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situation of the lower orders, and the ample and Commons were feeble and ineffec-
means possessed by the higher classes of tual.
ameliorating their condition; and of render- The debates in parliament connected with
ing them at home as valuable for the domestic the policy of our recent conduct with respect
virtues of peace and industry, as they were to foreign powers were introduced by an
eminent and exemplary in every other coun- elaborate speech of the Earl of Liverpool.
try for their bravery, their generosity, and His Lordship (March 24) observed, that it
their talent. Unfortunately, said his l.ord- had been thought proper by the Prince Re-
ship, hitherto there had been a concurrence gent, to order certain documents relative to
of too many causes to calumniate the Irish the late negotiations to be laid on their Lord-
character, and we think ourselves justified in ships' table, with a view to some parliamen-
treating them as slaves. Instead of feeling tary proceeding on the subject. The events
surprise at finding them so wild, so thought, which had since taken place, however, had,
less, and so ungovernable as they were, the in the judgment of the Prince Regent's mi-
wonder seemed to be that their character was nisters, rendered it unnecessary to produce
not rendered worse by our oppression. these papers at present, especially as a new

Few years had occurred so little productive negotiation had actually commenced, which
of ministerial and party changes as that which was fully expected to lead to a favourable
had just elapsed. It was passed on the part termination.
of opposition without hope or effort. The Earl Grey confessed he heard the noble
events of stupendous magnitude which Eu- Earl with considerable surprise, as he could
rope continued to witness formed the com- not conceive why the papers in question
plete triumph of that system which ministers should not be produced even now. The de-
had pursued, amidst the strongest disappro- claration of the allies had been already pub-
bation of their political opponents. Perhaps, lished. It stated the grounds on which the
indeed, no human wisdom could have fore- negotiation had broken off, though not alto-
seen those circumstances which presented to gether in such explicit terms as he could
Europe the opportunity of regaining her lost have wished. The documents which were
independence: but it is certain that the ac- to have been produced along with it were
tive and imposing attitude which Britain had not papers containing information on any
assumed, and the full assurance they afforded new points : they were merely intended to
of her vigorous co-operation, had a powerful prove what the declaration stated, to confirm
influence in forwarding this momentous and the allegations made in that document, and
happy revolution. It was by. her efforts that to show that the negotiations had in fact
the spirit of resistance in the Peninsula was broken off, not through any want of justice
formed into such a regular and organized or inoderation on their part, but from the
system as could alone enable it to create an unprincipled ambition of the ruler of France.
effective diversion in favour of the rest of He felt the greatest satisfaction at the events
Europe. Confidence in her aid had sustain, which had taken place. The whole had had
ed the fortitude of the Emperor of Russia, that termination which was best for the peace
and guided the councils of the Crown Prince and liberty of the world, and for the future
of Sweden. The public in general did not repose and security of this country; with
enter very minutely into these calculations, this exception, that it would have been bet-
but they saw the most brilliant success at- ter if that had been done by the French them-
tending the measures of the ministers in selves, without the presence of the allied
power; and a triumphant system is not forces, which had been done by them while
easily shaken in the estimation of the people. these forces were at Paris.

He rejoiced, The possession of Paris, and the certainty however, at the event. of

peace, appeared to unite all classes of The Earl of Carlisle said, that it ought to the community in one general feeling of be remembered, that we were only one of pride and exultation, and the struggles of five powers that were contending for the the opposition in the Houses of Lords great objects which the allies had in view in

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the present contest. Possibly the production most unfortunate continuance of the war. of these papers, the exposure of private com- He joined with his noble friend in feeling munications, and other circumstances attend- the highest admiration at the conduct of the ing the exposition, might occasion distress allies, particularly that of the Emperor of among the parties who had brought about Russia. In return for the horrible devastathose glorious events, which were so far be- tion committed in his dominions, in retum yond the hope of the most sanguine but a for the destruction of his ancient capital, he short time ago. He thought, that at the had taken indeed glorious vengeance, by a period when the thanks of that house had noble and generous forbearance in the mobeen so properly moved to Lord Welling- ment of victory, and by stretching out his ton, some one on that side of the house ought protecting hand to the people of that nation, to have said, that, so far as these transactions the sovereign of which had so deeply injured were concerned, the ministers had deserved him and his country. This had, indeed, well of their country. It had been his lot, placed him on an eminence of glory. It was generally, to hold the language of opposition ħis praise to have abstained, even at the head with respect to their measures. But he of a conquering army, from exercising any thought it the more incumbent upon him on influence over the people of France in regard that account, when he really approved of to the choice of their government or their their measures, to declare that approbation. governor; and such was the principle which

