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Forty-five years ago the writer said to his employees that if they would do away with their "Closed Shop" feature and their limitation of apprentices, and after having done so would accept him as a member of their Union, he would be glad to join them and would endeavor to get every bricklayer that ever came to work for him to join their Union, but that it would have to be done through friendly approach and intelligent argument. But, no, their rules, as mentioned, have undergone no change—they are the same today as they were at that time, with others as bad added.

Some seven years ago the American League of Independent Workmen was incorporated under the laws of Spokane, Washington, and adopted as a part of their Constitution the Civil Liberty Clause of the Constitution of the United States, and also incorporated a clause admitting employers to membership, and wishing to encourage such organization among wage-earners, application was at once made for membership, which was duly accepted. The membership was continued until some six months ago when this League was absorbed by The Trades and Workers Association of Battle Creek, Mich., of which I was at the time a member, the purpose being to show that I was favorable to Organized Labor, when it was of a proper kind and in keeping with the laws and institutions of our country, and to estop, if possible, their saying of me when I pass away, as they did of that grand and noble man, the late James W. Van Cleave, "he was an enemy of Organized Labor."

As previously stated, in all my long and varied experience as an employer, never did I hear an employer say or even hint that he was opposed to the wage-earners organizing into Associations for their own betterment and self-protection. All that is asked and expected is that wage-earners' organizations, by whatever name, shall be formed along lines that are safe and sane, and in harmony and keeping with the Constitution and laws of our country.

It will be in order here to make mention of such an organization of wage-earners that was formed not long after Gompers' Federation was formed, that of The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, which is the most successful and respected wageearners' organization in the country today. During its entire history it has been conducted on the "Open Shop" method; in fact, it is an organization of which no self-respecting locomotive engineer can afford not to be a member; it is indeed a reflection upon such a one not to be a member, since all who are members have passed the examination of a scrutinizing commit

tee-it is doubtful whether there is an active locomotive engineer in the country today who is not a member of the Brotherhood. No need of force to secure membership in this worthy and commendable organization of wage-earners; in fact, their greatest advantage was owing to the fact that their organization was conducted on the "Open Shop" principle.

Were Gompers' Federation conducted along similar lines, it would, of course, carry with it equal respect and commendation, and instead of a membership of 1,750,000, a majority of whom were secured through force and intimidation, it would have four or five times as many and be an honor to itself and the country, instead of a reproach, as it is now.

The Trades and Workers Association of Battle Creek, Mich., of which mention has been made, organized some two years ago and incorporated under the laws of the State of Michigan, has for the first declaration in its Preamble that "This Association shall at all times stand for the peaceful solution of all labor problems," and for the last utterance in its Constitution, the following-namely; "To working earnestly for the establishment here and now of the brotherhood of man." This, of course, means all mankind-not only Union and Non-union, but all of God's children throughout Christendom.

Mr. C. W. Post, of Battle Creek, Mich., who was largely instrumental in bringing this new wage-earners' and employers' association into being, took it upon himself to address a most courteous and respectful communication to Mr. Samuel Gompers, under date of December 11th last, inviting "The Master of a Million Minds" to visit him and be his guest at Battle Creek, or if he preferred, to be the guest of Mr. Joseph W. Bryce, President of The Trades and Workers Association, and remain a week or ten days at his (Mr. Post's) expense, so as to permit the methods and workings of this Association to be fully explained to him, and, if, after a full and thorough examination of its workings, he was satisfied with its methods and would thereafter remodel his Federation along lines in harmony with The Trades and Workers Association, he would be willing "to contribute a quarter of a million dollars to the new movement." To this letter and princely offer, "The Master of a Million Minds" did not condescend to make a reply. Were his Federation remodeled in harmony with The Trades and Workers Association, he could not long hope or expect to remain "The Master of a Million Minds," and, accordingly, his occupation would be gone —yes, and gone forever.

I may here be allowed to refer to a sermon delivered Decem

ber 24th, 1911, by the Rev. David James Burrell of the Marble Collegiate Church, Fifth avenue and Twenty-ninth street, New York City, as in striking contrast to the Unitarian minister previously mentioned. He took his text from Galatians, sixth chapter and second verse: "Bear ye one another's burdens and so fulfill the law of Christ," and introduced his sermon as follows:

"I have nothing to say against the Labor Unions as such; but I am opposed to their revolutionary schemes. The right of organizaton for lawful ends is universally conceded. Let us go a step further and say that it is not only right but expedient. First, for benevolent purposes, such as mutual insurance and sick benefit, the relief of the unemployed and the care of widows and dependent children. Second, it is wise and prudent to combine for mutual protection and defence against all encroachments. The Good Book says: 'Two are better than one; for if one fall the other will help him up.' Our Dutch forefathers used to say: 'Een dracht maakt macht,' that is-'In union there is strength.' Even the strike, when rightly understood and fairly conducted, is quite justifiable. Third, organization is both wise and necessary for the betterment of conditions, particularly, as to suitable hours and equitable wages, and safety and sanitary conditions for working men."

