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and the confidence of the people have in- direct your attention to the means of arriv-
vested me with unlimited power. At this ing at this result.
moment the most anxious wish of


heart " It is possible that the first duty of a is accomplished. I have commenced a con- prince may soon call me at the head of the stitutional monarchy.

children of the nation to combat for the “ Men are too feeble to secure the future; country. The army and myself will do our legal institutions alone fix the destinies of duty: nations. Monarchy is necessary to France, L. " Do you, peers and representatives! give to guarantee the liberty, the independence, the nation an example of confidence, energy, and the rights of the people,

and patriotism; and, like the senate of the “Our constitutions are scattered; one of great people of antiquity, resolve to die raour most important occupations will be to ther than survive the dishonour and degraconsolidate them into one body, and arrange dation of France. - The sacred cause of the them in one simple system. This labour country shall triumph!!!" will recommend the present epoch to the “The chief basis of the monarchy," replied gratitude of future generations.

the representatives, " the protectress of li“ I am anxious that France should enjoy berty, equality, and the happiness of the all possible liberty : I say possible, because people, has been recognized by your majesty, anarchy always resolves itself into absolute who, rising above all scruples, as anticipatgovernment.

ing all wishes, have declared that the care of A formidable coalition of kings threatens collecting our scattered constitutions, and of our independence; their armies are approach- arranging them, was one of the most iming our frontiers.

portant occupations reserved for the legisla." The Melpomene frigate has been attack- ture. Faithful to its mission, it will perforin ed and taken in the Mediterranean, after a the task thus devolved upon it. It requests sanguinary action with an English vessel of that, to satisfy the public wish, as well as the Blood has been slved in the time wishres of your majesty, national deliberation

should rectify, as speedily as possible, any * Our enemies rely upon our internal di- thing defective or imperfect that the urgency visions. They excite and foment civil war. of our situation

may have produced, or left Risings have taken place. Communications to exist in our constitutions, considered as a are held with Ghent, as with Coblentz in whole. 1792. Legislative measures are indispen- To attack the monarch of its choice is sable. I place unreserved confidence in your to attack the independence of the nation. It patriotism, your wisdom, and your attachi- is armed as one man to that indepelment to my person.

dence, and to repel with the nation. It

exception, every “ The liberty of the press is inherent in family and every prince whom men shall the existing constitution. No change can be dare to wish to impose upon it. No ainbitimade in that respect without altering the ous project enters the thoughts of the French whole of our political system; but soine re- people. The will even of a victorious prince strictions are necessary, more especially in the would be insufficient to draw on the nation, actual state of the nation. I recommend this beyond the įimits of its own defence; but to important subject to your serious considera- guard its territory, to maintain its liberty, its tion.

honour, its dignity, it is ready for any sacri“My ministers will acquaint you with the fice," situation of our affairs.

These sentiments gave great offence to “ The finances would be in a satisfactory Napoleon, and he could not refrain from state but for the increased expenditure ren, reading them one of the lectures to which dered requisite by existing circumstances. the former assemblies were accustoined to

Nevertheless, all might be met, if the re, listen with astonishment and stifled indignaceipts comprised in the budget could all be tion. realized within the year; my minister will “ The constitution," said he, " is our rally

po th ab the

74 guns. of peace.



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ing point. It must be our pole-star, in these “ Alexander is among you. You will al-
stormy moments. All public discussion ways see him choose the path of true honour,
tending to diminish, directly or indirectly, that which leads to the happiness of man-
the confidence which should be placed in its kind. This will entitle him to your confi-
enactments, will be a misfortune to the state. dence and love."
We should then find ourselves without a Scarcely had the monarch ceased speaking,
compass, and without a rudder. The crisis when the shouts of 'Long live Alexander
in which we are placed is great. Let us not the Great,' and · Death to the tyrant,' spread
imitate the conduct of the lower empire, from rank to rank.
which, pressed on all sides by barbarians, This appropriate and animated speech was
made itself the laughing stock of posterity, succeeded by the following letter to Louis
by'occupying itself with abstract discussions the eighteenth, which was written by Alex-
at the moment when the battering ram was ander himself, and is inserted here as a
shaking the gates of the city. Assist me to curious specimen of royal correspondence.
save our country. First representative of the The frank acknowledgment of the grand
people, I have contracted the engagement, error of the former campaign is honourable
which I renew, of employing in more tran-

to the candour of the writer. This letquil times all the prerogatives of the crown, ter is likewise important, as .containing a and the little experience I have acquired in developement of the real intentions of the aiding you to ameliorate our constitution.” allies again to force the Bourbons on the

