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be expected, that the professions of the sove- of Buonaparte; this was the reason for de
reigns of these countries in behalf of modera- throning him; and as the allied sovereigna
tion and justice would extend so far in their were desirous of placing the whole of Eu.
execution as the giving up of Poland, and rope in such a state of equipoise with regard
its restoration to the condition and privileges to power, as should diminish the probability
of an actually independent government. But of future wars, it was moreover supposed to
Saxony was differently situated; and it may be their object to annex Saxony to Prussia
naturally be asked, Ou what possible ground Here then are two questions to be consider-
could the case of Saxony come before sove- ed: Whether the king of Saxony ought to be
reigns who had claimed honour to themselves dethroned ? and, if he ought, what should
for their moderation, and for their abhorrence become of Saxony?
of all the principles and conduct of Buona- The king of Saxony, it was contendeci, de-
parte? But Saxony was a conquered coun- served no mercy: he had adhered to Buona-
try. Did they then mean still to retain the parte to the last, and therefore ought to suffer
barbarous and unjust idea, that the conquest the fate of Buonaparte: and this was the
of a country gave a right to the conquerors language of sovereigns, who all in their turns
to dispose of it as they thought proper, or to had adhered to Buonaparte ; who had joined
reserve it for themselves? If they did, they with him in many of his schemes of ambition-
had emancipated themselves but very parti- and conquest. Did the emperor of Russia
ally and imperfectly from the principles of forget that, by the treaty of Tilsit, he agreed
Buonaparte. France was a conquered coun- to participate in the spoliation of Prussia ?
try; but France they did not treat as such: Did the king of Prussia forget his conduct
all the territories which they had wrested towards Hanover ? Did the emperor of Aus-
from France were conquered countries; but tria not recollect that, by giving his daughter
these were either actually restored, or it was in marriage to Buonaparte, he had done more
naturally expected from the professions of the than any of the other sovereigns to strengthen
allied sovereigns, that they would be restored his power ? But it was said they had all left
to their national independence, and their old him: yes, when they deemed it safe; when
station and rank in Europe. What, then, they found his fortunes decline. The king
had Saxony done to be made an exception of Saxony thought better of the stability of
The ultimate success of Europe against Buo- his fortune than he ought, and therefore ad-
naparte, it was virtually acknowledged by hered to him longer than he ought. But let
the conquerors themselves, had been in a

us grant, what indeed after all must be congreat measure owing to the feelings and ceded, that the king of Saxony was a more resistance of the people; and the allied steady and warm friend of Buonaparte than sovereigns had given the world reason to any of the other sovereigns had ever been, believe, that the happiness of the people even at the period of their most solemn proin all they had done, and in all they meant fessions; ought he, therefore, on that account to do, at Vienna, was their principal and to be dethroned ? This consequence

undoubtcherished object. But the people of Saxony edly would have followed, if the conquerors were perhaps the most enlightened, industri- had been resolved to act on the usual prinous, and happy of all Germany; and this ciples which guided conquerors : but the condition, if not obtained for them, had been question now was, What should be the fate of secured and extended to them by their sove- the king of Saxony if the emperor Alexander reign and his government. Why, then, even (for to him the world looked up in a most propose to alter her government? why pro- particular manner, not only on account of pose that that feeling of national indepen- his more open and frequent professions, but dence should be destroyed by incorporating also on account of his greater influence,) acted them with another state, which must at the consistently with what he had led Europe to same time weaken the sources of their hap- expect from him? The path of moderation piness ? The reason given was, that the and justice the path which directly led to king of Saxony had been the friend and ally the accomplishment of the hopes of Europe,

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was clear and distinct. The king of Saxony served, and the minds and hearts of the people had been highly culpable in adhering so long go with the government, we cheerfully give as he did to the cause of Buonaparte: for you the choice of your new sovereign; we this he ought perhaps to be punished. But, do not wish to strip Saxony of any part of on the other hand, Saxony had flourished her old and legitimate territory, nor to de under his dominion: this should have been prive her of her independence; and though taken into consideration ; and it ought, first we feel ourselves under the necessity of not of all, to have been investigated by the allied placing the continuance of your prince on sovereigns, whether, if they punished the king, the throne within your choice, we completely they would not thus also diminish the hap- give up to you the selection of his successor." piness of the inhabitants of Saxony.