Then he went on to speak of the mistakes they have made, and some of the strange and unwarrantable things they have done, such as having practically signed away their freedom to unwise and incompetent leaders. The resort to violence during strikes and lock-outs, such as mobs and dynamite, and all manner of lawlessness, carrying placards, such as "Do not patronize thus and so they employ non-union men"; he quoted the civil liberty clause from the Declaration of Independence and asked, "What does that mean?" He quoted from Longfellow's "Village Blacksmith" in order to draw a contrast with the industrial conditions of today.

He further quoted from the Scriptures to the effect that "God hath made of one blood all nations of men, to dwell upon the face of the earth"; and from the Golden Rule of Jesus, "Do unto others as ye would be done by"; and from Jacob, in speaking to his sons, "Ye be brethren; see that ye fall not out along the way." In referring to the iniquity of "Closed Shop Unionism," the reverend gentleman in his condemnation and denunciation thereof did not spare words, but sought most emphatically to make himself understood, as follows:

"This is one of the most unjust, unreasonable, unrighteous and desperately wicked and suicidal principles ever formulated by any association of civilized men. I make this statement advisedly, and in sustaining it I propose to make an appeal to the calm reasoning of laboring men." He supported this utterance by forcibly argument.

What a blessing it would be if every union man, affiliated with Gompers' Federation, could have the opportunity to read this sermon;- I mean those who are open to reasonconfident three-fourths of its membership are.

-as I feel

Gompers, Darrow and some of these "closed shop union" ministers of the Gospel, should be held to a stricter responsibility than should the McNamara Brothers, who committed the murderous crimes to which they have confessed, as it is impossible that they could have been ignorant of what was going on.

The New York "Times," in the concluding paragraph of an editorial of its February 17th, 1912, issue, says: "The closed shop is inconsistent with the fundamental principles of humanity and of our system of government."

The New York "Sun," under date of December 6, 1911, has a four-column editorial on the confession of the McNamara Brothers, headed, "The Principle," which treats of the industrial situation from an intelligent and lucid standpoint, in which it asks: "What was the principle that could cause the cowardly slaughter of defenseless human beings, and who is responsible for it?"

An extract from the Anthracite Coal Commission appointed by President Roosevelt in 1892 to arbitrate and settle the anthracite coal strike in full sway under the leadership of John Mitchell at the time says, speaking of the Coal Miners' union:

"Its history is stained with a record of riot and bloodshed culminating in three murders, unprovoked save by the fact that two of the victims were asserting their right to work and another as an officer of the law was performing his duty in attempting to preserve the peace. Men who chose to be employed or who remained at work were assailed and threatened and they and their families terrorized and intimidated. *** In several instances the houses of such workmen were dynamited or otherwise assaulted and the lives of women and children put in jeopardy. The practices which we are condemning would be outside the pale of civilized war. In civilized warfare women and children and the defenceless are safe from attack, and a code of honor controls the parties to such warfare which cries out against the boycott we have in view. Cruel and cowardly are terms not too severe by which to chorocterist it." In closing, I may say that the confession of the McNamara Brothers was the best and most fortunate termination of the trial that could have happened in the interest of industrial freedom in the United States-no other possible ending could have been so convincing and unquestioned, and, therefore, conclusive.

LABOR, CAPITAL, AND TRUSTS

(New York Times.)

IT is a curious mischance which causes the publication simultaneously of the establishment of a pension system for the employés of one steel company and the report to the Senate that another steel company underpaid.and overworked its employés. The company certified by Mr. Gompers to be the "greatest enemy organized labor has" contributes an addition of eight million dollars to a fund of four million dollars established some years ago in order that its employés may be pensioned in their old age and disability. It is the company which was not distinguished by Mr. Gomper's attack which works its employés eighty-four hours a week, and pays a shilling an hour. One company is known as a trust and the other company as an independent.

The comparison is casual, and with no intention of disparaging one company at the expense of the other. The reason for making comment is to utilize the opportunity to enforce the need of caution in indulgence of either sympathy or prejudice in judgment of current economic events. There is too free condemnation of trusts because they are trusts, and without regard to their conduct. And the sympathy for wageearners may too easily lead to disapproval of those who are doing their best to be fair in the troublesome relations between capital and labor. But instead of meeting capital half way, labor is too prone to reject proffered boons as bribes. Wage increases are demanded as a right, regardless of the economic considerations involved, and profit-sharing schemes are represented to be doles, which ought rather to be used in raising wages above the market rate than in making it hard for underpaid employés to leave their employment in a manner embarrassing to employers. In other words, there is a greater solidarity of feeling on the part of employers than of employés, and salaried troublemakers think they earn their pay better by making trouble than by allaying it.

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