Earl Grey observed, that his belief was, he (Lord Grey) had been contending for these that the conduct of ministers had, through. 20 years, the indefeasible right of every naout the whole of this transaction, been highly. tion to regulate its own government without meritorious; but he could not say positively any interference from abroad. Seeing his that it was so, until the documents were pro- principles, then, acted upon and completed, duced to prove it. He certainly, however, and only regretting that the French them. did believe that their conduct had been highly selves had not done what had now been meritorious-meritorious, too, in those points effected, without the presence of the allied on which, perhaps, it was least to be expected troops, which might, perhaps, have a tendency that it should have been so meritorious in to cause the character of these transactions to the offer of peace which had been made be. be regarded as something equivocal; it was fore the passage of the Rhine-meritorious impossible for him not to approve a line of in having again, on the 18th of March, offer. conduct founded upon those views and prined peace to that deluded man, on terms which ciples which he had invariably entertained would have left with him the government of and inculcated. He was sensible of what the French 'empire. He highly approved of this country and the world owed to the allies; all this

, not because he was desirous that this and more especially to the Emperor of Russia. man should have remained at the head of the In leaving France, and looking back to his French government, but because he consi- own states, it was gratifying to indulge the dered these indications of just and moderate expectation that he might follow the same views, as having most materially contributed generous policy, and restore freedom to Po to the present bringing about the happy re land. sult of peace. He believed that, if the im. House of Commotis, April 21.

General pression had not prevailed in France, that Matthew presented petitions from the cathothe obstacle to an honourable peace was to lics of Tipperary and Clonmell

, claiming be found solely in the mad and unprincipled complete emancipation. He had always. ambition and obstinacy of that man, we professed his readiness, should the eloquent should not now have arrived at a state of member for Dublin not bring this question repose, which, he hoped, would be lasting. forward on the general petitions, to bring it Had the ministers given way to those rash forward himself on these particular ones. counsels which had urged them to declare at From the great change in the state of affairs, once for the Bourbons, he believed that in- he now thought it improper to bring the stead of peace we should now have had a catholic question forward this sessjon: he

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nevertheless, remained a warm friend to full allies had been confided, received those ho and free emancipation. His holiness the nours and rewards which he had so bravely pope, surrounded by his reverend cardinals, purchased. Leaving the army which he had was restored to the former splendour of his so often conducted to victory, he joined the throne, and his Majesty's ministers ought to allied sovereigns at the court of Louis the lose no time in opening a communication XVIIIth, and there, for the first time, met with the holy see. He understood that his General Blucher, the most glorious of his holiness was willing to take any steps that fellow labourers in the deliverance of Europe. might bring the differences between the

go- Little did they foresee in what manner the vernment and the catholics to an amicable acquaintance which then began was to be adjustment. He thought the communica- cemented, and by what concurrence of events tion might be made through Lord Welling- their names would descend in perpetual union ton, whom he wished to see lord lieutenant to posterity, From Paris the Duke repaired of Ireland. It was strange that this country, to Madrid, where Ferdinand confirmed all once deemed the most liberal, was now the the honours which the Cortes had conferred, only one where civil disabilities on account and created him Captain-General of Spain. of religion existed. The once bigoted pro- Returning to England, he was received with testant state of Holland, by an article in its every mark of love, gratitude, and honour, recent constitution, bad determined that all which the Prince, the legislature, and the existing religions should be equally protected, people, could bestow. and that the members of all had an equal On the 4th of May Lord Liverpool, in right to hold offices. In another constitu- moving an address of thanks for the recent tion—the most superb monument of human services of Lord Wellington and his army, foresight which had ever been erected, drawn descanted with much animation on the brilup by the greatest statesman perliaps that liant entrance of the British forces and their had ever existed, the Prince of Benevento, allies into the frontiers of France. The pashe met with an article declaring, that all re- sage (he observed) of the Adour presented ligions, with the fullest freedom of worship, the most arduous obstacles. Above Bayonne were guaranteed: that the ministers of all it would be necessary to pass several waters were to be treated alike, and were alike ad- at that period of the year unfordable, and missible into all offices. After such examples, the difficulty below Bayonne was fully is were any in this country so bigoted as to re- great: it was therefore necessary to construct fuse emancipation to five millions of good a bridge of boats for 400 yards, where the and loyal catholic subjects ? He had changed crossing would be opposed by the army of his opinion of his Majesty's ministers, and he the garrison. Lord Wellington determined rejoiced that his efforts to assist their down. to cross below Bayonne. The heavy rains fall, and accelerate their overthrow, had been had impeded the movements of the army; unsuccessful. There was no man who would but at the first interval of fair weather, the not acknowledge that they had saved civilized enemy was driven from his positions, and Europe from bondage; exalted the country; twenty-five vessels were fastened together by and brought the world from a state of unic cables of extraordinary size, in order for the versal war to a state of universal peace. If passage of the army. The French garrison it came to his vote, he should be glad if they however impeded these works by precipitatwere to remain ministers for ever; yet until ing timbers into the river, and Lord Wel. the long-wished emancipation was obtained lington was obliged to return to his former he should continue to watch their conduct, position, leaving the passage of the river unthough not with a prejudiced, yet with a der the charge of Sir John Hope. He de