The exertions of the allies to inspire their French. subjects and their armies with confidence and

• My dear brother and worthy ally, enthusiasm were commensurate with the im. portance of the crisis. On the 5th of April Providence, who sports with the designs the emperor Alexander reviewed a consider- of men, has permitted the peace of Europe, able body of Russian troops, and addressed for which, a few months ago, we made so them in the following terms is

many sacrifices, to be again disturbed by Na“ Brave warriors, the honour and glory of poleon Buonaparte, who owes his political the great empire with which Providence has existence to our generosity, and his life to entrusted me! Your emperor comesonce more our clemency. Because we were unwilling to place himself at your head. He summons to accustom the people to see the blood even you a second time to the defence of huma- of those who had governed illegitimately nity and the common rights of Europe, which flow, we determined to observe scrupulously Napoleon, the vile and criminal artificer of the articles of the treaty of Fontainbleau. fraud, has dared again to threaten, Abusing But I reproach myself with having been our cleinency, and violating those treaties the involuntary cause of all the eyils which which ensured to him a sacred asylum, the threaten to overwhelm your unhappy kingperjurer has succeeded in deceiving anew the dom. Had I not listened to the suggestions hopes of those nations who had forgotten his of a false delicacy, you would not have been atrocious cruelties and his insatiable ambi- compelled to abandon your people and your tion. Let us hasten to join the invincible capital, and the league, which we have rephalanxes of our allies, and deliver France newed by a solemn oath, would not liave from the eternal scourge of the human race,

been necessary. who once more governs it contrary to the “ Unhappy monarch! will your people be wishes of every reasonable and peaceable in always blinded by the delusions of a revoluhabitant of that country,

tion which has cost them so much blood and -**** Soldiers ! the sacred league which at

so many tears ?

Will Frenchmen refuse to present unites all the people of Europe, and render homage to the king of France ? which ought to guarantee them from all op

“ That people so enlightened, and once so pression, we know how to defend, and we generous and magnanimous, can it prefer the will defend it, if necessary, to the last drop government of Napoleon Buonaparte to the of our blood.

legitimate authority of a father, and the


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sincere love of a descendant of the Great ranks of my brave soldiers, and my generals Henry?

led with me into battle a host of heroes, who “ No! Every good Frenchmanı laments have shewn themselves worthy of the names your absence, and sighs for the return of its of their fathers, and heirs of their glorysovereign, that affectionate parent who alone Thus we and our allies, attended by victory, can restore to it peace and prosperity, and conquered the capital of our enemy. Our reconcile it with every civilized nation. banners waved in Paris. Napoleon aban

" My arms, and those of coalesced Europe, doned his authority. Liberty was restored are ready to enter into your kingdom under to Germany, security to thrones, and to the your immediate command. We shall all world the hope of a durable peace.

This combat under one and the same standard, hope is vanished. We must again march to that of the lilies. That banner without spot the combat. A perfidious conspiracy has will not be dishonoured by us. In France brought back to France the man who for ten we shall feel and act like Frenchmen. Your successive years inflicted on the world unutpeople will be regarded by us as brothers.- terable misery. The people confounded have We will soften as much as may be in our not been able to oppose his armed adherents: power the inconveniences and sufferings Though he, while still at the head of a consiwhich an army of eight hundred thousand derable armed force, declared his abdication men must necessarily bring in its train. It to be a voluntary sacrifice to the happiness is important for us not to alienate the hearts and repose of France, he now regards this, of your subjects, and not to restore to you a like every other convention, as nothing. He crown which has cost them many sacrifices. commands a horde of perjured soldiers who But if Frenchmen should be found suffici- wish to render war eternal. ently blind to oppose our progress, we have “Europe is again threatened. It cannot determined no longer to listen to the voice suffer the man to remain on the throne of of clemency, but once for all to purge France France, who loudly proclaimed universal from those ambitious men, who wish to per- empire to be the object of his continually petuate the troubles of Europe.

renewed wars; who confounded all moral Our cause is that of heaven, because it is principles by his unceasing breach of faith, that of justice. To render to the world the and who can therefore give the world no serepose

after which it sighs, and to render that curity for his peaceable intentions. repose solid and durable,—to restore to all

Again therefore arise to the combat.sovereigns their rights and prerogatives, - France itself needs our aid, and all Europe and to you, my respected brother, your crown

is allied with us.

