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(in New York and in Philadelphia), it required a total income of $100,000 to conduct them upon a paying basis.

But Grand Opera was not really profitable to him at any time, and the deficits at the Metropolitan, after Mr. Conried's death, were of prodigious size. Nevertheless the cost of presenting it kept on increasing each year, until today, despite the community of interest which prevails between the directors of the opera houses in Chicago, Philadelphia and Boston, and the New York institution the present weekly cost of operation at the Metropolitan is in excess of $60,000, and this does not take account of the very large sum paid to Oscar Hammerstein to eliminate him from operatic endeavor in this country for several years to come.

The past season has, however, provided much interesting information, in that for the first time in American history Grand Opera has been presented in four opera houses in as many important cities, free from discord, with the entire risk assumed by men of public spirit who have eliminated perhaps for evermore the old-time impresario and his vicissitudes.

Chicago has responded well in the first two years of its advent into the list of permanent opera houses, and although the weekly cost of presenting opera in that city is nearly as large as in New York, the season is to be extended there next year and perhaps doubled in length. In Philadelphia, however, where Mr. Hammerstein "came a cropper," the first season of opera in the new opera house has not been successful, while in Boston the procedure by which the scale of prices was increased to the New York schedule, without a corresponding uplift in the performances, has resulted in much dissatisfaction, but there is nothing to indicate that the next season will not see all four opera houses in operation without the least suggestion of any retrograde move

ment.

What are the causes of the increased cost of presenting Grand Opera? They are many, but the principal one is due to the remarkable financial results which are now obtained by the principal stars of the opera, when they go on concert tours. And this is so true, that it is difficult to imagine how the powers that be can call a halt, for $5.00 a seat opera can only be tenable with the presentation of the world's greatest and most celebrated singers in the casts. Each year the number available grows less, and stellar lights do not appear on the horizon as readily as they vanish.

Mme. Tetrazzini is no longer available solely for opera, because she can draw houses in concert ranging from $5,000 to $8,000 a night. Melba can draw $6,000 houses more often than not in concert, and Emma Calvé has for years earned far more than she could get in opera, and in her case, even if the income were not so large, she would prefer the concert field, for it is less fatiguing, and Calvé's health has been none too good.

Schumann-Heink considers it a poor week when she does not bank $5,000. Who would pay her that sum for opera, for is it not recalled that the great contralto came here at a weekly salary of $250? And while this was greatly increased after her success, she never was paid in opera one-fifth what she earns today with her song recitals.

The same may be said of others, and it is certain that Sembrich, Nordica, Eames, Bonci and others are practically lost to Grand Opera while they can go about the country at the head of their own enterprise and amass vast fortunes in doing so.

Of the singers yet remaining to our opera directors, all are in demand in the concert field to the extent that such a thing as a reduction in their honorarium is out of the question.

This state of affairs is wholly due to the fact that our opera companies confine their visits each year to a very few cities, leaving the rest of the country without musical treats which they must have and are willing to pay for.

When the day comes (and it is near at hand) when all cities of 250,000 have their own opera houses and organizations, as is the case in continental Europe, then will come also an end to the vogue of song recitals at least in those cities where Grand Opera is available.

A word here will not be out of place as to the importance of some of the cities of smaller size. It is a fact that to this day Atlanta, Ga., holds the record for the largest receipts for a single operatic performance in this country, and also for the largest receipts for a week of opera. Caruso in "Aida" drew $18,600 in one night, and the total in that city for one week was in excess of $80,000, which is in fact the world's record. Pittsburg has paid $60,000 for a week of opera, and St. Paul paid $62,000 for a similar period.

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WHY THE RUSSIAN TREATY SHOULD BE

ABROGATED,

BY WILLIAM SULZER.

TREATIES between nations should be free from ambiguity regarding the rights of their respective citizens to visit and sojourn in the country of each other, and should admit of no discrimination in favor of some citizens and against other citizens of either of the high contracting parties; and it is customary among the nations of the world to recognize without discrimination the passports of each, when duly issued and authenticated, to their respective citizens who desire to sojourn in other countries.

The question now before the Congress of the United States, therefore, regarding the "Russian passport question" resolves itself into this: Has Russia by the treaty of 1832 agreed to recognize American passports without discrimination on account of race or religion?

To determine the question it is necessary to read the provision in the treaty of 1832 between the United States and Russia. Article I of that treaty reads as follows:

"There shall be between the territories of the high contracting parties a reciprocal liberty of commerce and navigation. The inhabitants of their respective States shall mutually have liberty to enter the ports, places and rivers of the territories of each party wherever foreign commerce is permitted. They shall be at liberty to sojourn and reside in all parts whatsoever of said territories, in order to attend to their affairs, and they shall enjoy, to that effect, the same security and protection as natives of the country wherein they reside."

This provision of the treaty seems to be plain and clear, and gives citizens of the United States

"the right to sojourn and reside in all parts of Russia in order to attend to their affairs, and they shall enjoy the same security and protection as natives of the country wherein they reside."

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