termined to give the enemy battle.

Sir In the midst of the general satisfaction William Beresford by a ford passed to the impressed by the late glorious intelligence, right of the enemy, whom he drove from the and by the conclusion of peace, the immortal village of St. Bois. General Hill moved hero to whom the armies of Britain and her higher up the river. Sir Thomas Picton ate.

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jealous eye.

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tacked the left, while another division at- of the great, genuine, and only proper object tacked the centre. The enemy began a re

of victory-peace. treat, but in excellent order, until Sir Row- Motions of thanks to Lord Wellington, to land Hill came down upon their right. They his officers, and the army, were put in the were then put to a complete rout. The usual form, and carried without any opposinumbers on each side were about 40,000; tion. The same kind of motions were car, and it was not to be supposed that a victory ried unanimously in the House of Commons. over such numbers could be gained without May 10,-The Chancellor of the Excheconsiderable loss. Three general officers had quer brought down the following message been wounded, and there was another gene- from the Prince Regent: ral wounded, whose wound, had it been at- GEORGE P. R.- The Prince Regent, acttended with serious consequences, would ing in the name and on behalf of his Majesty, have rendered the victory, upon the whole, having taken into consideration the many à doubtful good. Sir John Hope crossed signal victories obtained by the valour and the Adour in a flotilla, below Bayonne, on skill of Field Marshal the Duke of Welling the 23d of February, and overthrew a garrison ton, has been pleased to create_him a Duke of 2,000 men that were drawn out to meet and Marquis of the United Empire: and him. The flotilla met with the severest his Royal Highness is desirous of further difficulties in crossing the Adour, where manifesting the high sense he has of his emithere is always a surf : at length, however, nent services, which have exalted the renown the bridge was established, that the whole of the British arms, established the safety body passed, to the amazement of the inha- and independence of Portugal and Spain, and bitants, who flocked to see what they could contributed largely to restore the tranquillity not otherwise believe. This placed Soult in of Europe. The Prince Regent therefore such a situation that he was obliged to recede recommends it to his faithful Commons, to from the road to Bourdeaux, and a detach- enable him to grant such an annuity to Field ment was sent to take possession of that city. Marshal the Duke of Wellington, and the By the possession of this city, not only were heirs of his body succeeding to the title, as supplies obtained for the comforts of the shall tend to support the dignity conferred army,

but it would afford a much more con- on him, and at the same time furnish a lastverrient intercourse between the army and ing memorial of the feelings of his Royal this country. His Lordship concluded with Highness, and of the gratitude and munifimoving

" That the thanks of the house be cence of the British nation. Similar mesgiven to Field-Marshal Arthur Marquis of sages were brought down relative to Lords Wellington, and the army under his com- Lyndock, Hill, and Beresford. inand, for the consummate ability, experi- May 11.-Lord Liverpool said, in rising ence, skill, and valour, displayed by them in to move an address in answer to his Royal the victory of Orthes

, terminating in the Highness the Prince Regent's most gracious signal defeat of the enemy, and leading to message, he could not anticipate the possithe occupation of Bourdeaux.”