Such language would have been greeted by To the people of France, who, though not Europe as the harbinger of her peace and so criminal as Buonaparte himself, conld not happiness: and to such language the people be looked upon as guiltless, in so far as they of Saxony, who had never approved of or enabled him to carry on his erimes, the allied sanctioned the attachment of their king to sovereigns had granted the choice of a sove. Buonaparte,-the army of Saxony, who by reign. Were the people of Saxony not to their defection from the tyrant, at the battle receive an equal degree of favour, because of Leipsic, had contributed so essentially to their sovereign had been an instrument in the fate of that decisive and glorious day,the hand of Buonaparte? No person who were justly entitled. knew his character, who was acquainted with But it was said that Saxony must be allhis mode of rule over Saxony, could for a nexed to Prussia ; that the inferior considermoment suppose that he approved of Buona ation of the independence and wishes of its parte's crimes : he was weak, but not wicked. inhabitants must give way to the paramount On these considerations, therefore, it might consideration of the future peace of Europe. have been: hoped that the king of Saxony The object of the congress of Vienna, it was would not be punished by the deprivation given out, was the placing of the various of his dominions, by sovereigns who had states on the continent of Europe on such a each of them known and felt the influence relative footing, that future wars might be of that man, for his connexion with whom it avoided; or, if they took place, that no one was thus proposed to punish him.

power, as France had recently done, might If, however, the fate of the king of Saxony preponderate so greatly as to overwhelm the was decidod, and he should be deprived of rest of the continent. This was certainly a his territories ; (what ought to be the fate of desirable objeet; and could it have been Saxony itself? Ought not the allied sove effected by means not at variance with jusreigns to have addressed the inhabitants to tice, it would have been hailed with joyful the following purport :-" Your king no acclamations by every friend of the tranquillonger deserves to rule over you, or to be re- lity and happiness of mankind. But had the cognised by us, because of his adherence to allied sovereigns forgotten already one of the Buonaparte: in order to deter other sove - most fatal and dreadful infringements which reigns, it is absolutely necessary to make an Buonaparte made on the venerable code of example of him ; we must therefore deprive morality, which had always before his time kim of his throne; we know that to you been professed, though, alas! too often forfexcept in the case of his attachment to Buo- gotten in conduct by the sovereigns of Eu. naparte, he has been a good prince; that rope,--that evil might not be done that good Saxony under him has flourished exceeding- might come? In no respect had the revoluly, so as now to be superior to most other tion of France, and especially the military parts of Germany, in agriculture, manufac. despotism to which that event had given tures, literature and happiness : these bless-, rise, done more mischief to mankind, than in ings we wish to preserve to you: but as we the unsettling, and holding up to contempt, . are sensible that they cannot be preserved those principles of morality which had alwaysentire unless national independence be pre- before been at least professed: and yet the

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allied sovereigns thought of sanctioning the passed before their eyes, as to suppose that a new principles of France.

kingdom could be strengthened by mere exThe important objection that occurs to tension of territory? Did they think that, this proposal (setting aside for the present all if the Saxons were averse from a union with considerations of a moral nature) is, that Prussia, Prussia would actually be benefited Prussia might be strengthened in a much by such a union? Their professed object more proper and natural manner. By the was to render Prussia more capable of coping treaty of Tilsit, between the emperor Alex- with France, or with any other power that ander and Buonaparte, a large part of the might attack her; and was this object likely dominions of Prussia were taken from her, to be accomplished by placing in the heart and given to Alexander :-why not restore of extended Prussia two millions of subjects, them? Has Alexander any better claim to anxious to regain their national character them than Buonaparte had to most of his and independence, and ready to join the first conquests? These territories were not con- enemy who should declare against Prussia ? quered by Alexander, but by Buonaparte, The protection of the latter country against and given by the latter to the former; to France must be very imperfectly obtained by that sovereign, who had entered into the war the annexation of Saxony, even supposing with Buonaparte for the protection of Prus- the Saxons to be anxious for the union. sia. Unless Alexander wished the world to The population of the whole united kingdom believe that the articles of the treaty of Tilsit, would not amount to one-third of the popuso far as they regarded the spoliation of Prus- lation of France; and while the population sia, were not compulsory on him, he ought of the latter country was compact and easily to have taken the first opportunity, after he and quickly embodied in case of war, the was free from the shackles of the enemy, to population of Prussia would be extended have restored to Prussia the territories of over a great and divided surface, and would which she was stripped. Soon after Prussia be consequently inefficient. Before France freed herself from Buonaparte, a treaty was could invade Prussia she must conquer much entered into between Alexander and Fre- intervening territory, and it was therefore derick, by which the former bound himself to adviseable that the latter power should reobtain for the latter an extent of territory main one integral kingdom, as a barrier nearly if not quite equal to what it had been against the encroachments of France. prior to the treaty of Tilsit. It might have Notwithstanding these obvious considerabeen supposed that it was the intention of tions, the fate of Saxony was fully decided Alexander, as soon as peace was restored to by two of the powers even before the conEurope, to fulfil this treaty by restoring those gress commenced its sittings. Prince Rep. parts which he had recovered from Buona- nin, the Russian governor of Dresden, sent parte. This, however, was not his intention : on November 3d à notification to the Saxon what he got, justly belonging to a sovereign authorities, acquainting them that by a letter in whose defence he had gone to war, from a from the minister of state, Baron de Stein, man who had no right to give it away, he he had been informed of a convention conwas unwilling to restore to that sovereign cluded at Vienna, in virtue of which the even when they were on the most intimate emperor of Russia, in concert with Austria footing of public alliance and private friend and England, was to invest the government ship; but he would indemnify him by an- of Saxony in the hands of the king of Prusnexing dominions over which neither of them sia, “ in order thus to operate the union of had any right but the right of conquest. Saxony with Prussia, which will soon take

