useful or creditable to the consular service.

The foreign service of European governments for many years has been the object of careful solicitude on their part. An outline statement of them will better enable us to understand the disadvantage we suffer from a defective system.

The French consular service is composed of—

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The conditions for admission to the diplomatic and consular service of France are prescribed in a decree of October 15, 1892, and, to show how important France considers its foreign service, attention is called to the fact that over thirty decrees have been issued since 1880 tending to perfect the system.

The pupil consuls are appointed by the minister of foreign affairs. They can only be drawn from the body of attachés on probation who have passed a competitive examination for admission into the service and who have served not less than one year in the home office.

Before being assigned to a diplomatic or consular post they are required to spend at least one year at one of the principal chambers of commerce, where they are to acquire a thorough knowledge of the methods and needs of commerce, and whence they must send the minister periodical reports on the trade of the district. After three years of service, half of which time must be rendered abroad, the pupil consul becomes eligible for vice-consul, and after a service of three years in each subsequent grade he becomes eligible for promotion to a higher one.

Candidates for admission in the French diplomatic and consular service must be under 27 years of age and must have taken a collegiate degree in law, science, or letters, or must have passed certain other examinations, or be the holders of commissions in the army or navy.

The examination for entrance into the service is either written or oral, as may be required.

The written test consists of a composition on public and private international law and a translation into French from English and German, which is dictated. Those candidates who aspire to the diplomatic career are to write also a composition on a subject of diplomatic history that occurred since 1648; those destined for the consular service must write a composition on a subject of political economy or of political and commercial geography.

Those whose papers are sufficiently creditable in the opinion of the examiners to warrant their going any further are then subjected to a public oral examination on public and private international law, political and commercial geography, political economy, and a conversation in English and German. Candidates for the diplomatic career are further examined orally in diplomatic history since 1648, and candidates for the consular service are examined on maritime and customs laws.

The French foreign service is under very strict discipline, and for misconduct or inefficiency there are the following penalties:

(1) Reprimand.

(2) Withholding a part of the salary, not exceeding one-half thereof and not for a longer period than two months.

(3) Suspension from the service without salary for two or more years.

(4) Dismissal.

The last three penalties are imposed by the minister of foreign affairs, with the consent of the council of directors, and after a written or oral hearing of the party under censure.

In addition to their regular salaries, the French consular officers are entitled to

traveling expenses and allowances for house and office rent, and for entertaining where it is necessary.

Such a course of training and discipline must produce thorough efficiency; and the generous rewards given for faithful and profitable service must encourage a good class of men to adopt such employment as a profession to which all their energies and abilities are industriously devoted. The permanency of employment, during good behavior, gives confidence to the officer and constantly increasing benefit to the Government.

The British system of regulations for the admission of applicants to the consular service are as follows:

"Persons selected for the consular service, whenever the circumstance of their being resident in England, on their first appointment, or of their passing through England on their way to take up such first appointment, may admit of their being subject to examination, will be expected to satisfy the civil-service commissioners(1) That they have a correct knowledge of the English language, so as to be able to express themselves clearly and correctly in writing.

"(2) That they can write and speak French correctly and fluently.


(3) That they have a sufficient knowledge of the current language, as far as commerce is concerned, of the port at which they are appointed to reside, to enable them to communicate directly with the authorities and natives of the place; a knowledge of the German language being taken to meet this requirement for ports in northern Europe; of the Spanish or Portuguese language, as may be determined by the secretary of state, for ports in Spain, Portugal, Morocco, and South or Central America; and of the Italian language for ports in Italy, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, and on the Black Sea or Mediterranean, except those in Morocco or Spain.

"(4) A sufficient knowledge of British mercantile and commercial law to enable them to deal with questions arising between British shipowners, shipmasters, and seamen. As regards this head of examination, candidates must be prepared to be examined in 'Smith's Compendium of Mercantile Law.'

"(5) A sufficient knowledge of arithmetic for the nature of the duties which consuls are required to perform in drawing up commercial tables and reports. As regards this head of examination, candidates must be prepared to be examined in Bishop Colenso's Arithmetic.

"Moreover, all persons on their first nomination to consulships, and after having passed their examination before the civil-service commissioners, will be required, as far as practicable, to attend for at least three months in the foreign office, in order that they may become acquainted with the forms of business as carried on there. "Limit of age for candidates, 25 and 50, both years inclusive. (Fee for examination, £1 to £6.)"

Mr. Henry White, formerly secretary of legation at London, in an article contributed to the North American Review, makes the following instructive statements concerning the British consular service:

"The British service was established in its present form by act of Parliament in 1825 (6 Geo. IV, cap. 87). Up to that time its members had been appointed, on no regular system, by the King, and were paid from his civil list. This act placed the service under the foreign office, and provided for its payment out of funds to be voted by Parliament. Since then it has been the subject of periodical investigation by royal commissions and Parliamentary committees, with a view to the improvement of its efficiency. The evidence taken on these occasions is published in voluminous blue books, the perusal of which I recommend to those interested in the reform in our service.

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'Appointments are made by the secretary of state for foreign affairs. Candidates must be recommended by some one known to him, and their names and qualitications are thereupon entered on a list, from which he selects a name when a vacancy occurs. The candidate selected, whose age must be between 25 and 50, is then required to pass an examination before the civil-service commissioners.

"The salaries of British consular officers are fixed, under the act of Parliament of July 21, 1891 (54 and 55 Vict., cap. 36), by the secretary of state, with the approval of the treasury, and no increase can be made in any salary without the approval of the latter. They average about £600 ($3,000) a year, but, of course, some of the important posts are much more highly paid, the salary of the consul-general at New York being £2,000 (nearly $10,000), with an office allowance besides of £1,660, and a staff consisting of a consul at £600, and two vice-consuls at £400 and £250, respectively; that of the consul at San Francisco, £1,200 (nearly $6,000), with an office allowance of £600 besides.

"British consular officials are retired at the age of 70 with a pension.

"There is also an unpaid branch of the service, consisting chiefly of vice-consuls, appointed at places which are not of sufficient importance to merit a paid official. They are usually British merchants, but may be foreigners. They are not subjected to an examination, and are rarely promoted to a paid appointment.

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