United with


ancient and your dominions, this is the object of our companions in victory, and reinforced by the enterprise, and we have sworn that we will accession of new brethren in arms, you go, not lay down our arms till that object be at- brave Prussians ! to a just war with me, tained.

with the princes of my family, and with the (Signed)

“ ALEXANDER. generals who have always led you to victory; “ Dated Schoenbrunn, April 10, 1815." “ The justice of the cause we defend will

ensure our success.

Arise then, with God The next of these documents was a pro- for your support, for the repose of the world, clamation of the king of Prussia, which for order, for morality, for your king and breathes a noble spirit.

your country." “ When in the hour of danger I called my people to arms to combat for the freedom

No part of Napoleon's political life, marked and independence of their country, the whole

as it has always been by the most rapid and exmass of the youth, glowing with emulation, traordinary promptitude in military preparathronged round my standards to bear with tion, affords such a display of activity, as the joyful self-denial unusual hardships, and re- brief interval which occurred between his resolved to brave death itself. Then the best sumption of the imperial sceptre and resignstrength of the people intrepidly joined the ing it, as it may be presumed, for ever. Al

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though the conciliation of the royalists and The deficiency of artillery was chiefly apthe liberalists required some time, and al- prehended. The allies had, in 1814, carried though it was necessary to sacrifice several off most of the French field trains. But by days to the Champ de Mai and similar spec- indefatigable exertions the loss was more tacles, he was never for an instant diverted than supplied : for, besides the usual train from his purpose. While he seemed to be attaching to separate corps, each division of fully occupied with the political discussions the army had a park of reserve, and the imof the various parties, with shews and pro- perial guard in particular had a superb train cessions, and reviews of children not more of guns, consisting almost entirely of new than ten years old, his more serious prepara- pieces.

It is remarkable that, in casting tions for the awful struggle, which he ex- these engines of war, the old republican pected to encounter, were as gigantic in their moulds had been generally einployed, and character as incessant in their progress.- many of the guns taken at Waterloo had Every effort was employed to excite the po- engraved upon them, “ Liberté, Equalité, pulation to take up arms, and to move for- Fraternité,” or bore the names of Rousseau, ward

corps of national guards to relieve in Voltaire, and other writers of deistical emigarrison the troops of the line, now called nence. The army, in all, possessed more into more active service. Cannon, muskets, than three hundred guns ; a quantity of ararms of every description, were forged and tillery rather beyond the proportion of its issued from the manufactories and arsenals numbers. with incredible alacrity. The old corps were Cavalry was another species of force in recruited from the conscripts of 1814; retired which Buonaparte was supposed to be peveterans were again called forth to their ban- culiarly weak. But the very reverse. proved ners, new levies were instituted under the to be the case. The care of Louis XVIII. various names of free-corps, federés, and vo- had mounted several of the regiments which lunteers; the martial spirit of France was had suffered in the campaigns of 1813 and again roused to hope and energy, and the 1814, and the exertions of Napoleon and his whole kingdom was at once transformed into officers completed their equipment, as well an immense camp, of which Napoleon was as the levy of others, so that a finer body of the leader and the soul. One large army cavalry, never took the field. They were defiled towards Belgiuin, where the vicinity upwards of twenty thousand in number: of of the English and Prussian troops excited whom, the lancers were distinguished by aların; other armies were assembled in Al. their address, activity, and ferocity, and the sace, in Lorraine, in Franche Comte, at the nine regiments of cuirassiers, by the excelfoot of the Alps, and on the verge of the lence of their appointments, and the superior Pyrennees. The French grand army, already power of their horses. This last corps was in the highest order, was still further aug- composed of soldiers selected for their bravery mented in numbers and equipments. It and experience, and gave the most decisive now becam obvious that Flanders, or the proofs of both, in the dreadful battle of Wa-, adjoining French frontier, must be the scene terloo. Their cuirasses consisted of a breastof action. The general head-quarters were plate and back, joined together by clasps, fixed at Laon, a very strong position, where like the ancient plate armour. Those of the some preparations were made for forming an soldiers were of iron-those of the officers of army of reserve in case of a disaster. The brass, inlaid with steel. They are proof first corps occupied Valenciennes, and the against a musket ball, unless it comes in a second Maubeuge, communicating by their perfectly straight direction. To these arnis right wing with the armies assembled in the was added a helmet, with cheek pieces, and Ardennes, and on the Moselle, and resting their weapons of offence were a long broadtheir left upon the strong fortifications of sword, with pistols. They carried no caraLisle. Here they waited the numerous rein, bines. The horses of the cuirassiers, although forcements of every kind which Buonaparte on trial they proved inferior to those of our poured towards their position.