But, in the second place, it was the pro- place in a manner more solemn and formal.” posed object of this annexation of Saxony to The prince proceeded to say that king FrePrussia to strengthen the latter : were the derick William, in quality of future sove allied sovereigns so ignorant of human na- reign of the country, had declared his intenture, so totally unacquainted with history; tion to unite it to Prussia, with the cordial had they so soon forgotten what had just concurrence of the emperor Alexander.

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Prince Repnin announced the same determi. our rights, and restored to our dear subjects, nation in the farewell speech which he deli- Far, however, from crediting the reports cirvered at Dresden on Nov. 8, when he for- . cnlated with regard to the fate of our states mally resigned his employments to the Prus- since the epoch of the peace of Paris, we sian government, and the Russian were suc- place entire confidence in the justice of the ceeded by the Prussian troops. Although allied monarchs, though it be impossible to the courts of Austria and Great Britain penetrate the motives of the proceedings agreed to the provisional occupation of that which they have pursued towards us. The country by Prussia, they considered its final conservation and consolidation of legitimate possession as still a subject of discussion in dynasties was the grand object of the war the

congress, and as a question in some mea- which has been so happily terminated; the sure undecided. The unfortunate king of coalesced powers accordingly repeatedly proSaxony, immediately after he had learned claimed in the most solemn manner, that, far this transfer of the occupation of his country, removed from every plan of conquest and published a declaration expressing " his lively aggrandisement, they had only in view the feelings of grief at the event,” asserting his restoration of the rights and liberties of Euinviolable right to be reinstated in his royal rope. Saxony, in particular, received the authority, and positively affirming that he most positive assurances, that her integrity would never consent to the cession of the would be maintained. That integrity essenstates inherited from his ancestors, or receive tially includes the conservation of the dyany indemnity or equivalent that might be nasty for which the nation has publicly maoffered to his acceptance. He afterwards nifested its constant attachment, and the confirmed his assurance by the subjoined: unanimous wish to be re-united to its sove

reign. The inviolability of our righs, and DECLARATION.

of those of our house, to the well and justly FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, by the grace of acquired inheritance of our ancestors, is ac

God, king of Saxony, duke of Warsaw, knowledged. Our speedy reinstatement &c.

ought to be the consequence thereof. We We have just learned with lively feelings should be wanting to the most sacred duties of grief that our kingdom of Saxony has been towards our royal house, and towards our provisionally occupied by the troops of his people, were we to remain silent under the Prussian majesty. Firmly resolved never new measures projected against our states at to separate our fate from that of our people; a moment when we are entitled to expect filled with confidence in the justice and mag- their restitution. The intention manifested naniinity of the allied sovereigns, and intend by the court of Prussia, of provisionally ccing to join their alliance as soon as we had cupying our Saxon states, compels us to forethe means of doing so, we determined, after arm our well-founded rights against such a the battle of Leipsic, there to await the con- step, and solemnly to protest against the conquerors. But the sovereigns refused to hear sequences which may be drawn from such a us. We were compelled to depart from our measure. It is before the congress of Vienna, states, and proceed to Berlin. His majesty and in the face of all Europe, that we disthe emperor of Russia nevertheless made charge this duty, by signing these presents known to us, that our removal from Saxony with our hand, and at the same time publicly was dictated only by military interests, and reiterating the declaration, communicated his majesty at the same time invited us to some time ago to the allied courts, that we repose in him entire confidence. We also will never consent to the cession of the states received from their majesties the emperor of inherited from our ancestors, and that we will Austria, and the king of Prussia, affecting never accept any indemnity or equivalent proofs of interest and sensibility. We were that may be offered to us. in consequence enabled to cherish the hope.