bility of the slightest opposition. Perhaps Earl Grey said it gave him the greatest he should perform the duty he had to displeasure to hear the noble Lord's speech, not charge, if he simply laid his proposition be only on account of those topics to which he fore the house, accompanied by necessary had adverted, but on account of those also explanation : but though he might not have from which he had abstained. Every man occasion to detain their Lordships longer than was satisfied that the tribute of applause and necessary, he could not do justice to the great gratitude .was justly due to Lord Welling. individual if he did not, on an occasion like ton, for this last of a great series of splendid this, trouble the house with a few observar successes. He termed this the last, and God tions. Conquests had been made under the grant it might be the last ! that it might be Duke of Wellington without parallel. If the last blood shed for the accomplishment they were to look back to the history of

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former times, when the glory of the British Liverpool had felt that he should have been arms was raised to a high pitch of renown, wanting in respect to the house, had he not they would be struck by the splendour of reminded them of the claims on which he the military glory this country had acquired; had to establish his proposition, and he had but a comparison would be in favour of the only to state to their Lordships what the great events which have recently occurred. proposal was. The house knew that the It was in the recollection of this house, and measure to convey a grant to the noble Duke every man in the country, that, a few years would originate in another house. It was since, it was supposed that our military cha- there intended to grant to the Duke of Wel. racter was confined to one element. It was lington, in addition to the former grant, an said, that we only held a high place on the annuity of ten thousand pounds a year on ocean, and when our armies fought on land the consolidated fund. It was desirable that we could not be great. Those who made it should be laid out in the purchase of land : such observations did not judge rightly - therefore it was proposed to give authority Some supposed the character of the British to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury people would suffer in a military point of to advance 300,000l. to be laid out in lands, view; others, that we were unacquainted and a portion of the annuity to be cancelled with operations in the field; but he would as soon as the purchase is made. In the next now ask, whether there was the slightest place, it was intended that the income of the ground for those observations? We have lands should be equal to the sum of the anproved to the world, that England is not nuity. His Lordship's experience in the without military renown. The noble Duke purchase of lands had induced him to make of Wellington has elevated the British name; this proposition. It was much better for the and his genius, joined to the skill and ability house to adopt this mode, leaving the indi. of the illustrious person at the head of the vidual, if he preferred it, to purchase estates army, had made the British equal, if not su- out of a former grant made by Parliament, perior, to any soldiers in the world. The instead of cancelling the annuity. The noble house perhaps would reflect, that it was only Duke was entitled by the vote of Parliament four years since England was the only inde- on a former occasion to 10,0001. a year, 30001. pendent nation. All the other powers were of which might be applied annually to the under the influence of France. With the purchase of lands, leaving the noble Duke exception of the lines of Torres Vedras and 70001. a year. The noble Earl concluded by Cadiz, defended by the noble Duke, all was moving an address to his Royal Highness at the disposal of the enemy. The house the Prince Regent, to inform him that the might follow Lord Wellington from the lines house would cheerfully concur in the recom. of Torres Vedras, moving forward in 1810, mendation contained in his royal message. and see his operations, at the taking of Ciudad The Earl of Liverpool moved, in succes Rodrigo and Badajos ; follow him to the field sion, the consideration of the Prince Regent's of Vittoria, and see him plant at last the message, as applicable to provisions for Lond British standard on the walls of Bourdeaux. Lyndoch, Lord Rowland Hill, and Lord The noble Duke having conquered Spain, Carr Beresford. The noble Earl paid the had finished his career of glory by placing tribute of praise due, first to General Graham, the standard of Bourbon on the walls of the who had been considered second to Lord first city in France, to hail the restoration of Wellington in the various operations in Spain their legitimate sovereign. This noble ex- and Portugal. The devotion of that officer ample was the work of Lord Wellington, to the interest of his country had been notic and it proved the harbinger of the peace and ed also by his willingness to proceed in a bad happiness likely to follow. These were ser- state of health to Holland, where he had susvices which ought

be marked by some tained a most honourable character. Lord singular act of British gratitude. If ever Hill he extolled for prudence, and having there was a man deserving a public mark of the entire confidence of Lord Wellington approbation it was Lord Wellington. Lord Lord Beresford was the subject of admira

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