heavy cavalry, were probably superior to

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those of any other corps in Europe. They six thousand men, were ready to penetrate were selected with great care, and many of the French territory at various points. The the carriage and saddle horses, which Buona- additional contingents from the various states parte had pressed for the equipment of the of Germany amounted to one hundred and army, were assigned to mount these formi- fifty thousand men ; and nearly a million of dable regiments.

soldiers therefore were under arms, and about: Of the infantry of the French it is impos- to invade the " sacred territory.” sible to speak too highly. The flower of the At the head of these formidable armies army consisted of the imperial guards, who were the most renowned generals of the age. were at least 20,000 strong. These chosen Some among them had already fought succohorts had submitted, with the most sullen cessfully against Napoleon, and others had reluctance, to the change of sovereigns in vanquished his most able marshals. Prince 1814; and no indulgence or flattery which Schwartzenburg was commander in chief of the members of the Bourbon family could the Austrians, having under his orders fieldbestow had weakened their affection to their marshal Bellegarde, and generals Frimont, former master, which often displayed itself Bianchi, and Vincent. The Russians were at times, and in a manner offensive to their commanded by the grand

duke Constantine, temporary and nominal commanders. The seconded by Barclay de Tolly, Sacken, and imperial guards were pledged, therefore, as Langeron. Prince Blucher headed the Prus, deeply as men could be, to maintain the new sians, with generals Kliest, York, and Bulow; revolution which tlieir partiality had accom- and the duke of Wellington commanded the plished. The other corps of infantry, all of British and Belgians, assisted by the prince whom participated in the same confidence in of Orange, the duke of Brunswick, generals themselves and their general, might amount Picton, Beresford, Clinton, and a long list of to 110,000 men, which, with the guards and heroes. The continental sovereigns took the cavalry, formed a gross total of 150,000 sol- field in person, and followed the movements diers, completely armed and equipped, and of the armies. supplied even to profusion with every kind Louis XVIII. had in the mean time reof ammunition. So fascinated was this bril.. tired from Lisle to Ghent, and on the 12th liant army with the recollection of former of April he published the subjoined declavictories, that, notwithstanding they were ration, which avows the determination of perfectly acquainted with the mighty pre- the allies to re-seat the Bourbons 'on the parations of the allies, they complained of throne : The delay, which did not lead them to instant

Ghent, April 12, 1815. battle. They were subservient to a general "" At the moment when we are about to who knew well how to avail himself of these place ourselves amid our people, we consider feelings of confidence and ardour.

that we owe them, in the face of Europe, a The emissaries of Buonaparte were actively formal declaration of our intentions. employed in every part of Europe, 'transmit- ““ When heaven and the nation recalled us ting intelligence respecting the state of pub- to the throne, we made before God the solic opinion, and preparations of the allies, lemn promise, very soothing to our heart, to which were of the most extensive and formi- forget injuries, and to labour without relaxadable kind. Before the iniddle of June, the tion for the happiness of our subjects

. The British force announted to '60,000 men, and sons of St. Lewis have never betrayed either the king of the Netherlands had half that heaven or their country. number. One hundred and fifty thousand "Already hadour people recovered through Austrians were ready to penetrate by the our care, plenty at home, peace, abroad, and Alps from Italy ; the same number reached the esteem of all nations, already the throne, the Rhine ; two hundred and thirty thou- weakened by so many shocks, bad begun to sand Russians had almost advanced to the be firmly established, when treason forced us frontiers of France, and six corps of Prus- to quit our capital, and to seek refuge on the sians, consisting of two hundred and thirty- confines of our states. However, Europe

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