FREDERICK AUGUSTO.. : that as soon as these military considerations Given at Frederickfeld, ceased to operate, we should be reinstated in Nov. 4, 1814.

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It was not merely from the circumstances The 4th article is the most important: bý which transpired respecting the proceedings it his majesty the king of Denmark, for himof the congress of Vienna, that apprehensions self and his successors, renounces for ever and were entertained, by the friends of liberty irrevocably all his rights and claims on the and independence, that the allied sovereigns kingdom of Norway; which with its depenwould violate the professions they had made dencies (Greenland, and the Ferroe Islands previous to the departure of Buonaparte to and Iceland excepted,) is to belong in full the Isle of Elba. A glaring example of ra- and sovereign property to the king of Swepacity and injustice was presented to the den, and make one with his united Kingdom. world in the invasion of Norway, and the On the other hand, by the 5th article, the annexation of that kingdom to the dominions king of Sweden binds himself in the most of Sweden. After the battle of Leipsic, it solemn manner to cause the inhabitants of was deterinined by the allies that the crown the kingdom of Norway and its dependencies prince of Sweden, with the force under his to enjoy in future all the laws, privileges

, command, should not advance against France, rights and franchises, such as they have hibut should be employed in making an at- therto subsisted. tempt on Hamburgh, and afterwards in com- By the 7th article, the king of Sweden, pelling Denmark to abandon the cause of for himself and his successors, renounced irBuonaparte for that of the confederates.- revocably and for ever, in behalf of the king Bernadotte finding that he could make no of Denmark, all rights and claims to the impression upon Hamburgh, and being con- dukedom of Swedish Pomerania, and the vinced that this city must follow the fate of principality of the island of Rugen; to the Buonaparte and of France, directed, as we inhabitants of which the king of Denmark have seen, all his efforts against the Danes. solemnly engaged himself to secure all their The latter, in several engagements, fought laws, rights, franchises, and privileges. well, but they were always compelled to By the 13th article it is stated, that " vield to superior numbers, and at length a the king of Sweden, so far as is practicable, suspension of hostilities was arranged, for the and as depends upon him, wishes that the purpose of framing the terms of peace. king of Denmark may receive compensation These, however, not being adjusted, opera- for the renunciation of the kingdom of Nortions again commenced, but the Danes being way, of which his majesty has given satisfacdrawn across the river Eyder, were soon tory proof in the cession of Swedish Pome compelled to submit to the terms which they rania and the island of Rugen; so his majesty before had rejected. On the 14th of January will use all his endeavours with the allied a treaty of peace was signed between Sweden powers, to secure in addition, at a general and Denmark, of which the following are the peace, a full equivalent to Denmark for the principal articles: By article 2d, the king of cession of Norway.” Sweden engaged to use his mediation with There was good reason to apprehend that his allies, to bring about a peace between this cession of Norway by the king of Denthem and the king of Denmark. By article mark would not be palatable to the Norwe3d, the king of Denmark engaged to take gians: they had always resisted with great an active part against the emperor of the spirit and success every attempt of Sweden French, to declare war against that power, ' to conquer them; and regarding their counand in consequence to join an auxiliary try (as indeed it was styled in the treaty of Danish corps to the army of the north of peace) as a separate kingdom from Denmark, Germany, under the orders of his royal high- they did not conceive that the king of Denness the crown prince of Sweden. This was mark had any right to transfer them to Sweto be done in pursuance of a convention be- den. Accordingly, soon after the treaty, it tween Denmark and Great Britain, by which was rumoured that the Norwegians meant the number of men to be supplied by the to resist the transference, and to declare former was fixed at 10,000, and the sum to themselves an independent state. Prince be paid by the latter at 400,0001.

Christian of Denmark was fixed upon to

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